March 1963, Volume 11 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Cyathea ordosica C. N. Chu, A New Cyatheoid Fern from the Jurassic of Dongsheng, The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Author: Chu Chia-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
    The Dongsheng fossil Cyathea ordosica sp. nov., described here, is obtained from the Jurassic coal series in the district Dongsheng (=Tungsheng, 39˚53N, 110˚ E). The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. From the same bed the following plants have been found, namely, Raphaelia diamensis Thomas, Cladophlebis whitbiensis Brongn., Taeniopteris vittata Brongn., Nilssonia sinensis Yabe et Oishi, Podocarpites mentoukauensis Stockmans et Mathieu and Pityophyllum sp. Besides, many other species have been observed at other spots of the same series, such as Annulariopsis simpsoni (Phillips) Harris, Clathropteris obovata Oishi, Coniopteris hymenophylloides Brongn., Czekanowskia rigida Heer, Phoenicopsis speciosa Heer, Elatocladus manchurica Yok. and Sagenopteris philIipsi (Brongn.) Presl. The geological age of the series is assigned to the Middle Jurassic by Prof. J. Hs. The diagnosis of this new fossil plant is as follows: Frond tripinnate, large and elegent. Texture very thin. Pinna-raches marked with small pit-like scars representing the bristles, more than 100 in number per square centimeter. Venation free, catadromic branching. Penultimate pinnae broadly ovate, deltoidovate or auriculate, about 7 cm long and 5 cm broad. Ultimate pinnae subopposite or alternate, closely set, lanceolate or subfalcate, about 1.5C3.5 cm long and about 1 cm broad, obliquely upward; tip slightly obtuse (Pl. , figs. 6, 7), base sessile, cuneate, unequal. Pinnuleraches slender and thinner than the ultimate pinna-raches, alternate and catadromic branching, with longitudinal striations on their surface (Pl. , fig. 8). Pinnules alternate, touching each other, oblong, about 4 mm long and 1.5 mm broad, entire in the upper part, lobed in the lower part, with lobes arising at an acute angle (about 50˚C80˚). Midrib distinct in the basal part, frequently shifting to the lower side; veins alternate, arising at an acute angle (about 60˚), 2 to 3 in number on both sides of the midrib, slightly arching, simple or rarely forked, all reaching the tip of each lobe. Epidermal cells of lower surface of the pinnules polygonal in shape; those on the lateral veins rectangular, with their long axis parallel to the veins (Pl. , fig. 11). Sori 2C8, arranged in two tiers, dorsifixed on the lateral veins, circular, about 50 in number per square centimeter. Indusium wanting. Sporangia elliptic or turbinate in shape, crowded, about 13C17 or more in number in each sorus, 10 in diameter, short-stalked. Annulus oblique, distinct, composed of one row of thickened cells (Pl. , figs. 2-4). Raciborski (1894, p. 29, tag. , figs. 3-4) first described a fossil plant as Alsophila polonica from the Liassic in Poland. Later Hirmer (1927, p. 641) changed its generic name to Alsophilites. But Alsophilites polonica (Raciborski) Hirmer appears to be not a member of Cyatheaceae, as the features of pinnae and venation, the number and arrangement of sori and the number of sporangia of this species are not of Cyathean type. The present fossil represents,, therefore, not only the oldest known cyathean species in China, but also in the whole world.
Abstract (Browse 2357)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on the Influence of the Temperature Factor on the Formation and Discharge of Conchospores of Different Species of Porphyra
Author: C. K. Tseng, T. J. Chang and R. Y. Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
    Comparative studies on the influence of the temperature factor on the formation and discharge of conchospores of six different species of Porphyra, namely, P. tenera Kjellm., P. suborbiculata Kjellm., P. marginata Tseng et T. J. Chang, P. hemiphylla Tseng et T. J. Chang, P. shangchuanensis Tseng et T. J. Chang and an unidentified species were made and the results presented in the present report. It was found that the range of temperatures in which the conchospores are formed as well as the favorable and optimal temperatures for their formation are unique to each species and are different with different species. With the exception of P. marginata perhaps owing to the lack of sufficient materials available, the demand for higher or lower temperature for the conchospore formation in the species investigated, is generally in agreement with the distribution of these species in the China coast as well as their earlier or later appearance in the same locality. For instance, P. shangchuanensis, at present known only from the Shangchuan Islands off the Kwangtung coast, being southernmost in distribution among these species, requires the highest temperature for conchospore formation (somewhat above 26 ). Next in the series is P. suborbiculata, which requires a temperature somewhat higher than 22 . This species occurs principally south of the Yangtze River, and although also found in the Tsingtao region, is killed by freezing temperature, disappearing from the littoral region in the coldest winter months. The other four species are fundamentally northern species and practically limited to the Yellow Sea coast, with the exception of P. tenera which may extend as far south as Amoy, Fukien Province. Two of these four species, namely, P. tenera and P. rearginata, appear earlier than the other two species, similarly requiring higher temperatures for their conchospore formation. It was also found that after formation of the sporangial branchlets, the Conchocelis stage must be subjected to a definite temperature for a certain number of days before conchospores formation could be effected. Although the number of days required is not the same for the species investigated, this varies also with different cultural conditions and with different cultures of the same species. On the basis of large amount of experimental data obtained, it seems that for most species of Porphyra, 10C20 days are required for culturing their Conchocelis-stage (with sporangial branchlets) at favorable temperature in order to form conchospores. Discharge of the conchospores is effected within a certain range of temperature which varies with different species and is related to that of conchospore formation, but somewhat wider in range than the latter, especially in the upper limit of temperature of spore discharge which is always higher than the spore formation temperature.
