November 2010, Volume 52 Issue 11, Pages 946ĘC1030.


Cover Caption: Microfilament Dynamics under Alkaline Stress
About the cover: Microfilaments play important roles in many cellular processes. In this issue, Zhou et al. investigated the microfilament dynamics under the alkaline stress condition, discovered that microfilament dynamics is a downstream event. Alkaline stress may trigger a signal that leads microfilament assembly and in turn regulates root growth. The cover shows microfilament organization in arabidopsis.

 

          Invited Expert Reviews
SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like Transcription Factors: Star Players for Plant Growth and Development
Author: Xiaobo Chen, Zenglin Zhang, Danmei Liu, Kai Zhang, Aili Li and Long Mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 946-951
Published Online: July 27, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00987.x
      
    

SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant phase transition, flower and fruit development, plant architecture, gibberellins signaling, sporogenesis, and response to copper and fungal toxins. In Arabidopsis, many SPL genes are post-transcriptionally regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR156, among which AtSPL9 in turn positively regulates the expression of the second miRNA miR172. This miR156-AtSPL9-miR172 regulatory pathway plays critical roles during juvenile to adult leaf development and the miR156-SPLs feedback interaction persists all through the plant development, which may be conserved in other plants. In the present paper, we provide a concise review on the most recent progress in the regulatory mechanisms associated with plant SPL transcription factors, especially in relation to miRNAs. The potential application of these discoveries in agriculture is briefly discussed.

Chen X, Zhang Z, Liu D, Zhang K, Li A, Mao L (2010) SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like transcription factors: star players for plant growth and development. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 946–951.

Abstract (Browse 2497)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Cell and Developmental Biology
Microfilament Dynamics is Required for Root Growth under Alkaline Stress in Arabidopsis  
Author: Yue Zhou, Zijun Yang, Guangqin Guo and Yan Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 952-958
Published Online: July 1, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00981.x
      
    

The microfilament (MF) cytoskeleton has crucial functions in plant development. Recent studies have revealed the function of MFs in diverse stress response. Alkaline stress is harmful to plant growth; however, it remains unclear whether the MFs play a role in alkaline stress. In the present study, we find that blocking MF assembly with latrunculin B (Lat B) leads to inhibition of plant root growth, and stabilization of MFs with phalloidin does not significantly affect plant root growth under normal conditions. In high external pH conditions, MF de-polymerization is induced and that associates with the reduction of root growth; phalloidin treatment partially rescues this reduction. Moreover, Lat B treatment further decreases the survival rate of seedlings growing in high external pH conditions. However, a high external pH (8.0) does not affect MF stability in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that alkaline stress may trigger a signal that leads the dynamics of MFs and in turn regulates root growth.

Zhou Y, Yang Z, Guo G, Guo Y (2010) Microfilament dynamics is required for root growth under alkaline stress in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 952–958.

Abstract (Browse 2527)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
LjCYC Genes Constitute Floral Dorsoventral Asymmetry in Lotus japonicus
Author: Jiechen Wang, Yumei Wang and Da Luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 959-970
Published Online: June 4, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00926.x
      
    

Previous study shows that LjCYC2, a CYC-like TCP (TB1, CYC and PCFs) gene in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, is involved in dorsal petal development, which together with the other two homologous genes, LjCYC1 and LjCYC3, belongs to an LjCYC gene cluster. In this report, we modified the transformation system in L. japonicus, and constructed different RNAi transgenes to target different LjCYC genes. The expression of three endogenous LjCYC genes was specifically suppressed by different specific RNAi transgenes, and a chimerical RNAi transgene that contains the specific sequences from LjCYC1 and LjCYC2 was found to downregulate the expression of both endogenous genes simultaneously. Effects of silencing three LjCYC genes were mainly restricted on either dorsal or lateral petals, demonstrating their dorsalizing and lateralizing activities during the development of zygomorphic flower. Furthermore, abolishing the expression of three LjCYC genes could give rise to complete loss of dorsoventral (DV) differentiation in the flower whose petals all resembled the ventral one in the wild type and displayed intact organ internal (IN) asymmetry. Our data demonstrate that during zygomorphic flower development, the DV asymmetry is constituted by the LjCYC genes, while the floral organ IN asymmetry is independently determined by other genetic factors.

