March 2010, Volume 52 Issue 3, Pages 254C346.


Cover Caption: Carbohydrate Metabolism in Embryogenesis
During early embryogenesis, the embryo is heterotrophic and relies on the maternal tissues for nutrition and energy supply. At later stages, plastid differentiation establishes the photosynthetic capacity, rendering the embryo partially autotrophic. In this issue, Wang et al. report the characterization of the Arabidopsis BE1 gene that encodes a plastidlocalized glycoside hydrolase and plays a critical role in embryonic carbohydrate metabolism. Null mutations in BE1 cause the embryo development arrested at the heartshaped stage (see pages 273C288 for details).

 

          Cell and Developmental Biology
Cytological Events during Zygote Formation of the Fern Ceratopteris thalictroides
Author: Jian-Guo Cao, Quan-Xi Wang, Nai-Ying Yang and Wen-Mei Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 254-264
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00893.x
      
    

The cytological events, including nuclear fusion, digestion of male organelles and rebuilding of the plasmalemma and cell wall, during zygote formation of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. are described based on the observations of transmission electron microscopy. When the spermatozoid enters the egg and contacts the cytoplasm, the male chromatin relaxes continually. The microtubular ribbon (MTr) is separated from the male nucleus and then an envelope reappears around the male nucleus. During nuclear fusion, the egg nucleus becomes highly irregular and extends some nuclear protrusions. It is proposed that the protrusions fuse with the male nucleus actively. After nuclear fusion the irregular zygotic nucleus contracts gradually. It becomes spherical before the zygote divides. The male chromatin is identifiable as fibrous structure in the zygotic nucleus in the beginning, but it gradually becomes diffused completely. The male organelles, including the MTr, multilayered structure, flagella and the male mitochondria are finally digested in the zygotic cytoplasm. Finally a new plasmalemma and cell wall are formed outside the protoplast. The organelles in the zygote are rearranged, which produces a horizontal polarity zygote. The zygote divides with an oblique-vertical cell plate facing the apical notch of the gametophyte.

Cao JG, Wang QX, Yang NY, Bao WM (2010) Cytological events during zygote formation of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 254–264

Abstract (Browse 1239)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification and Gene Mapping of a Novel Mutant supernumerary lodicules (snl) in Rice  
Author: Nan Wang, Xian-Chun Sang, Yun-Feng Li, Zheng-Lin Yang, Fang-Ming Zhao, Ying-Hua Ling, Zheng-Sheng Zhang and Guang-Hua He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 265-272
Published Online: February 26, 2010
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00896.x
      
    

In order to gain a better understanding of rice flower development, a rice flower mutant supernumerary lodicules (snl), which was identified from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated Jinhui10 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) was used in the present study. In the snl mutant, the palea obtained lemma identity, additional glume-like organs formed, lodicules increased and elongated, stamens decreased, and a few aberrant carpels formed. These phenotypes suggest that SNL is involved in the entire rice flower development. SNL was mapped between two simple sequence repeat markers RM3512 and RM1342 on chromosome 2, an approximate 800 kb region, and it co-segregated with SSR215. We conclude that SNL is a novel gene involved in flower development in rice. The present study will be useful for further cloning of the SNL gene, which will contribute to the elucidation of rice flower development.

Wang N, Sang XC, Li YF, Yang ZL, Zhao FM, Ling YH, Zhang ZS, He GH (2010) Identification and gene mapping of a novel mutant supernumerary lodicules (snl) in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 265–272.

