Special Issue: The Plant Cell Surface   

February 2010, Volume 52 Issue 2, Pages 125C252.

Cover Caption: The Plant Cell Surface
As the focus of this special issue, plant cell surface, is a dynamic research field, the cover picture shows a living cell in which cellulose synthase complexes are inserted into the plasma membrane near cortical microtubules. The images, from left to right, were taken 6 seconds before, and 6, 98, 168 seconds after photobleaching (square rectangle region) in hypocotyl cells of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing GFP::CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 3 (green) and mCherry::TUBULIN 5 (red). The pictures were kindly provided by J Lindeboom and AMC Emons, Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.


The Plant Cell Surface  
Author: Anne-Mie C. Emons and Kurt V. Fagerstedt
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 126-130
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00936.x
Abstract (Browse 1556)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
The Actin Cytoskeleton and Signaling Network in the Pollen Tube Tip Growth  
Author: Ying Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 131-137
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00922.x

The organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton play key roles in many aspects of plant cell development. The actin cytoskeleton responds to internal developmental cues and environmental signals and is involved in cell division, subcellular organelle movement, cell polarity and polar cell growth. The tipgrowing pollen tubes provide an ideal model system to investigate fundamental mechanisms of underlying polarized cell growth. In this system, most signaling cascades required for tip growth, such as Ca2+-, small GTPases- and lipid-mediated signaling have been found to be involved in transmitting signals to a large group of actin-binding proteins. These actin-binding proteins subsequently regulate the structure of the actin network, as well as the rapid turnover of actin filaments (F-actin), thereby eventually controlling tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton acts as an integrator in which multiple signaling pathways converge, providing a general growth and regulatorymechanism that applies not only for tip growth but also for polarized diffuse growth in plants.

Fu Y (2010) The actin cytoskeleton and signaling network during pollen tube tip growth. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 131–137.

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The Plant Exocyst  
Author: Ying Zhang, Chun-Ming Liu, Anne-Mie C. Emons and Tijs Ketelaar
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 138-146
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00929.x

The exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants investigated to date. Although the plant exocyst has not been studied in great detail, it is likely that the basic function of the exocyst in vesicle tethering is conserved. Nevertheless, genomic and genetic studies suggest that the exocyst complex in plants may have more diversified roles than that in budding yeast. In this review, we compare the knowledge about the exocyst in plant cells to the well-studied exocyst in budding yeast, in order to explore similarities and differences in expression and function between these organisms, both of which have walled cells.

Zhang Y, Liu CM, Emons AMC, Ketelaar T (2010) The plant exocyst. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 138–146.

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Calcium at the Cell Wall-Cytoplast Interface  
Author: Peter K. Hepler and Lawrence J. Winship
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 147-160
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00923.x

Attention is given to the role of Ca2+ at the interface between the cell wall and the cytoplast, especially as seen in pollen tubes. While the cytoplasm directs the synthesis and deposition of the wall, it is less well appreciated that the wall exerts considerable self control and influences activities of the cytoplasm. Ca2+ participates as a crucial factor in this two way communication. In the cytoplasm, a [Ca2+] above 0.1 μM, regulates myriad processes, including secretion of cell wall components. In the cell wall Ca2+,at 10 μM to 10 mM, binds negative charges on pectins and imparts structural rigidity to the wall. The plasma membrane occupies a pivotal position between these two compartments, where selective channels regulate influx of Ca2+, and specific carriers pump the ion back into the wall. In addition we draw attention to different factors, which either respond to the wall or are present in the wall, and usually generate elevated [Ca2+] in the cytoplasm. These factors include: (i) stretch activated channels; (ii) calmodulin; (iii) annexins; (iv) wall associated kinases; (v) oligogalacturonides; and (vi) extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Together they provide evidence for a rich and multifaceted system of communication between the cytoplast and cell wall, with Ca2+ as a carrier of information.

Hepler PK, Winship LJ (2010) Calcium at the cell wall-cytoplast interface. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 147–160.

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What Do We Really Know about Cellulose Biosynthesis in Higher Plants?  
Author: Gea Guerriero, Johanna Fugelstad and Vincent Bulone
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 161-175
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00935.x

Cellulose biosynthesis is one of the most important biochemical processes in plant biology. Despite the considerable progress made during the last decade, numerous fundamental questions related to this key process in plant development are outstanding. Numerous models have been proposed through the years to explain the detailed molecular events of cellulose biosynthesis. Almost all models integrate solid experimental data with hypotheses on several of the steps involved in the process. Speculative models are most useful to stimulate further research investigations and bring new exciting ideas to the field. However, it is important to keep their hypothetical nature in mind and be aware of the risk that some undemonstrated hypotheses may progressively become admitted. In this review, we discuss the different steps required for cellulose formation and crystallization, and highlight the most important specific aspects that are supported by solid experimental data.

Guerriero G, Fugelstad J, Bulone V (2010) What do we really know about cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants? J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 161–175.

