August 2011, Volume 53 Issue 8, Pages 598C693.

Cover Caption: The Rice Grain Quality
About the cover: The cooking quality of rice is compromised greatly by the chalkiness of the grain. The study of Guo et al. (pp. 598C607) mapped a major chalkiness quantitative trait locus (QTL) named qPGWC-8 to a 142 kb region, using a chromosomeoverlap strategy, which may facilitate the cloning of the QTL and the marker-assisted breeding for high quality rice varieties.


          Cell and Developmental Biology
Identification of a Stable Quantitative Trait Locus for Percentage Grains with White Chalkiness in Rice (Oryza sativa)
Author: Tao Guo, Xiaolu Liu, Xiangyuan Wan, Jianfeng Weng, Shijia Liu, Xi Liu, Mingjiang Chen, Jingjing Li, Ning Su, Fuqing Wu, Zhijun Cheng, Xiuping Guo, Cailin Lei, Jiulin Wang, Ling Jiang and Jianmin Wan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 598-607
Published Online: April 25, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01041.x

High chalkiness is a major problem in many rice-producing areas of the world, especially in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. We previously showed a major quantitative trait locus for the percentage of grains with white chalkiness (QTLqPGWC-8) in the interval G1149-R727 on chromosome 8 using a chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL). Here, we selected the line-CSSL50 harboring the QTLqPGWC-8 allele from the CSSLs derived from a cross between Asominori (as a recurrent parent) and IR24 (as a donor parent), which had higher percentage chalkiness, markedly different from that of Asominori. There were also significant differences in starch granules, appearance of amylose content (AAC) and milling qualities between Asominori and CSSL50, but not in grain size or thousand grain weight (TGW). The BC4F2 and BC4F3 populations from a cross between CSSL50 and Asominori were used for fine mapping of qPGWC-8. We narrowed down the location of this QTL to a 142 kb region between Indel markers 8G-7 and 8G-9. QTLqPGWC-8 accounted for 50.9% of the difference in PGWC between the parents. The markers tightly linked to qPGWC-8 should facilitate cloning of the gene underlying this QTL and will be of value for marker-assisted selection in breeding rice varieties with better grain quality.

Guo T, Liu X, Wan X, Weng J, Liu S, Liu X, Chen M, Li J, Su N, Wu F, Cheng Z, Guo X, Lei C, Wang J, Jiang L, Wan J (2011) Identification of a stable quantitative trait locus for percentage grains with white chalkiness in rice (Oryza sativa) J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 598–607.

Abstract (Browse 2813)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
The Dominant Glutamic Acid Metabolic Flux to Produce -Amino Butyric Acid over Proline in Nicotiana tabacum Leaves under Water Stress Relates to its Significant Role in Antioxidant Activity
Author: Cuili Liu, Li Zhao and Guanghui Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 608-618
Published Online: May 12, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01049.x

γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and proline play a crucial role in protecting plants during various environmental stresses. Their synthesis is from the common precursor glutamic acid, which is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase respectively. However, the dominant pathway under water stress has not yet been established. To explore this, excised tobacco leaves were used to simulate a water-stress condition. The results showed GABA content was much higher than that of proline in leaves under water-deficit and non-water-deficit conditions. Specifically, the amount of GABA significantly increased compared to proline under continuous water loss for 16 h, indicating that GABA biosynthesis is the dominant pathway from glutamic acid metabolism under these conditions. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and protein Western gel-blot analysis further confirmed this. To explore the function of GABA accumulation, a system producing superoxide anion (O2), peroxide hydrogen (H2O2), and singlet oxygen (1O2) was employed to investigate the scavenging role on free-radical production. The results demonstrated that the scavenging ability of GABA for O2, H2O2, and 1O2 was significantly higher than that of proline. This indicated that GABA acts as an effective osmolyte to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species under water stress.

 Liu C, Zhao L, Yu G (2011) The dominant glutamic acid metabolic flux to produce γ-amino butyric acid over proline in Nicotiana tabacum leaves under water stress relates to its significant role in antioxidant activity. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 608–618.