Abstract (Browse 1466)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The Arabidopsis BE1 Gene, Encoding a Putative Glycoside Hydrolase Localized in Plastids, Plays Crucial Roles during Embryogenesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism  
Author: Xingchun Wang, Li Xue, Jiaqiang Sun and Jianru Zuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 273-288
Published Online: February 26, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00930.x
      
    

Carbohydrate metabolism is central to plant growth and development. However, little is known about its role in embryogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of multiple alleles of the BRANCHING ENZYME1 (BE1) gene (also known as EMB2729). The weak allele of be1-3, characterized by positional cloning, carries a single-nucleotide substitution in an exon-intron junction and shows various developmental defects during post-germination growth. This mutation causes a reduced level of BE1 mRNA that, likely generated from cryptically spliced pre-mRNA, contains a Glu-to-Lys substitution at codon 366. In four null alleles, BE1 is disrupted by T-DNA insertions, causing embryo developmental arrests at the heart stage. Light microscopy reveals reduced cell divisions and abnormal cell differentiation, thereby leading to defects in setting up the shoot apical meristem, embryonic vascular tissues and cotyledons. Overexpression of BE1 results in a pleiotropic phenotype, indicating that the fine-tuned BE1 level is crucial for plant growth and development. BE1 encodes a putative glycoside hydrolase that is highly conserved in higher plants. A BE1-GFP fusion protein, which is fully functional in complementing be1 mutants, is localized in plastids. The be1-3 phenotype can be partially rescued by glucose, fructose or sucrose, implying the involvement of BE1 in carbohydrate metabolism in plastids.

Wang X, Xue L, Sun J, Zuo J (2010) The Arabidopsis BE1 gene, encoding a putative glycoside hydrolase localized in plastids, plays crucial roles during embryogenesis and carbohydrate metabolism. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 273–288.

Abstract (Browse 1620)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Expression of Acyl-lipid 12-desaturase Gene in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Its Effect on Cold Stress Tolerance of Potato
Author: Reza Maali Amiri, Natalia O. Yur'eva, Khristina R. Shimshilashvili, Irina V. Goldenkova-Pavlova, Vasiliy P. Pchelkin, Elmira I. Kuznitsova,Vladimir D. Tsydendambaev, Tamara I. Trunova, Dmitry A. Los, Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani and Alexander M. Nosov
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 289-297
Published Online: February 10, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00890.x
      
    

We report the expression profile of acyl-lipid Δ12-desaturase (desA) gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its effect on cellmembrane lipid composition and cold tolerance in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic (Solanum tuberosum) cells. For this purpose, a hybrid of desA and reporter gene encoding thermostable lichenase (licBM3) was constructed and used to transform these cells. The expression of this hybrid gene was measured using qualitative (Petri dish test, electrophoregram and zymogram) and quantitative methods (spectrometry and gas liquid chromatography assays). The maximum level of linoleic acid in the bacterial cells containing hybrid gene was 1.9% of total fatty acids. Cold stress tolerance assays using plant damage index and growth parameters showed that cold tolerance was enhanced in primary transgenic lines because of increased unsaturated fatty acid concentration in their lipids. The greatest content of 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids in primary transgenic plants was observed for lines 2 (73%) and 3 (41%). Finally, our results showed that desaturase could enhance tolerance to cold stress in potato, and desaturase and lichenase retain their functionality in the structure of the hybrid protein where the enzymatic activity of target gene product was higher than in the case of reporter lichenase gene absence in the construction.
 

Maali Amiri R, Yur’eva NO, Shimshilashvili KR, Goldenkova-Pavlova IV, Pchelkin VP, Kuznitsova EI, Tsydendambaev VD, Trunova TI, Los DA, Salehi Jouzani G, Nosov AM (2010) Expression of acyl-lipid Δ12-desaturase gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and its effect on cold stress tolerance of potato. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 289–297.

Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nia1 and Nia2 are Involved in Exogenous Salicylic Acid-induced Nitric Oxide Generation and Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis
Author: Fushun Hao, Shiling Zhao, Huan Dong, Huan Zhang, Lirong Sun and Chen Miao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 298-307
Published Online: February 10, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00920.x
      
    

Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant responses to environmental stress. However, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms for SA affecting the stomatal movements is limited. In this paper, we demonstrated that exogenous SA significantly induced stomatal closure and nitric oxide (NO) generation in Arabidopsis guard cells based on genetic and physiological data. These effects were significantly inhibited by the NO scavenger c-PTIO, NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME or nitrate reductase suppressor tungstate respectively, implying that NOS and nitrate reductase (NR) participate in SA-evoked stomatal closing. Furthermore, the effects of SA promotion of stomatal closure and NO synthesis are significantly suppressed in NR single mutants of nia1, nia2 or double mutant nia1/nia2, compared with the wild type plants. This suggests that both Nia1 and Nia2 are involved in SA-stimulated stomatal closure. In addition, pharmacological experiments showed that protein kinases, cGMP and cADPR are involved in SA-mediated NO accumulation and stomatal closure induced by SA in Arabidopsis.
 

Hao FS, Zhao SL, Dong H, Zhang H, Sun LR, Miao C (2010) Nia1 and Nia2 are involved in exogenous salicylic acid-induced nitric oxide generation and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 298–307.

Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Organ-Specific Responses of Vacuolar H+-ATPase in the Shoots and Roots of C3 Halophyte Suaeda salsa to NaCl
Author: Ming-Feng Yang, Jie Song and Bao-Shan Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 308-314
Published Online: February 26, 2010
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00895.x
      
    

Suaeda salsa L. is a halophytic species that is well adapted to high salinity. In order to understand its salt tolerance mechanism, we examined the growth and vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) response to NaCl within the shoots and roots. The growth of shoots, but not roots, was dramatically stimulated by NaCl. Cl and Na+ were mainly accumulated in shoots. V-ATPase activity was significantly increased by NaCl in roots and especially in shoots. Interestingly, antisera ATP95 and ATP88b detected three V1 subunits (66, 55 and 36 KDa) of V-ATPase only in shoots, while an 18 kDa V0 subunit of V-ATPase was detected by both antisera in shoots and roots. It suggested that the tissue-specific characteristics of V-ATPase were related to the different patterns of growth and ion accumulation in shoots and roots of S. salsa.


Yang MF, Song J, Wang BS (2010) Organ-specific responses of vacuolar H+-ATPase in the shoots and roots of C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa to NaCl. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 308–314.

Abstract (Browse 1082)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization of a Novel Plantain Asr Gene, MpAsr, that is Regulated in Response to Infection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense and Abiotic Stresses
Author: Hai-Yan Liu, Jin-Ran Dai, Dong-Ru Feng, Bing Liu, Hong-Bin Wang and Jin-Fa Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 315-323
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00912.x
      
    

Asr (abscisic acid, stress, ripening induced) genes are typically upregulated by a wide range of factors, including drought, cold, salt, abscisic acid (ABA) and injury; in addition to plant responses to developmental and environmental signals. We isolated an Asr gene, MpAsr, from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of cold induced plantain (Musa paradisiaca) leaves. MpAsr expression was upregulated in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infected plantain leaves, peels and roots, suggesting that MpAsr plays a role in plantain pathogen response. In addition, a 581-bp putative promoter region of MpAsr was isolated via genome walking and cis-elements involved in abiotic stress and pathogen-related responses were detected in this same region. Furthermore, the MpAsr promoter demonstrated positive activity and inducibility in tobacco under F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection and ABA, cold, dehydration and high salt concentration treatments. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MpAsr exhibited higher drought tolerance, but showed no significant decreased sensitivity to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. These results suggest that MpAsr might be involved in plant responses to both abiotic stress and pathogen attack.
 

Liu HY, Dai JR, Feng DR, Liu B, Wang HB, Wang JF (2010) Characterization of a novel plantain Asr gene, MpAsr, that is regulated in response to infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and abiotic stresses. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 315–323.