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Lignin Biosynthesis Studies in Plant Tissue Cultures  
Author: Anna Kärkönen and Sanna Koutaniemi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 176-185
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00913.x

Lignin, a phenolic polymer abundant in cell walls of certain cell types, has given challenges to scientists studying its structure or biosynthesis. In plants lignified tissues are distributed between other, non-lignified tissues. Characterization of native lignin in the cell wall has been difficult due to the highly cross-linked nature of the wall components. Model systems, like plant tissue cultures with tracheary element differentiation or extracellular lignin formation, have provided useful information related to lignin structure and several aspects of lignin formation. For example, many enzyme activities in the phenylpropanoid pathway have been first identified in tissue cultures. This review focuses on studies where the use of plant tissue cultures has been advantageous in structural and biosynthesis studies of lignin, and discusses the validity of tissue cultures as models for lignin biosynthesis.

Kärkönen A, Koutaniemi S (2010) Lignin biosynthesis studies in plant tissue cultures. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 176–185.

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Cell Wall Lignin is Polymerised by Class III Secretable Plant Peroxidases in Norway Spruce  
Author: Kurt V. Fagerstedt, Eija M. Kukkola, Ville V.T. Koistinen, Junko Takahashi and Kaisa Marjamaa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 186-194
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00928.x

Class III secretable plant peroxidases occur as a large family of genes in plants with many functions and probable redundancy. In this review we are concentrating on the evidence we have on the catalysis of lignin polymerization by class III plant peroxidases present in the apoplastic space in the xylem of trees. Some evidence exists on the specificity of peroxidase isozymes in lignin polymerization through substrate specificity studies, from antisense mutants in tobacco and poplar and from tissue and cell culture lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Zinnia elegans. In addition, real time (RT-)PCR results have pointed out that many peroxidases have tissue specific expression patterns in Norway spruce. Through combining information on catalytic properties of the enzymes, on the expression patterns of the corresponding genes, and on the presence of monolignols and hydrogen peroxide in the apoplastic space, we can show that specific peroxidases catalyze lignin polymerization in the apoplastic space of Norway spruce xylem.

Fagerstedt KV, Kukkola EM, Koistinen VVT, Takahashi J, Marjamaa K (2010) Cell wall lignin is polymerised by class III secretable plant peroxidases in Norway spruce. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 186–194.

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Reactive Oxygen Species during Plant-microorganism Early Interactions  
Author: Amrit K Nanda, Emilie Andrio, Daniel Marino, Nicolas Pauly and Christophe Dunand
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 195-204
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00933.x

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are continuously produced as a result of aerobic metabolism or in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. ROS are not only toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, but are also signalling molecules involved in several developmental processes in all organisms. Previous studies have clearly shown that an oxidative burst often takes place at the site of attempted invasion during the early stages of most plant-pathogen interactions. Moreover, a second ROS production can be observed during certain types of plant-pathogen interactions, which triggers hypersensitive cell death (HR). This second ROS wave seems absent during symbiotic interactions. This difference between these two responses is thought to play an important signalling role leading to the establishment of plant defense. In order to cope with the deleterious effects of ROS, plants are fitted with a large panel of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Thus, increasing numbers of publications report the characterisation of ROS producing and scavenging systems from plants and from microorganisms during interactions. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the ROS signals and their role during plant-microorganism interactions.

Nanda AK, Andrio E, Marino D, Pauly N, Dunand C (2010) Reactive oxygen species during plant microorganism early interactions. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 195–204.

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          Research Articles
Phylogenetically Distinct Cellulose Synthase Genes Support Secondary Wall Thickening in Arabidopsis Shoot Trichomes and Cotton Fiber  
Author: Lissete Betancur, Bir Singh, Ryan A. Rapp, Jonathan F. Wende, M. David Marks, Alison W. Roberts and Candace H. Haigler
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 205-220
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00934.x

Through exploring potential analogies between cotton seed trichomes (or cotton fiber) and arabidopsis shoot trichomes we discovered that CesAs from either the primary or secondary wall phylogenetic clades can support secondary wall thickening. CesA genes that typically support primary wall synthesis, AtCesA1,2,3,5, and 6, underpin expansion and secondary wall thickening of arabidopsis shoot trichomes. In contrast, apparent orthologs of CesA genes that support secondary wall synthesis in arabidopsis xylem, AtCesA4,7, and 8, are up-regulated for cotton fiber secondary wall deposition. These conclusions arose from: (a) analyzing the expression of CesA genes in arabidopsis shoot trichomes; (b) observing birefringent secondary walls in arabidopsis shoot trichomes with mutations in AtCesA4, 7, or 8; (c) assaying up-regulated genes during different stages of cotton fiber development; and (d) comparing genes that were co-expressed with primary or secondary wall CesAs in arabidopsis with genes upregulated in arabidopsis trichomes, arabidopsis secondary xylem, or cotton fiber during primary or secondary wall deposition. Cumulatively, the data show that: (a) the xylem of arabidopsis provides the best model for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in cotton fiber; and (b) CesA genes within a “cell wall toolbox” are used in diverse ways for the construction of particular specialized cell walls.

