December 2011, Volume 53 Issue 12, Pages 916C983.

Cover Caption: Herbivore Attacks in Nicotiana attenuata
About the cover: N. attenuata plants develop through a rosette stage (ca. 31st day), two elongation stages (ca. 38th day) and a flowering stage (ca. 42nd day). Diezel et al. (pp 971C983) examined changes in jasmonic acid and ethylene contents after simulated herbivory attacks in N. attenuata. Leaf positions (0 is the leaf undergoing the source-sink transition) are shown in the upper left corner, and the yellow leaves were treated to simulate herbivore attacks at each growth stage (Cover design: Ying Wang).


A Bold Step Toward 2012: JIPB's 2011 Editorial Board Meeting Report  
Author: Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 916-919
Published Online: November 17, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01090.x

      The 2011 JIPB Editorial Board Meeting, which coincided with the 2011 International Symposium on Integrative Plant Biology, was held at Lanzhou University, China, on August 26, 2011. Over thirty editors were in attendance for this extremely productive event (Figure 1). The symposium, jointly organized by JIPB, Lanzhou University and four Chinese societies involved in plant science research, the Chinese Society for Cell Biology, Botanical Society of China, Genetics Society of China, and Chinese Society for Plant Physiology, drew nearly 400 participants from all over China and abroad.
      The board meeting commenced with an overview of the current situation and future prospective of the Journal, given by the Editor in Chief, Prof. Chun-Ming Liu, followed by a very encouraging market analysis of JIPB's market status as seen from the publisher's perspective, provided by Jason Hu from Wiley-Blackwell.
      It is clear that JIPB continues its steady progress in many aspects. JIPB has been indexed by 66 international abstract & indexing databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, SCIE, SCOPUS CA, BA and BIOSIS. Our circulation continues to grow by leaps, where subscriptions went from 9,400 in 2009 to 11,800 in 2010 (Figure 2), and the Journal is available in over 8,000 libraries worldwide, a 25% increase compared to 2009. Last year there were over 109,000 full text downloads compared to 62,000 in 2009 (Figure 3, cited from The Publisher’s Annual Report 2010).

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          Invited Expert Reviews
The Role of Phytochrome in Stress Tolerance
Author: Rogério Falleiros Carvalho, Marcelo Lattarulo Campos and Ricardo Antunes Azevedo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 920-929
Published Online: October 31, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01081.x

It is well-documented that phytochromes can control plant growth and development from germination to flowering. Additionally, these photoreceptors have been shown to modulate both biotic and abiotic stress. This has led to a series of studies exploring the molecular and biochemical basis by which phytochromes modulate stresses, such as salinity, drought, high light or herbivory. Evidence for a role of phytrochromes in plant stress tolerance is explored and reviewed.

Carvalho RF, Campos ML, Azevedo RA (2011) The role of phytochrome in stress tolerance. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 920–929.

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          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Subcellular Distribution of Glutathione Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana
Author: Barbara Eva Koffler, Romana Maier and Bernd Zechmann
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 930-941
Published Online: November 3, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01085.x

Glutathione is an important antioxidant and has many important functions in plant development, growth and defense. Glutathione synthesis and degradation is highly compartment-specific and relies on the subcellular availability of its precursors, cysteine, glutamate, glycine and γ-glutamylcysteine especially in plastids and the cytosol which are considered as the main centers for glutathione synthesis. The availability of glutathione precursors within these cell compartments is therefore of great importance for successful plant development and defense. The aim of this study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The subcellular distribution was compared between wild type plants (Col-0), plants with impaired glutathione synthesis (glutathione deficient pad2-1 mutant, wild type plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine), and one complemented line (OE3) with restored glutathione synthesis. Immunocytohistochemistry revealed that the inhibition of glutathione synthesis induced the accumulation of the glutathione precursors cysteine, glutamate and glycine in most cell compartments including plastids and the cytosol. A strong decrease could be observed in γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) contents in these cell compartments. These experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) – the first enzyme of glutathione synthesis – causes a reduction of γ-EC levels and an accumulation of all other glutathione precursors within the cells.

Koffler BE, Maier R, Zechmann B (2011) Subcellular distribution of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 930–941.

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Characterization of Three Homoeologous cDNAs Encoding Chloroplast-targeted Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Common Wheat  
Author: Yu Takenouchi, Haruka Nakajima, Kengo Kanamaru and Shigeo Takumi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 942-950
Published Online: November 2, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01083.x

In the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway of higher plants, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized by ALA dehydratase (ALAD). Here, we isolated ALAD1 cDNA from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its diploid progenitors, and produced transgenic tobacco plants expressing the wheat ALAD1 gene. The ALAD1 genes were highly conserved among wheat relatives, and three homoeologous loci of wheat ALAD1 (TaALAD1) were equally transcribed in common wheat. A transient expression assay of a TaALAD1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein suggested that TaALAD1 is localized in chloroplasts. Overexpression of TaALAD1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in a significant increase in ALAD activity in leaves. Moreover, the transgenic tobacco showed vigorous growth and increased survival rate on medium containing ALA at herbicidal concentrations. These results indicate that wheat ALAD1 has catalytic activity in metabolizing ALA in plastids, and that ectopic expression of TaALAD1 in transgenic plants increases their tolerance to ALA application at high concentrations.