Abstract (Browse 1937)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomy of the Culm and Fibers of Phragmites communis and Miscanthus sinensis
Author: Y. S. Hu and C. L. Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
    A comparison of the internal structure of the culm and the morphological variations of the fibers in various parts of the culm between Phragmites communis Trin. and Miscanthus sinensis Anders. has been investigated. The short cells which consisted of the silica cells and suberized cells were found to be less in number and much fewer in the form of groups in the epidermis of the culm of Phragmites than in that of Miscanthus. However, the variation in distribution of all these short cells in different levels of a culm, i.e. more in the upper, and fewer in the lower, obtained in both genera. In the transverse section, only one layer of hypodermal fibers with markedly thickened walls was seen in Phragmites and interior to this, the bundle caps were coalesced into a band; whereas in Miscanthus there were two layers and the bundle caps were more or less discrete. Furthermore, the fundamental parenchyma of the culm occupied a smaller portion in Phragmites than in Miscanthus. The morphological characteristics of fibers in different parts of the culm were similar in both genera, being the longest in the middle portion of the culm and the shorter its base and shortest at the top. The average length, width, and length-width ratio were usually greater in Miscanthus than in Phragmites.
Abstract (Browse 2111)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Embryos of Pinus koraiensis Grown in Vitro III. Morphological Differentiation of the Root During Germination
Author: C. L. Lee and Chang Hsin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
    Root development of the intact or excised embryos of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc., exhibited discrepant morphological differentiation under experimental condition. That development of the root enclosed in intact megagametophyte grown in the sterile culture medium without sugar, although it showed more rapid elongation, essentially resembled that of the soil-grown seedlings. However, morphological variations existed in the root growth of the excised embryo after one weeks culture. It manifested particularly in the development of the coleorhiza-like structure. As the root elongated, it first appeared as a reddish mass covering the root cap. Gradually this tissue mass became loosened and separated from the root cap. Finally it was torn and pushed aside by the elongated root. In the further growth of excised embryos, seven to eight layers of loose tissue which arose from the subepidermal cells were developed around the root tip. Later, the surface layer assumed the appearance of rhizoids and was subsequently shed. During further extention of the first root, zonation of the root apex became inconspicuous. The meristem became reduced in extent; only a layer of initial cells existed between the root cap and the hypocotyl. Meanwhile the root cap became reduced to only a few cell layers, some of which eventually degenerated. After six weeks in culture, the meristematic tissues of some of the root apexes eventually became parenchymatous and maturation of short tracheids extended up to 100C200 from the apex. Ultimately root ceased to elongate and became senile.
Abstract (Browse 1865)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental Studies of Young Ginkgo Embryos I. The Effect of the Bee Royal Jelly on the Embryo Growth
Author: F. H. Wang, T. K. Chen and S. C. Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
    Isolated young Ginkgo embryos were grown in vitro under aseptic condition in a basic agar medium containing sucrose, mineral salts, 4 vitamins and glycine. In one series of experiments 3% aqueous extract of Ginkgo female gametophyte and 0.1ppm IAA were also added. The bee royal jelly at different concentrations were tested for its effect on the differentiation and development of the young embryos. The young embryos above 1.5 mm in length with differentiated cotyledons grew normally or produced callus-like growth on the basic medium as well as on the media with the royal jelly added. Part of the young embryos above lmm but without differentiation of cotyledons may continue their normal differentiation and development on the media containing the royal jelly while not one embryo of the same size range can grow normally on the basic medium. Young embryos below 1 mm usually showed little growth and died after three weeks of culture. The most effective concentration of bee royal jelly is about 400 ppm. It appears that some substances which affect the normal differentiation and growth of young Ginkgo embryos are present in the bee royal jelly.
Abstract (Browse 2180)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Author: ѧ -֧ߧ اѧ -اߧ ѧ -ڧߧ ٧ڧ -ߧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Polyploidizing Agent Fumiren
Author: Yan Y-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(3)
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       


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