Betancur L, Singh B, Rapp RA, Wendel JF, Marks MD, Roberts AW and Haigler CH (2010) Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 205–220.

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Biosynthesis of Callose and Cellulose by Detergent Extracts of Tobacco Cell Membranes and Quantification of the Polymers Synthesized in vitro  
Author: Carolina Cifuentes, Vincent Bulone and Anne Mie C. Emons
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 221-233
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00919.x

The conditions that favor the in vitro synthesis of cellulose from tobacco BY-2 cell extracts were determined. The procedure leading to the highest yield of cellulose consisted of incubating digitonin extracts of membranes from 11-day-old tobacco BY-2 cells in the presence of 1 mM UDP-glucose, 8 mM Ca2+ and 8 mM Mg2+. Under these conditions, up to nearly 40% of the polysaccharides synthesized in vitro corresponded to cellulose, the other polymer synthesized being callose. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the occurrence of two types of structures in the synthetic reactions. The first type consisted of small aggregates with a diameter between 3 and 5 nm that associated to form fibrillar strings of a maximum length of 400 nm. These structures were sensitive to the acetic/nitric acid treatment of Updegraff and corresponded to callose. The second type of structures was resistant to the Updegraff reagent and corresponded to straight cellulose microfibrils of 2–3 nm in diameter and 200 nm to up to 5 μm in length. In vitro reactions performed on electron microscopy grids indicated that the minimal rate of microfibril elongation in vitro is 120 nm/min. Measurements of retardance by liquid crystal polarization microscopy as a function of time showed that small groups of microfibrils increased in retardance by up to 0.047 nm/min per pixel, confirming the formation of organized structures.

Cifuentes C, Bulone V, Emons AMC (2010) Biosynthesis of callose and cellulose by detergent extracts of tobacco cell membranes and quantification of the polymers synthesized in vitro. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 221–233.

Abstract (Browse 3417)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Secondary Cell Wall Deposition in Developing Secondary Xylem of Poplar  
Author: Minako Kaneda, Kim Rensing and Lacey Samuels
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2): 234-243
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00925.x

Although poplar is widely used for genomic and biotechnological manipulations of wood, the cellular basis of wood development in poplar has not been accurately documented at an ultrastructural level. Developing secondary xylem cells from hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x P. trichocarpa), which were actively making secondary cell walls, were preserved with high pressure freezing/freeze substitution for light and electron microscopy. The distribution of xylans and mannans in the different cell types of developing secondary xylem were detected with immunofluorescence and immuno-gold labeling. While xylans, detected with the monoclonal antibody LM10, had a general distribution across the secondary xylem, mannans were enriched in the S2 secondary cell wall layer of fibers. To observe the cellular structures associated with secondary wall production, cryofixed fibers were examined with transmission electron microscopy during differentiation. There were abundant cortical microtubules and endomembrane activity in cells during the intense phase of secondary cell wall synthesis. Microtubuleassociated small membrane compartments were commonly observed, as well as Golgi and secretory vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane.

Kaneda M, Rensing K, Samuels L (2010) Secondary cell wall deposition in developing secondary xylem of poplar. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 234–243.

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Downregulation of the Basic Peroxidase Isoenzyme from Zinnia elegans by Gibberellic Acid  
Author: María Josefa López Núñez-Flores, Jorge Gutiérrez, Laura V. Gómez-Ros, Esther Novo Uzal, Mariana Sottomayor and Alfonso Ros Barceló
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(2)
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00888.x

Hypocotyl formation during the epigeal germination of seedlings is under strict hormonal regulation. In a 3 d old Zinnia elegans seedling system, gibberellic acid (GA3) exerts an opposite effect to that exerted by light on hypocotyl photomorphogenesis because GA3 promotes an etiolated-like growth with an inhibition of radial (secondary) growth. For this reason, the effect of GA3 on the basic peroxidase isoenzyme from Z. elegans (ZePrx), an enzyme involved in hypocotyl lignin biosynthesis, was studied. The results showed that GA3 reduces ZePrx activity, similarly to the way in which it reduces seedling secondary growth. This hormonal response is supported by the analysis of the ZePrx promoter, which contains four types of GA3-responsive cis-elements: the W Box/O2S; the Pyr Box; the GARE; and the Amy Box. Taken together, these results suggest that ZePrx is directly regulated by GA3, with this effect matching the inhibitory effect of GA on the hypocotyl secondary growth.

López Núñez-Flores MJ, Gutiérrez J, Gómez-Ros LV, Novo Uzal E, Sottomayor M, Ros Barceló A (2010) Downregulation of the basic peroxidase isoenzyme from Zinnia elegans by gibberellic acid. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 244–251.

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