February 2012, Volume 54 Issue 2, Pages 66ĘC130.


Cover Caption: Man-made Male Sterile Technology
About the cover: Male sterility is a highly valuable technology in modern agriculture, as it provides economic means to produce hybrid seeds and may also reduce the risk of 'gene-flow' from genetically-modified crops to sounding species. However, this technology is useful only in few crops, with cytoplasmic male sterility and nuclear controlled restoration traits available. The paper of Shaya et al. (pp 115ĘC129) reports a novel technology for generating male sterility in tobacco based on the expression of a truncated mitochondrial gene fragments in the nuclei.

 

          Invited Expert Reviews
Plant and Yeast NHX Antiporters: Roles in Membrane Trafficking  
Author: Quan-Sheng Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(2): 66-72
Published Online: January 6, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01097.x
      
    

The plant NHX gene family encodes Na+/H+ antiporters which are crucial for salt tolerance, potassium homeostasis and cellular pH regulation. Understanding the role of NHX antiporters in membrane trafficking is becoming an increasingly interesting subject of study. Membrane trafficking is a central cellular process during which proteins, lipids and polysaccharides are continuously exchanged among membrane compartments. Yeast ScNhx1p, a prevacuole/ vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter, plays an important role in regulating pH to control trafficking out of the endosome. Evidence begins to accumulate that plant NHX antiporters might function in regulating membrane trafficking in plants.

Qiu QS (2012) Plant and yeast NHX antiporters: Roles in membrane trafficking. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(2), 66–72.

Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Global Analysis of Non-coding Small RNAs in Arabidopsis in Response to Jasmonate Treatment by Deep Sequencing Technology
Author: Bosen Zhang, Zhiping Jin and Daoxin Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(2): 73-86
Published Online: January 6, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01098.x
      
    

In plants, non-coding small RNAs play a vital role in plant development and stress responses. To explore the possible role of non-coding small RNAs in the regulation of the jasmonate (JA) pathway, we compared the non-coding small RNAs between the JA-deficient aos mutant and the JA-treated wild type Arabidopsis via high-throughput sequencing. Thirty new miRNAs and 27 new miRNA candidates were identified through bioinformatics approach. Forty-nine known miRNAs (belonging to 24 families), 15 new miRNAs and new miRNA candidates (belonging to 11 families) and 3 tasiRNA families were induced by JA, whereas 1 new miRNA, 1 tasiRNA family and 22 known miRNAs (belonging to 9 families) were repressed by JA.

Zhang B, Xie D, Jin Z (2012) Global analysis of non-coding small RNAs in Arabidopsis in response to jasmonate treatment by deep sequencing technology. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(2), 73–86.

Abstract (Browse 1593)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
A Mutation of OSOTP 51 Leads to Impairment of Photosystem I Complex Assembly and Serious Photo-damage in Rice
Author: Jian-Wei Ye, Zi-Ying Gong, Chun-Guang Chen, Hua-Ling Mi and Gen-Yun Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(2): 87-98
Published Online: December 20, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01094.x
      
    

Gene expression in chloroplasts is regulated by many nuclear-encoded proteins. In this study, we isolated a rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) mutant osotp51 with significant reduction in photosystem I (PSI). The osotp51 is extremely sensitive to light and accumulates a higher level of reactive oxygen species. Its leaves are almost albino when grown at 40 μmol photons/m2 per s. However, grown at 4 μmol photons/m2 per s, osotp51 has a similar phenotype to the wild-type. 77K chlorophyll fluorescence analysis showed a blue shift in the highest peak emission from PSI in osotp51. In addition, the level of PSI and PSII dimer is dramatically reduced in osotp51. OSOTP 51 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeats protein, homologous to organelle transcript processing 51 in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function OSOTP51 affects intron splicing of a number of plastid genes, particularly the ycf3 coding a protein involved in the assembly of PSI complex. OSOTP51 is functionally conserved in higher plants. The mutation of osotp51 indirectly leads to a widespread change in the structure and functions of PSI, results in severe photoinhibition, and finally dies, even when grown under very low light intensity.

