January 2012, Volume 54 Issue 1, Pages 2ĘC64.


Cover Caption: Zygotic Activation in Arabidopsis
About the cover: Zygotic activation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Due to the inaccessibility of early embr -yos, how this process is regulated in plants remains very much unknown. Yu et al (pp 55ĘC64) performed genetic studies in Arabidopsis to identify zygotelethal mutants and showed that EMBRYONIC FACTOR 19 encodes a PPR protein that is essential for the initiation of zygotic embryogenesis. The cover picture shows the zygote lethal phenotype of the fac19 mutant.

 

          Editorial
New Year and New Board Members  
Author: Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 2-3
Published Online: December 8, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01095.x
      
    

      Following the winter holidays I look forward to the New Year of 2012, and would like to take the opportunity to express my sincere thanks to all the authors, reviewers and editors of JIPB. Indeed, the Journal thrives on their support.
      I am happy to announce that JIPB will be co-sponsoring the Workshop on Scientific Writing in Shanghai this April the 23rd to 24th, 2012. The workshop will take place on the campus of the School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The plenary speaker, Professor William J. Lucas from the University of California, Davis, is renowned for both his passion for teaching young students and for his highly insightful speeches. He is currently the Associate Editor for JIPB and The Plant Cell. As a highly respected and experienced scientist and editor, he will provide a unique insider’s perspective into high-ranking international journals. All plant biology researchers, graduate students, undergraduate students and editorial staff are welcome to join in the workshop. Please see www.jipb.net for details.
      JIPB draws continually on the great wealth of experience of its co-editors. I am especially grateful to the editors who took the time out of their busy schedules to work for JIPB. Though the length of a co-editor’s term is two years, and it is always sad to see old friends go, one of the excellent things about being editor-in-chief is that I have the opportunity to watch the Journal’s evolution which takes place over the change in editorial board composition. Indeed, over the years the focus of our journal has become more refined as a result of the varied interests of our co-editors, especially those who volunteer as special issue editors.
     In addition, I am very pleased to announce this year’s additions to the board. Prof. Mauro Cresti is from the University of Sienna, and specializes in pollen tube growth and plant sexual reproduction. Dr. Frans Tax is a professor at the University of Arizona and specializes in receptor kinases and hormone signaling in relation to growth and development. Prof. Vincent Bulone is from the Division of Glycoscience, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University, Sweden and works on plant cell walls and carbohydrates. His experience in carbohydrate metabolism, structure and cell wall engineering will be a new addition to the journal. Prof. Jurandir Magalhaes affiliates with Embrapa Maize and Sorgum, Brazil, with expertise in abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, I’d like to express my thanks to Prof. Jiankang Wang, Prof. Jose Luis Araus, and Prof. Hong Gil Nam for volunteering their time and expertise to participate in our upcoming special issues on “Methods in Crop Molecular Breeding” and “Plant Senescence” as our guest co-editors. At its present state, the board is represented by 77 prestigious
scientists from 14 countries, 47% from Asia (China, Japan, Korea and India), 32% from Europe (UK, Italy, Germany, France, Sweden, Finland, and the Netherlands), 18% from North America (USA), and 3% from other countries such as Australia and Brazil.
 

Chun-Ming Liu, Ph.D.
Editor-in-Chief

Abstract (Browse 1368)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Synthesis and Degradation of the Major Allergens in Developing and Germinating Soybean Seed
Author: Yong-Mei Wu, Rong-Xia Guan, Zhang-Xiong Liu, Run-Zhi Li, Ru-Zhen Chang and Li-Juan Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 4-14
Published Online: November 28, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01092.x
      
    

Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) allergens limiting the consumption of a good protein source for sensitive individuals. However, little is known about their temporal-spatial expression during seed development and upon germination. The present data shows that soy allergens accumulated in both the embryonic axes and cotyledon, but expression patterns differed depending on the specific allergen. Allergens accumulated sooner and to a greater level in cotyledons than in embryonic axes. Gly m Bd 28 began at 14 d after flowering, 7 to 14 d earlier than Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K. Comparatively, their degradation was faster and more profound in embryonic axes than in cotyledons. Gly m Bd 60K began to decline at 36 h after imbibition and remained detectable up to 108 h in cotyledons. In contrast, the Glym Bd 60K protein was reduced at 24 h, and eventually disappeared at 96 h . In cotyledons Gly m Bd 28K first declined at 24 h, then increased from 36 h to 48 h, followed by its large reduction at 72 h after seed germination. These findings provide useful information on soy allergen biosynthesis and will help move forward towards developing a hypoallergenic soybean for safer food.

Wu YM, Guan RX, Liu ZX, Li RZ, Chang RZ, Qiu LJ (2012) Synthesis and degradation of the major allergens in developing and germinating soybean seed. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(1), 4–14.

