Special Issue: JIPB¡¯s 60th Anniversary   

October 2012, Volume 54 Issue 10, Pages 678¨C827.

Cover Caption: JIPB¡¯s 60th Anniversary
About the cover: This year marks the 60th anniversary of JIPB. Throughout its history, JIPB has persisted through difficult times such as China¡¯s Cultural Revolution, and has undergone radical changes from being a Chinese national journal named Acta Botanica Sinica, to becoming an international journal named Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. The cover figure shows JIPB¡¯s evolution and progress since its founding in 1952.


From Acta Botanica Sinica to JIPB: Connecting Chinese Plant Science with the International Community for 60 Years  
Author: Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 671-681
Published Online: September 7, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01162.x

In 1952, when botany was still regarded as a “new science” in China, a quarterly journal named Acta Botanica Sinica (ABS) was established by the Botanical Society of China. Dr. Shih-Wei Loo received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology (CIT) in 1945, and was appointed as the journal’s first Editor-in-Chief for his achievements in plant biology (Tang and Loo 1940; Loo and Wang 1943). Since then, the journal has continuously nourished the growth of many Chinese botanists, except for a 5-year hiatus during the arduous Cultural Revolution period between 1967 and 1972. By 1989, the journal began publishing monthly.

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60 Years of Development of the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology  
Author: Jinzhong Cui, Ping He, Fenghong Liu, Jingjing Tan, Lingfeng Chen and Joshua Fenn
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 682-702
Published Online: September 11, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01163.x

In celebration of JIPB's 60th anniversary, this paper summarizes and reviews the development process of the journal. To start, we offer our heartfelt thanks to JIPB's pioneer Editors-in-Chief who helped get the journal off the ground and make it successful. Academic achievement is the soul of academic journals, and this paper summarizes JIPB's course of academic development by analyzing it in four stages: the first two stages are mostly qualitative analyses, and the latter two stages are dedicated to quantitative analyses. Most-cited papers were statistically analyzed. Improvements in editing, publication, distribution and online accessibility—which are detailed in this paper—contribute to JIPB's sustainable development. In addition, JIPB's evaluation index and awards are provided with accompanying pictures. At the end of the paper, JIPB's milestones are listed chronologically. We believe that JIPB's development, from a national journal to an international one, parallels the development of the Chinese plant sciences.

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          Invited Expert Reviews
Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Secondary Metabolism  
Author: Chang-Qing Yang, Xin Fang, Xiu-Ming Wu, Ying-Bo Mao, Ling-Jian Wang and Xiao-Ya Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 703-712
Published Online: September 4, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01161.x

Plant secondary metabolites play critical roles in plant-environment interactions. They are synthesized in different organs or tissues at particular developmental stages, and in response to various environmental stimuli, both biotic and abiotic. Accordingly, corresponding genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by multiple transcription factors. Several families of transcription factors have been identified to participate in controlling the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. These regulators integrate internal (often developmental) and external signals, bind to corresponding cis-elements — which are often in the promoter regions — to activate or repress the expression of enzyme-coding genes, and some of them interact with other transcription factors to form a complex. In this review, we summarize recent research in these areas, with an emphasis on newly-identified transcription factors and their functions in metabolism regulation.

Yang CQ, Fang X, Wu XM, Mao YB, Wang LJ, Chen XY (2012) Transcriptional regulation of plant secondary metabolism. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 703–712.

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Satellite-based Studies on Large-Scale Vegetation Changes in China  
Author: Xia Zhao, Daojing Zhou and Jingyun Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 713-728
Published Online: September 13, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01167.x

Remotely-sensed vegetation indices, which indicate the density and photosynthetic capacity of vegetation, have been widely used to monitor vegetation dynamics over broad areas. In this paper, we reviewed satellite-based studies on vegetation cover changes, biomass and productivity variations, phenological dynamics, desertification, and grassland degradation in China that occurred over the past 2–3 decades. Our review shows that the satellite-derived index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) during growing season and the vegetation net primary productivity in major terrestrial ecosystems (for example forests, grasslands, shrubs, and croplands) have significantly increased, while the number of fresh lakes and vegetation coverage in urban regions have experienced a substantial decline. The start of the growing season continually advanced in China's temperate regions until the 1990s, with a large spatial heterogeneity. We also found that the coverage of sparsely-vegetated areas declined, and the NDVI per unit in vegetated areas increased in arid and semi-arid regions because of increased vegetation activity in grassland and oasis areas. However, these results depend strongly not only on the periods chosen for investigation, but also on factors such as data sources, changes in detection methods, and geospatial heterogeneity. Therefore, we should be cautious when applying remote sensing techniques to monitor vegetation structures, functions, and changes.