Wang J, Wang Y, Luo D (2010) LjCYC genes constitute floral dorsoventral asymmetry in Lotus japonicus. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 959–970.

Abstract (Browse 2408)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Expression Analysis of miRNAs and Highly-expressed Small RNAs in Two Rice Subspecies and Their Reciprocal Hybrids
Author: Fangfang Chen, Guangming He, Hang He, Wei Chen, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manzhong Liang, Liangbi Chen and Xing-Wang Deng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 971-980
Published Online: July 15, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00985.x
      
    

Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, is the phenomenon whereby progeny of two inbred lines exhibit superior agronomic performance compared with either parent. We analyzed the expression of miRNAs and highly expressed small RNAs (defined according to Solexa sequencing results) in two rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies (japonica cv. Nipponbare and indica cv. 93-11) and their reciprocal hybrids using microarrays. We found that of all the 1141 small RNAs tested, 140 (12%, 140 of 1141) and 157 (13%, 157 of 1141) were identified being significantly differentially expressed in two reciprocal hybrids, respectively. All possible modes of action, including additive, high- and low- parent, above high- and below low-parent modes were exhibited. Both F1 hybrids showed non-additive expression patterns, with downregulation predominating. Interestingly, 15 miRNAs displayed stark opposite expression trends relative to mid-parent in reciprocal hybrids. Computational prediction of targets of differentially expressed miRNAs showed that they participated in multifaceted developmental pathways, and were not distinguishable from the targets of non-differentially expressed miRNAs. Together, our findings reveal that small RNAs play roles in heterosis and add a new layer in the understanding and exploitation of molecular mechanisms of heterosis.

Chen F, He G, He H, Chen W, Zhu X, Liang M, Chen L, Deng XW (2010) Expression analysis of miRNAs and highly-expressed small RNAs in two rice subspecies and their reciprocal hybrids. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 971–980.

Abstract (Browse 2467)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Proteomic Analysis of Rice Leaves Shows the Different Regulations to Osmotic Stress and Stress Signals
Author: Lie-Bo Shu, Wei Ding, Jin-Hong Wu, Fang-Jun Feng, Li-Jun Luo and Han-Wei Mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 981-995
Published Online: July 23, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00986.x
      
    

Following the idea of partial root-zone drying (PRD) in crop cultivation, the morphological and physiological responses to partial root osmotic stress (PROS) and whole root osmotic stress (WROS) were investigated in rice. WROS caused stress symptoms like leaf rolling and membrane leakage. PROS stimulated stress signals, but did not cause severe leaf damage. By proteomic analysis, a total of 58 proteins showed differential expression after one or both treatments, and functional classification of these proteins suggests that stress signals regulate photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Two other proteins (anthranilate synthase and submergence-induced nickel-binding protein) were upregulated only in the PROS plants, indicating their important roles in stress resistance. Additionally, more enzymes were involved in stress defense, redox homeostasis, lignin and ethylene synthesis in WROS leaves, suggesting a more comprehensive regulatory mechanism induced by osmotic stress. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant leaves involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress and stress signals.

Shu LB, Ding W, Wu JH, Feng FJ, Luo LJ, Mei HW (2010) Proteomic analysis of rice leaves shows the different regulations to osmotic stress and stress signals. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 981–995

Abstract (Browse 2119)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Genomic Distribution of Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-related Traits in Common Wheat
Author: Li-Yi Zhang, Dong-Cheng Liu, Xiao-Li Guo, Wen-Long Yang, Jia-Zhu Sun, Dao-Wen Wang and Aimin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 996-1007
Published Online: May 21, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00967.x
      
    