Abstract (Browse 1589)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Optimizing Seed Water Content: Relevance to Storage Stability and Molecular Mobility
Author: Ming Zhang, Jia-Jin Zhuo, Xu Wang, Sen Wu and Xiao-Feng Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 324-331
Published Online: February 26, 2010
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00916.x
      
    

This research was conducted to determine the optimum moisture content (MC) that gave maximum longevity to seeds. Three species were used to represent seeds with different dry matter reserves, which gives them different sorption properties: maize (Zea mays L.), elm (Ulmus pumila L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The seeds of elm, safflower, and maize embryos with MC ranging from 0.00–0.15 g H2O/g dry weight (DW) were stored at 35 for different periods of time. The results showed that the optimum MC for seed and embryo storage varied between species (0.057 g H2O/g DW for maize embryos, 0.045 g H2O/g DW for elm, and 0.02 g H2O/g DW for safflower). Drying below this optimum MC increased the aging rate and there were detrimental effects of drying. The relative humidity corresponding to optimum MC in embryos of maize, elms and safflower was about 15%, 12% and 7% respectively, according to the lipid composition of the embryos. The data provided confirmatory evidence that molecular mobility (Azz) in elms, maize and safflower embryos was compatible with the optimum moisture content.

Zhang M, Zhuo JJ, Wang X, Wu S, Wang XF (2010) Optimizing seed water content: relevance to storage stability and molecular mobility. J. Integr.Plant Biol. 52(3), 324–331.

Abstract (Browse 1530)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Overexpression and Suppression of Violaxanthin De-epoxidase Affects the Sensitivity of Photosystem II Photoinhibition to High Light and Chilling Stress in Transgenic Tobacco
Author: Shan Gao, Han Han, Hai-Long Feng, Shi-Jie Zhao and Qing-Wei Meng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 332-339
Published Online: February 26, 2010
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00891.x
      
    

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformed with the sense and antisense constructs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (LeVDE) was obtained under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-CaMV). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis demonstrated that the exogenous gene was integrated into the tobacco genome. Wild type (WT), the sense-transgenic line T1-24(+) and the antisense-transgenic line T1-17(−) were used for physiological measurement. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and non-photochemical quenching in WT were lower than that in sense plants and higher than that in antisense ones under high light and chilling stress with low irradiance. The maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm) and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in the sense line decreased less, while Fv/Fm and Pn in the antisense line decreased most obviously among all lines. These results suggest that the expression of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene in transgenic plants affects the sensitivity of PSII photoinhibition to high light and chilling stress.

Gao S, Han H, Feng HL, Zhao SJ, Meng QW (2010) Overexpression and suppression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase affects the sensitivity of photosystem II photoinhibition to high light and chilling stress in transgenic tobacco. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 332–339.

Abstract (Browse 1517)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid Modulates Positive Interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana Individuals
Author: Hao Zhang, Zhuxia Shen, Genxuan Wang, Xinfeng Dai, Qiaoqiao Huang and Kefeng Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(3): 340-346
Published Online: February 5, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00909.x
      
    

 The ability of abscisic acid (ABA) to modulate positive interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana individuals under salinity stress
was investigated using abi1-1 (insensitive to ABA), era1-2 (hypersensitive to ABA) mutant and wild type plants. The results 
showed that sensitivity to ABA affects relative interaction intensity (RII) between Arabidopsis thaliana individuals. The neighbor
removal experiments also confirmed the role of phenotypic responses in linking plant-plant interactions and sensitivity to ABA.
For abi1-1 mutants, the absolute value differences between neighbor removal and control of stem length, root length,
leaf area, leaf thickness, flower density, above biomass/belowground biomass (A/U), photosynthetic rate, stomatal
conductance, leaf water content and water-use efficiency were smaller than those of the wild type, while for era1-2 mutants,
these absolute value differences were larger than those of the wild type. Thus, it is suggested that positive interactions
between Arabidopsis thaliana individuals are at least partly modulated by different sensitivity to ABA through different
physiological and phenotypic plasticity.

Zhang H, Shen Z, Wang G, Dai X, Huang Q, Zheng K (2010) Sensitivity to abscisic acid modulates positive
interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana individuals. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(3), 340–346.

Abstract (Browse 1328)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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