Abstract (Browse 2959)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Silencing NOA1 Elevates Herbivory-Induced Jasmonic Acid Accumulation and Compromises Most of the Carbon-Based Defense Metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata  
Author: Hendrik Wünsche, Ian T. Baldwin and Jianqiang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 619-631
Published Online: April 1, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01040.x

Nitric oxide-associated protein 1 (NOA1) is involved in various abiotic stress responses and is required for plant resistance to pathogen infections. However, the role of NOA1 in plant-herbivore interactions has not been explored. We created NOA1-silenced Nicotiana attenuata plants (irNaNOA1). Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, irNaNOA1 plants had highly decreased photosynthesis rates. We further examined various traits important for plant defense against its specialist herbivore Manduca sexta by treating WT and irNaNOA1 plants with mechanical wounding and M. sexta oral secretions (OS). NOA1-silenced plants showed elevated levels of herbivory-induced jasmonic acid (JA), but decreased JA-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) levels. The decreased JA-Ile levels did not result from compromised JAR (jasmonic acid resistant) activity in irNOA1 plants. Moreover, nitrogen-rich defensive compounds, nicotine and trypsin proteinase inhibitors, did not differ between WT and irNaNOA1 plants. In contrast, concentrations of most carbon-based defensive compounds were lower in these plants than in WT plants, although the levels of chlorogenic acid were not changed. Therefore, silencing NOA1 alters the allocation of carbon resources within the phenylpropanoid pathway. These data suggest the involvement of NOA1 in N. attenuata's defense against M. sexta attack, and highlight its role in photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of jasmonates and secondary metabolites.

Wünsche H, Baldwin IT, Wu J (2011) Silencing NOA1 elevates herbivory-induced jasmonic acid accumulation and compromises most of carbonbased defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 619-631.

Abstract (Browse 2565)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Brassinosteroid Enhances Jasmonate-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation in Arabidopsis Seedlings
Author: Zhihong Peng, Chengyun Han, Libing Yuan, Kun Zhang, Hongman Huang and Chunmei Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 632-640
Published Online: May 4, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01042.x

Jasmonate (JA) regulates plant development, mediates defense responses, and induces anthocyanin biosynthesis as well. Previously, we isolated the psc1 mutant that partially suppressed coi1 insensitivity to JA, and found that brassinosteroid (BR) was involved in JA signaling and negatively regulated JA inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis. In this study it was shown that JA-induced anthocyanin accumulation was reduced in BR mutants or in wild type treated with brassinazole, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, whereas it was induced by an application of exogenous BR. It was also shown that the ‘late’ anthocyanin biosynthesis genes including DFR, LDOX, and UF3GT, were induced slightly by JA in the BR mutants relative to wild type. Furthermore, the expression level of JA-induced Myb/bHLH transcription factors such as PAP1, PAP2, and GL3, which are components of the WD-repeat/Myb/bHLH transcriptional complexes that mediate the ‘late’ anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, was lower in the BR mutants than that in wild type. These results suggested that BR affects JA-induced anthocyanin accumulation by regulating the ‘late’ anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and this regulation might be mediated by the WD-repeat/Myb/bHLH transcriptional complexes.

Peng Z, Han C, Yuan L, Zhang K, Huang H, Ren C (2011) Brassinosteroid enhances jasmonate-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 632–640.

Abstract (Browse 2191)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification of Functional Genetic Variations Underlying Drought Tolerance in Maize Using SNP Markers
Author: Zhuanfang Hao, Xinhai Li, Chuanxiao Xie, Jianfeng Weng, Mingshun Li, Degui Zhang, Xiaoling Liang, Lingling Liu, Sisi Liu and Shihuang Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 641-652
Published Online: May 12, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01051.x

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a common form of genetic variation and popularly exists in maize genome. An Illumina GoldenGate assay with 1 536 SNP markers was used to genotype maize inbred lines and identified the functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance by association analysis. Across 80 lines, 1 006 polymorphic SNPs (65.5% of the total) in the assay with good call quality were used to estimate the pattern of genetic diversity, population structure, and familial relatedness. The analysis showed the best number of fixed subgroups was six, which was consistent with their original sources and results using only simple sequence repeat markers. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping with phenotypic traits investigated under water-stressed and well-watered regimes showed rapid LD decline within 100–500 kb along the physical distance of each chromosome, and that 29 SNPs were associated with at least two phenotypic traits in one or more environments, which were related to drought-tolerant or drought-responsive genes. These drought-tolerant SNPs could be converted into functional markers and then used for maize improvement by marker-assisted selection.

Hao Z, Li X, Xie C, Weng J, Li M, Zhang D, Liang X, Liu L, Liu S, Zhang S (2011) Identification of functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance in maize using SNP markers. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 641–652.

