September 2011, Volume 53 Issue 9, Pages 698ĘC765.

Cover Caption: TGN Accumulation in Protoplasts Over-expressing OsAGAP
About the cover: Under the normal condition, trans-Golgi networks (TGN) exhibit a typical punctate staining pattern, as showed by the GONST1-GFP marker. In this issue, Du et al. showed in rice and Arabidopsis protoplasts that GONST1-GFP accumulations were increased approximately 30% when the ARF-GTPaseactivating protein OsAGAP was overexpressed, suggsting a role of OsAGAP in vesicle transport (see pages 698ĘC709 for details).


          Cell and Developmental Biology
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPase-Activating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1 Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root Development  
Author: Cheng Du, Yunyuan Xu, Yingdian Wang and Kang Chong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 698-709
Published Online: June 1, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01059.x

Polar auxin transport, which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers, mediates various processes of plant growth and development. Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein, GNOM. However, the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood. Here, we report that overexpression of OsAGAP, an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice, stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1. AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4–64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption. Furthermore, OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization, and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells, and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B. Thus, we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

Du C, Xu Y, Wang Y, Chong K (2011) Adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor-GTPase-activating protein stimulates the transport of AUX1 endosome, which relies on actin cytoskeletal organization in rice root development. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 698–709.

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Fine Mapping of qPAA8, a Gene Controlling Panicle Apical Development in Rice
Author: Zhi-Jun Cheng, Bi-Gang Mao, Su-Wei Gao, Ling Zhang, Jiu-Lin Wang, Cai-Lin Lei, Xin Zhang, Fu-Qing Wu, Xiu-Ping Guo and Jianmin Wan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 710-718
Published Online: May 23, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01055.x

In rice, one detrimental factor influencing single panicle yield is the frequent occurrence of panicle apical abortion (PAA) under unfavorable climatic conditions. Until now, no detailed genetic information has been available to avoid PAA in rice breeding. Here, we show that the occurrence of PAA is associated with the accumulation of excess hydrogen peroxide. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping for PAA in an F2 population derived from the cross of L-05261 (PAA line) × IRAT129 (non-PAA variety) identified seven QTLs over a logarithm of the odd (LOD) threshold of 2.5, explaining approximately 50.1% of phenotypic variance for PAA in total. Five of the QTLs with an increased effect from L-05261, were designated as qPAA3-1, qPAA3-2, qPAA4, qPAA5 and qPAA8, and accounted for 6.8%, 5.9%, 4.2%, 13.0% and 12.2% of phenotypic variance, respectively. We found that the PAA in the early heading plants was mainly controlled by qPAA8. Subsequently, using the sub-populations specific for qPAA8 based on marker-assisted selection, we further narrowed qPAA8 to a 37.6-kb interval delimited by markers RM22475 and 8-In112. These results are beneficial for PAA gene clone.

Cheng ZJ, Mao BG, Gao SW, Zhang L, Wang JL, Lei CL, Zhang X, Wu FQ, Guo XP, Wan J (2011) Fine mapping of qPAA8, a gene controlling panicle apical development in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 710–718.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
Genetic Analysis of Carbon Isotope Discrimination and its Relation to Yield in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population
Author: Xianshan Wu, Xiaoping Chang and Ruilian Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 719-730
Published Online: July 15, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01067.x

Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) is considered a useful indicator for indirect selection of grain yield (GY) in cereals. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the genetic variation in Δ13C and its relationship with GY. A doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross of two common wheat varieties, Hanxuan 10 (H10) and Lumai 14 (L14), was phenotyped for Δ13C in the flag leaf, GY and yield associated traits in two trials contrasted by water availability, specifically, rain-fed and irrigated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by single locus and two locus QTL analyses. QTLs for Δ13C were located on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3B, 5A, 7A and 7B, and QTLs for other traits on all chromosomes except 1A, 4D, 5A, 5B and 6D. The population selected for high Δ13C had an increased frequency of QTL for high Δ13C, GY and number of spikes per plant (NSP) when grown under rain-fed conditions and only for high Δ13C and NSP when grown under irrigated conditions, which was consistent with agronomic performance of the corresponding trait values in the high Δ13C progeny; that is, significantly greater than that in the low Δ13C. Therefore, selection for Δ13C was beneficial in increasing grain yield in rain-fed environments.

Wu X, Chang X, Jing R (2011) Genetic analysis of carbon isotope discrimination and its relation to yield in a wheat doubled haploid population. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 719–730.