Ye JW, Gong ZY, Chen CG, Mi HL, Chen GY (2012) A mutation of OSOTP 51 leads to impairment of photosystem I complex assembly and serious photo-damage in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(2), 87–98.

Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Arabidopsis Plants Having Defects in Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay Factors UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3 Show Photoperiod-dependent Phenotypes in Development and Stress Responses
Author: Chuan Shi, Ian T. Baldwin and Jianqiang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(2): 99-114
Published Online: December 14, 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01093.x
      
    

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an important mRNA quality surveillance pathway in all eukaryotes that eliminates aberrant mRNAs derived from various sources. Three NMD factor proteins, UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3 are required for the NMD process and were found to be also involved in certain stress responses in mammalian and yeast cells. Using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants of UPF1 and UPF3 and UPF2-silenced lines (irUPF2), we examined the involvement of UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3 in development and in response to stresses, wounding and infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000. Under the long (16 h) photoperiod condition, Arabidopsis having a defect in NMD factors exhibited altered morphologies of various organs, disturbed homeostasis of wounding-induced jasmonic acid and pathogen-elicited salicylic acid, and abnormal wounding- and methyl jasmonate-induced changes in the transcript levels of two defense-related genes, LOX2 and VSP2. Importantly, when plants were cultivated under the short (10 h) photoperiod condition, mutants of UPF1 and UPF3 and irUPF2 showed smaller differences from the wild-type plants in growth and stress-induced responses. These data suggest a complex regulatory network, likely composed of light signaling and NMD factor-mediated pathways, in influencing plant development and adaption to environmental stresses.

Shi C, Baldwin IT, Wu J (2012) Arabidopsis plants having defects in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factors UPF1, UPF2, and UPF3 show photoperiod-dependent phenotypes in development and stress responses. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(2), 99–114.

Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant Reproduction Biology
Expression of Mitochondrial Gene Fragments within the Tapetum Induce Male Sterility by Limiting the Biogenesis of the Respiratory Machinery in Transgenic Tobacco  
Author: Felix Shaya, Svetlana Gaiduk, Ido Keren, Sofia Shevtsov, Hanita Zemah, Eduard Belausov, Dalia Evenor, Moshe Reuveni and Oren Ostersetzer-Biran
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(2): 115-129
Published Online: January 6, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01099.x
      
    

Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) are large and undergo frequent recombination events. A common phenotype that emerges as a consequence of altered mtDNA structure is cytoplasmic-male sterility (CMS). The molecular basis for CMS remains unclear, but it seems logical that altered respiration activities would result in reduced pollen production. Analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mtDNAs indicated that CMS-associated loci often contain fragments of known organellar genes. These may assemble with organellar complexes and thereby interfere with normal respiratory functions. Here, we analyzed whether the expression of truncated fragments of mitochondrial genes (i.e. atp4, cox1 and rps3) may induce male sterility by limiting the biogenesis of the respiratory machinery. cDNA fragments corresponding to atp4f, cox1f and rps3f were cloned in-frame to a mitochondrial localization signal and a C-termini HA-tag under a tapetum-specific promoter and introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constructs were then analyzed for their effect on mitochondrial activity and pollen fertility. Atp4f, Cox1f and Rps3f plants demonstrated male sterility phenotypes, which were tightly correlated with the expression of the recombinant fragments in the floral meristem. Fractionation of native organellar extracts showed that the recombinant ATP4f-HA, COX1f-HA and RPS3f-HA proteins are found in large membrane-associated particles. Analysis of the respiratory activities and protein profiles indicated that organellar complex I was altered in Atp4f, Cox1f and Rps3f plants.

Shaya F, Gaiduk S, Keren I, Shevtsov S, Zemah H, Belausov E, Evenor D, Reuveni M, Ostersetzer-Biran O (2012) Expression of mitochondrial gene fragments within the tapetum induce male sterility by limiting the biogenesis of the respiratory machinery in transgenic tobacco. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(2), 115–129.

Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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