Abstract (Browse 2640)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Heme Oxygenase-1 is Associated with Wheat Salinity Acclimation by Modulating Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis  
Author: Yanjie Xie, Weiti Cui, Xingxing Yuan, Wenbiao Shen and Qing Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 653-670
Published Online: May 13, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01052.x

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been recently identified as an endogenous signaling system in animals. In this study, HO-1 upregulation and its role in acquired salt tolerance (salinity acclimation) were investigated in wheat plants. We discovered that pretreatment with a low concentration of NaCl (25 mmol/L) not only led to the induction of HO-1 protein and gene expression, as well as enhanced HO activity, but also to a salinity acclimatory response thereafter. The effect is specific for HO-1, since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX blocks the above cytoprotective actions, and the cytotoxic responses conferred by 200 mmol/L NaCl are reversed partially when HO-1 inducer hemin is added. Heme oxygenase catalytic product, carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution pretreatment, mimicked the salinity acclimatory responses. Meanwhile, the CO-triggered re-establishment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis was mainly guaranteed by the induction of total and isozymatic activities, or corresponding transcripts of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and cytosolic peroxidase (POD), as well as the downregulation of NADPH oxidase expression and cell-wall POD activity. A requirement of hydrogen peroxide homeostasis for HO-1-mediated salinity acclimation was also discovered. Taken together, the above results suggest that the upregulation of HO-1 expression was responsible for the observed salinity acclimation through the regulation of ROS homeostasis.

Yanjie X, Weiti C, Xingxing Y, Wenbiao S, Qing Y (2011) Heme oxygenase-1 is associated with wheat salinity acclimation by modulating reactive oxygen species homeostasis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 653–670.

Abstract (Browse 2480)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Light- and Temperature-sensitive Spotted-leaf Mutant in Rice
Author: Qi-Na Huang, Yong-Feng Shi, Yang Yang, Bao-Hua Feng, Yan-Lin Wei, Jie Chen, Marietta Baraoidan, Hei Leung and Jian-Li Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 671-681
Published Online: May 23, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01056.x

A rice spotted-leaf mutant was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS) -induced IR64 mutant bank. The mutant, designated as spl30 (spotted-leaf30), displayed normal green leaf color under shade but exhibited red-brown lesions under natural summer field conditions. Initiation of the lesions was induced by light and the symptom was enhanced at 33 °C relative to 26 °C. Histochemical staining did not show cell death around the red-brown lesions. Chlorophyll contents in the mutant were significantly lower than those of the wild type while the ratio of chlorophyll a/b remained the same, indicating that spl30 was impaired in biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll. Disease reaction patterns of the mutant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae were largely unchanged to most races tested except for a few strains. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively named spl30(t), which co-segregated with RM15380 on chromosome 3, and was delimited to a 94 kb region between RM15380 and RM15383. Spl30(t) is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region. The genetic data and recombination populations provided in this study will enable further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

Huang QN, Shi YF, Yang Y, Feng BH, Wei YL, Chen J, Baraoidan M, Leung H, Wu JL (2011) Characterization and genetic analysis of a light- and temperature-sensitive spotted-leaf mutant in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 671–681.

Abstract (Browse 2100)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Evolutionary History and Complementary Selective Relaxation of the Duplicated PI Genes in Grasses
Author: Ruo-Xun Wei and Song Ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(8): 682-693
Published Online: May 26, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01058.x

Gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of organisms by allowing functional innovation and the divergence of duplicate genes. Previous studies found two PI-like genes in grass species, suggesting functional divergence between the paralogous copies. Here, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of two PI genes from major lineages of grasses and other monocot species, and demonstrated that two PI genes (PI1 and PI2) arose from a whole genome duplication that occurred in a common ancestor of extant grasses. Molecular evolutionary analyses at the family and tribal levels found strong purifying selection acting on two genes in grasses, consistent with the conserved class B function of the PI genes. Importantly, we detected different patterns of selective relaxation between the duplicated PI genes although no signature of positive selection was found. Likelihood ratio tests revealed that the ω ratio for M domain is significantly higher in PI1 than in PI2 but that for K domain is significantly higher in PI2 than in PI1. These findings imply that complementary selective relaxation occurs in two PI genes after duplication, and provide additional molecular evidence for the subfunctionalization of the duplicated PI genes in grasses.

Wei RX, Ge S (2011) Evolutionary history and complementary selective relaxation of the duplicated PI genes in grasses. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(8), 682–693.

Abstract (Browse 1666)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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