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Cloning of a Vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase Gene from the Halophyte Suaeda corniculata whose Heterologous Overexpression Improves Salt, Saline-alkali and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis
Author: Liang Liu, Ying Wang, Nan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Dong, Xiu-Duo Fan, Xiu-Ming Liu, Jing Yang and Hai-Yan Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 731-742
Published Online: July 15, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01066.x

Salt, saline-alkali conditions, and drought are major environmental factors limiting plant growth and productivity. The vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) is an electrogenic proton pump that translocates protons into vacuoles in plant cells. Expression of V-H+-PPase increases in plants under a number of abiotic stresses, and is thought to have an important role in adaptation to abiotic stress. In this work, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene, ScVP, encoding a vacuolar inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) from the halophyte, Suaeda corniculata. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that ScVP was induced in roots, stems and leaves under treatment with salt, saline-alkali and drought. Compared with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, transgenic plants overexpressing ScVP accumulated more Na+ in leaves and roots, and showed increased tolerance to high salinity, saline-alkali and drought stresses. The germination percentage of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was higher than that of WT seeds under the abiotic stresses. The root length of transgenic plants under salt stress was longer than that of WT plants. Furthermore, the rate of water loss during drought stress was higher in WT than in transgenic plants. Collectively, these results indicate that ScVP plays an important role in plant tolerance to salt, saline-alkali and drought stress.

Liu L, Wang Y, Wang N, Dong YY, Fan XD, Liu XM, Yang J, Li HY (2011) Cloning of a vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene from the halophyte Suaeda corniculata whose heterologous overexpression improves salt, saline-alkali and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 731–742.

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Genome-Wide Analysis of BURP Domain-Containing Genes in Populus trichocarpa
Author: Yuanhua Shao, Guo Wei, Ling Wang, Qing Dong, Yang Zhao, Beijiu Chen and Yan Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 743-755
Published Online: July 18, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01068.x

BURP domain-containing proteins have a conserved structure and are found extensively in plants. The functions of the proteins in this family are diverse, but remain unknown in Populus trichocarpa. In the present study, a complete genome of P. trichocarpa was analyzed bioinformatically. A total of 18 BURP family genes, named PtBURPs, were identified and characterized according to their physical positions on the P. trichocarpa chromosomes. A phylogenetic tree was generated from alignments of PtBURP protein sequences, while phylogenetic relationships were also examined between PtBURPs and BURP family genes in other plants, including rice, soybean, maize and sorghum. BURP genes in P. trichocarpa were classified into five classes, namely PG1β-like, BNM2-like, USP-like, RD22-like and BURP V. The multiple expectation maximization for motif elicitation (MEME) and multiple protein sequence alignments of PtBURPs were also performed. Results from the transcript level analyses of 10 PtBURP genes under different stress conditions revealed the expression patterns in poplar and led to a discussion on genome duplication and evolution, expression profiles and function of PtBURP genes.

Shao Y, Wei G, Wang L, Dong Q, Zhao Y, Chen B and Xiang Y (2011) Genome-wide analysis of BURP domain-containing genes in Populus trichocarpa. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 743–755.

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          Molecular Physiology
ALK, The Key Gene for Gelatinization Temperature, is a Modifier Gene for Gel Consistency in Rice  
Author: Zhenyu Gao, Dali Zeng, Fangmin Cheng, Zhixi Tian, Longbiao Guo, Yan Su, Meixian Yan, Hua Jiang, Guojun Dong, Yuchen Huang, Bin Han, Jiayang Li and Qian Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(9): 756-765
Published Online: June 28, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01065.x

Gelatinization temperature (GT) is an important parameter in evaluating the cooking and eating quality of rice. Indeed, the phenotype, biochemistry and inheritance of GT have been widely studied in recent times. Previous map-based cloning revealed that GT was controlled by ALK gene, which encodes a putative soluble starch synthase II-3. Complementation vector and RNAi vector were constructed and transformed into Nipponbare mediated by Agrobacterium. Phenotypic and molecular analyses of transgenic lines provided direct evidence for ALK as a key gene for GT. Meanwhile, amylose content, gel consistency and pasting properties were also affected in transgenic lines. Two of four nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in coding sequence of ALK were identified as essential for GT. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two new sets of SNP markers combined with one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker were developed for application in rice quality breeding.

Gao Z, Zeng D, Cheng F, Tian Z, Guo L, Su Y, Yan M, Jiang H, Dong G, Huang Y, Han B, Li J, Qian Q (2011) ALK, the key gene for gelatinization temperature, is a modifier gene for gel consistency in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(9), 756–765.

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