Takenouchi Y, Nakajima H, Kanamaru K, Takumi S (2011) Characterization of three homoeologous cDNAs encoding chloroplast-targeted aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in common wheat. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 942–950.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
Ectopic Expression of FaDREB2 Enhances Osmotic Tolerance in Paper Mulberry
Author: Mei-Ru Li, Yan Li, Hong-Qing Li and Guo-Jiang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 951-960
Published Online: November 9, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01087.x

Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are a subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factors that have been shown to improve tolerance to osmotic stresses in plants. To improve the osmotic stress tolerance of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent), an economically important tree, we transformed it with a plasmid carrying tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) FaDREB2 under the control of CaMV 35S. The ectopic expression of FaDREB2 did not cause growth retardation, and the paper mulberry seedlings expressing FaDREB2 showed higher salt and drought tolerance than wild-type plants (WT). After 13 d of withholding water, or 15 d in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, all the WT plants died, while the plants expressing FaDREB2 survived. The FaDREB2 transgenic plants had higher leaf water and chlorophyll contents, accumulated more proline and soluble sugars, and had less membrane damage than the WT plants under high salt and water-deficient conditions. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility of improving tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry seedlings via genetic engineering, by introducing FaDREB2, which promotes the increased accumulation of osmolytes (soluble sugars and proline), to counter osmotic stresses caused by abiotic factors.

Li MR, Li Y, Li HQ, Wu GJ (2011) Ectopic expression of FaDREB2 enhances osmotic tolerance in paper mulberry. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 951–960.

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          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
RNA Editing Sites Exist in Protein-Coding Genes in the Chloroplast Genome of Cycas Taitungensis
Author: Haiyan Chen, Likun Deng, Yuan Jiang, Ping Lu and Jianing Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 961-970
Published Online: November 2, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01082.x

RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that results in modifications of ribonucleotides at specific locations. In land plants editing can occur in both mitochondria and chloroplasts and most commonly involves C-to-U changes, especially in seed plants. Using prediction and experimental determination, we investigated RNA editing in 40 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis. A total of 85 editing sites were identified in 25 transcripts. Comparison analysis of the published editotypes of these 25 transcripts in eight species showed that RNA editing events gradually disappear during plant evolution. The editing in the first and third codon position disappeared quicker than that in the second codon position. ndh genes have the highest editing frequency while serine and proline codons were more frequently edited than the codons of other amino acids. These results imply that retained RNA editing sites have imbalanced distribution in genes and most of them may function by changing protein structure or interaction. Mitochondrion protein-coding genes have three times the editing sites compared with chloroplast genes of Cycas, most likely due to slower evolution speed.

Chen H, Deng L, Jiang Y, Lu P, Yu J (2011) RNA editing sites exist in protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of Cycas taitungensis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 961–970.

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Mechanisms of Optimal Defense Patterns in Nicotiana attenuata: Flowering Attenuates Herbivory-elicited Ethylene and Jasmonate Signaling  
Author: Celia Diezel, Silke Allmann and Ian T. Baldwin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): 971-983
Published Online: November 6, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01086.x

To defend themselves against herbivore attack, plants produce secondary metabolites, which are variously inducible and constitutively deployed, presumably to optimize their fitness benefits in light of their fitness costs. Three phytohormones, jasmonates (JA) and their active forms, the JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and ethylene (ET), are known to play central roles in the elicitation of induced defenses, but little is known about how this mediation changes over ontogeny. The Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) predicts changes in the costs and benefits of the different types of defenses and has been usefully extrapolated to their modes of deployment. Here we studied whether the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA, JA-Ile and ET changed over ontogeny in Nicotiana attenuata, a native tobacco in which inducible defenses are particularly well studied. Herbivore-elicited ET production changed dramatically during six developmental stages, from rosette through flowering, decreasing with the elongation of the first corollas during flower development. This decrease was largely recovered within a day after flower removal by decapitation. A similar pattern was found for the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA and JA-Ile. These results are consistent with ODT predictions and suggest that the last steps in floral development control the inducibility of at least three plant hormones, optimizing defense-growth tradeoffs.

Diezel C, Allmann S, Baldwin IT (2011) Mechanisms of optimal defense patterns in Nicotiana attenuata: Flowering attenuates herbivory-elicited ethylene and jasmonate signaling. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(12), 971–983.

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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2011 53(12): i-ii
Published Online: December 13, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01096.x
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