Zhao X, Zhou D, Fang J (2012) Satellite-based studies on large-scale vegetation changes in China. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 713–728.

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Pathways for Epidermal Cell Differentiation via the Homeobox Gene GLABRA2: Update on the Roles of the Classic Regulator  
Author: Qing Lin and Takashi Aoyama
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 729-737
Published Online: September 3, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01159.x

Recent plant development studies have identified regulatory pathways for epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, some of such pathways contain transcriptional networks with a common structure in which the homeobox gene GLABLA2 (GL2) is downstream of the transactivation complex consisting of MYB, bHLH, and WD40 proteins. Here, we review the role of GL2 as an output device of the conserved network, and update the knowledge of epidermal cell differentiation pathways downstream of GL2. Despite the consistent position of GL2 within the network, its role in epidermal tissues varies; in the root epidermis, GL2 promotes non-hair cell differentiation after cell pattern formation, whereas in the leaf epidermis, it is likely to be involved in both pattern formation and differentiation of trichomes. GL2 expression levels act as quantitative factors for initiation of cell differentiation in the root and leaf epidermis; the quantity of hairless cells in non-root hair cell files is reduced by gl2 mutations in a semi-dominant manner, and entopically additive expression of GL2 and a heterozygous gl2 mutation increase and decrease the number of trichomes, respectively. Although few direct target genes have been identified, evidence from genetic and expression analyses suggests that GL2 directly regulates genes with various hierarchies in epidermal cell differentiation pathways.

Qing L, Aoyama T (2012) Pathways for epidermal cell differentiation via the homeobox gene GLABRA2: Update on the roles of the classic regulator. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 729–737.

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CLE Peptides in Plants: Proteolytic Processing, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Ligand-Receptor Interaction  
Author: Xiaoming Gao and Yongfeng Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 738-745
Published Online: August 24, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01154.x

Ligand-receptor signaling initiated by the CLAVATA3/ ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) family peptides is critical in regulating cell division and differentiation in meristematic tissues in plants. Biologically active CLE peptides are released from precursor proteins via proteolytic processing. The mature form of CLE ligands consists of 12–13 amino acids with several post-translational modifications. This review summarizes recent progress toward understanding the proteolytic activities that cleave precursor proteins to release CLE peptides, the molecular structure and function of mature CLE ligands, and interactions between CLE ligands and corresponding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases (RLKs).

Gao X, Guo Y (2012) CLE peptides in plants: Proteolytic processing, structure-activity relationship, and ligand-receptor interaction. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 738–745.

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Regulation of Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis and Inactivation  
Author: Baolin Zhao and Jia Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 746-759
Published Online: September 10, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01168.x

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of naturally-occurring steroidal phytohormones playing fundamental roles during normal plant growth and development. Using a combination of experimental approaches, including analytical chemistry, genetics, and biochemistry, the major BR biosynthetic pathway has been largely elucidated. The least-understood knowledge in the BR research field is probably the molecular mechanisms controlling the bioactive levels of BRs in response to various developmental and environmental cues. In this review, we focus our discussion on a recently-proposed, 8-step predominant BR biosynthetic pathway, several newly-identified transcription factors regulating the expression of key enzymes that catalyze BR biosynthesis, and up-to-date information about the mechanisms that plants use to inactivate unnecessary BRs.

Zhao B, Li J (2012) Regulation of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and inactivation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 746–759.