Abstract (Browse 1407)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Characterization of the Tomato Prosystemin Promoter: Organ-Specific Expression, Hormone Specificity and Methyl Jasmonate Responsiveness by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  
Author: Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut and John Paul Délano-Frier
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 15-32
Published Online: November 2, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01084.x
      
    

Tomato systemin is a bioactive peptide that regulates the systemic activation of wound-responsive genes. It is released from its 200 amino acid precursor called prosystemin. Initial tissue-localization and hormone-induced expression assays indicated that the tomato prosystemin gene (SlPS) accumulates mainly in floral tissues and in response to exogenous abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments, respectively. Later, the promoter regions of the PS gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Castlemart), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) were isolated and an in silico analysis of the SlPS promoter revealed an over-representation of stress- and MeJA-responsive motifs. A subsequent 5′ deletion analysis of the SlPS promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter (GUS) gene showed that the –221 to +40 bp proximal SlPS promoter region was sufficient to direct the stigma, vascular bundle-specific and MeJA-responsive expression of GUS in transgenic tobacco plants. Important vascular-tissue-specific, light- and MeJA-responsive cis-elements were also present in this region. These findings provide relevant information regarding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the SlPS promoter operating in transgenic tobacco plants. They also suggest that its tissue-specificity and inducible nature could have wide applicability in plant biotechnology.

Avil´es-Arnaut H, D´elano-Frier JP (2012) Characterization of the tomato prosystemin promoter: organ-specific expression, hormone specificity and methyl jasmonate responsiveness by deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(1), 15–32.

Abstract (Browse 2268)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Dark-Induced Senescence in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Author: Hongwei Li, Fanyun Lin, Gui Wang, Ruilian Jing, Qi Zheng, Bin Li and Zhensheng Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 33-44
Published Online: November 16, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01088.x
      
    

In order to explore the genetics of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid population developed from a cross between the varieties Hanxuan 10 (HX) and Lumai 14 (LM). The senescence parameters chlorophyll content (Chl a+b, Chl a, and Chl b), original fluorescence (Fo), maximum fluorescence level (Fm), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and ratio of variable fluorescence to original fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were evaluated in the second leaf of whole three-leaf seedlings subjected to 7 d of darkness. A total of 43 QTLs were identified that were associated with dark-induced senescence using composite interval mapping. These QTLs were mapped to 20 loci distributed on 11 chromosomes: 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3B, 3D, 5D, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B. The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 7.5% to 19.4%. Eleven loci coincided with two or more of the analyzed parameters. In addition, 14 loci co-located or were linked with previously reported QTLs regulating flag leaf senescence, tolerance to high light stress, and grain protein content (Gpc), separately.

Li H, Lin F, Wang G, Jing R, Zheng Q, Li B, Li Z (2012) Quantitative trait loci mapping of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(1), 33–44.

Abstract (Browse 1282)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Soybean Ferritin: Isolation, Characterization, and Free Radical Generation  
Author: Andrea Galatro, Elizabeth Robello and Susana Puntarulo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 45-54
Published Online: November 23, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01091.x
      
    

The main aim of this work was to assess the multi-task role of ferritin (Ft) in the oxidative metabolism of soybean (Glycine max). Soybean seeds incubated for 24 h yielded 41 ± 5 μg Ft/g fresh weight. The rate of in vitro incorporation of iron (Fe) into Ft was tested by supplementing the reaction medium with physiological Fe chelators. The control rate, observed in the presence of 100 μM Fe, was not significantly different from the values observed in the presence of 100 μM Fe-his. However, it was significantly higher in the presence of 100 μM Fe-citrate (approximately 4.5-fold) or of 100 μM Fe-ATP (approximately 14-fold). Moreover, a substantial decrease in the Trp-dependent fluorescence of the Ft protein was determined during Fe uptake from Fe-citrate, as compared with the control. On the other hand, Ft addition to homogenates from soybean embryonic axes reduced endogenously generated ascorbyl radical, according to its capacity for Fe uptake. The data presented here suggest that Ft could be involved in the generation of free radicals, such as hydroxyl radical, by Fe-catalyzed reactions. Moreover, the scavenging of these radicals by Ft itself could then lead to protein damage. However, Ft could also prevent cellular damage by the uptake of catalytically active Fe.

Galatro A, Robello E, Puntarulo S (2012) Soybean ferritin: Isolation, characterization, and free radical generation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(1), 45–54.

Abstract (Browse 1301)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant Reproduction Biology
EMBRYONIC FACTOR 19 Encodes a Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein that is Essential for the Initiation of Zygotic Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis
Author: Dali Yu, Li Jiang, Huaqin Gong and Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(1): 55-64
Published Online: November 21, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2011.01089.x
      
    

Early embryogenesis is the most fundamental developmental process in biology. Screening of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized populations of Arabidopsis thaliana led to the identification of a zygote-lethal mutant embryonic factor 19 (fac19) in which embryo development was arrested at the elongated zygote to octant stage. The number of endosperm nuclei decreased significantly in fac19 embryos. Genetic analysis showed fac19 was caused by a single recessive mutation with typical mendelian segregation, suggesting equal maternal and paternal contributions of FAC19 towards zygotic embryogenesis. Positional cloning showed that FAC19 encodes a putative mitochondrial protein with 16 conserved pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. The fac19 mutation caused a conversion from hydrophilic serine located in a previously unknown domain to hydrophobic leucine. Crosses between FAC19/fac19 and the T-DNA insertion mutants in the same gene failed to complement the fac19 defects, confirming the identity of the gene. This study revealed the critical importance of a PPR protein-mediated mitochondrial function in early embryogenesis.

Yu D, Jiang L, Gong H, Liu CM (2012) EMBRYONIC FACTOR 19 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein that is essential for the initiation of zygotic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(1), 55–64.

Abstract (Browse 1543)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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