A major objective of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is to find genes/markers that can be used in breeding programs via marker assisted selection (MAS). We surveyed the QTLs for yield and yield-related traits and their genomic distributions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the available published reports. We then carried out a meta-QTL (MQTL) analysis to identify the major and consistent QTLs for these traits. In total, 55 MQTLs were identified, of which 12 significant MQTLs were located on wheat chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D and 5A. Our study showed that the genetic control of yield and its components in common wheat involved the important genes such as Rht and Vrn. Furthermore, several significant MQTLs were found in the chromosomal regions corresponding to several rice genomic locations containing important QTLs for yield related traits. Our results demonstrate that meta-QTL analysis is a powerful tool for confirming the major and stable QTLs and refining their chromosomal positions in common wheat, which may be useful for improving the MAS efficiency of yield related traits.

Zhang LY, Liu DC, Guo XL, Yang WL, Sun JZ, Wang DW, Zhang A (2010) Genomic distribution of quantitative trait loci for yield and yield-related traits in common wheat J. Integr. Plant Biol52(11), 996–1007

Abstract (Browse 2379)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Insights into the Bamboo Genome: Syntenic Relationships to Rice and Sorghum  
Author: Yi-Jie Gui, Yan Zhou, Yu Wang, Sheng Wang, Sheng-Yue Wang, Yan Hu, Shi-Ping Bo, Huan Chen, Chang-Ping Zhou, Nai-Xun Ma, Tian-Zhen Zhang and Long-Jiang Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 1008-1015
Published Online: July 14, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00965.x
      
    

Bamboo occupies an important phylogenetic node in the grass family and plays a significant role in the forest industry. We produced 1.2 Mb of tetraploid moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens E. Mazel ex H. de Leh.) sequences from 13 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, and these are the largest genomic sequences available so far from the subfamily Bambusoideae. The content of repetitive elements (36.2%) in bamboo is similar to that in rice. Both rice and sorghum exhibit high genomic synteny with bamboo, which suggests that rice and sorghum may be useful as models for decoding Bambusoideae genomes.

Gui YJ, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Wang S, Wang SY, Hu Y, Bo SP, Chen H, Zhou CP, Ma NX, Zhang TZ, Fan LJ (2010) Insights into the bamboo genome: syntenic relationships to rice and sorghum. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 1008–1015.

Abstract (Browse 3235)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genome-Wide Analysis of WOX Gene Family in Rice, Sorghum, Maize, Arabidopsis and Poplar
Author: Xin Zhang, Jie Zong, Jianhua Liu, Jinyuan Yin and Dabing Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 1016-1026
Published Online: July 6, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00982.x
      
    

WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) genes form a large gene family specifically expressed in plants. They are known to play important roles in regulating the development of plant tissues and organs by determining cell fate. Recent available whole genome sequences allow us to do more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the WOX genes in plants. In the present study, we identified 11 and 21 WOXs from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and maize (Zea mays), respectively. The 72 WOX genes from rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) were grouped into three well supported clades with nine subgroups according to the amino acid sequences of their homodomains. Their phylogenetic relationship was also supported by the observation of the motifs outside the homodomain. We observed the variation of duplication events among the nine sub-groups between monocots and eudicots, for instance, more gene duplication events of WOXs within subgroup A for monocots, while, less for dicots in this subgroup. Furthermore, we observed the conserved intron/exon structural patterns of WOX genes in rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis. In addition, WUS (Wuschel)-box and EAR (the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression)-like motif were observed to be conserved among several WOX subgroups in these five plants. Comparative analysis of expression patterns of WOX genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggest that the WOX genes play conserved and various roles in plants. This work provides insights into the evolution of the WOX gene family and is useful for future research.

Zhang X, Zong J, Liu J, Yin J, Zhang D (2010) Genome-wide analysis of WOX gene family in rice, sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis and poplar. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(11), 1016–1026.

Abstract (Browse 2384)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Meeting Report
TILLING and Associated Technologies
Author: Trevor Wang, Cristobal Uauy, Brad Till and Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010 52(11): 1027-1030
Published Online: October 26, 2010
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00999.x
Abstract (Browse 1275)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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