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          Research Articles
Phloem-Mobile Aux/IAA Transcripts Target to the Root Tip and Modify Root Architecture  
Author: Michitaka Notaguchi, Shmuel Wolf and William J. Lucas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 760-772
Published Online: August 24, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01155.x

In plants, the phloem is the component of the vascular system that delivers nutrients and transmits signals from mature leaves to developing sink tissues. Recent studies have identified proteins, mRNA, and small RNA within the phloem sap of several plant species. It is now of considerable interest to elucidate the biological functions of these potential long-distance signal agents, to further our understanding of how plants coordinate their developmental programs at the whole-plant level. In this study, we developed a strategy for the functional analysis of phloem-mobile mRNA by focusing on IAA transcripts, whose mobility has previously been reported in melon (Cucumis melo cv. Hale's Best Jumbo). Indoleacetic acid (IAA) proteins are key transcriptional regulators of auxin signaling, and are involved in a broad range of developmental processes including root development. We used a combination of vasculature-enriched sampling and hetero-grafting techniques to identify IAA18 and IAA28 as phloem-mobile transcripts in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Micro-grafting experiments were used to confirm that these IAA transcripts, which are generated in vascular tissues of mature leaves, are then transported into the root system where they negatively regulate lateral root formation. Based on these findings, we present a model in which auxin distribution, in combination with phloem-mobile Aux/IAA transcripts, can determine the sites of auxin action.

Notaguchi M, Wolf S, Lucas WJ (2012) Phloem-mobile Aux/IAA transcripts target to the root tip and modify root architecture. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 760–772.

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Pollen Morphology of the Platycodonoid Group (Campanulaceae s. str.) and Its Systematic Implications  
Author: De-Yuan Hong and Kai-Yu Pan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 773-789
Published Online: September 10, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01164.x

In this study, we examined the pollen morphology of the platycodonoid group in Campanulaceae s. str. using a scanning electronic microscope. We used pollen grains of 25 accessions representing 24 species of the Codonopsis complex (including Campanumoea, Cyclocodon, Leptocodon, and all three subgenera of Codonopsis), which is extremely controversial among authors for taxonomic treatment. Pollen morphology of all the other genera in the group observed by previous authors is taken into account in our discussion. A total of nine pollen types with two subtypes in the group were recognized and named for the first time. Molecular and morphological data imply that each pollen type corresponds to a natural group at generic level, and thus the mergence of Leptocodon with Codonopsis and the restoration of Cyclocodon as a separate genus are justifiable, and Codonopsis subg. Pseudocodonopsis, subg. Obconicicapsula, and two species of Codonopsis subg. Codonopsis (C. purpurea and C. chimiliensis) may be better classified as three independent genera separate from the core Codonopsis.

Hong DY, Pan KY (2012) Pollen morphology of the platycodonoid group (campanulaceae s. str.) and its systematic implications. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 773–789.

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LHD1, an Allele of DTH8/Ghd8, Controls Late Heading Date in Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon)  
Author: Xiaodong Dai, Younian Ding, Lubin Tan, Yongcai Fu, Fengxia Liu, Zuofeng Zhu, Xianyou Sun, Xuewen Sun, Ping Gu, Hongwei Cai and Chuanqing Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 790-799
Published Online: September 10, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01166.x

Flowering at suitable time is very important for plants to adapt to complicated environments and produce their seeds successfully for reproduction. In rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) photoperiod regulation is one of the important factors for controlling heading date. Common wild rice, the ancestor of cultivated rice, exhibits a late heading date and a more sensitive photoperiodic response than cultivated rice. Here, through map-based cloning, we identified a major quantitative trait loci (QTL) LHD1 (Late Heading Date 1), an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, which controls the late heading date of wild rice and encodes a putative HAP3/NF-YB/CBF-A subunit of the CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor. Sequence analysis revealed that several variants in the coding region of LHD1 were correlated with a late heading date, and a further complementary study successfully rescued the phenotype. These results suggest that a functional site for LHD1 could be among those variants present in the coding region. We also found that LHD1 could down-regulate the expression of several floral transition activators such as Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions, but not under short-day conditions. This indicates that LHD1 may delay flowering by repressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions.

Dai X, Ding Y, Tan L, Fu Y, Liu F, Zhu Z, Sun X, Sun X, Gu P, Cai H, Sun C (2012) LHD1, an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, controls late heading date in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 790–799.

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An Arabidopsis Class II Formin, AtFH19, Nucleates Actin Assembly, Binds to the Barbed End of Actin Filaments and Antagonizes the Effect of AtFH1 on Actin Dynamics  
Author: Yiyan Zheng, Haibo Xin, Jinxing Lin, Chunming Liu and Shanjin Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 800-813
Published Online: September 4, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01160.x

Formin is a major protein responsible for regulating the nucleation of actin filaments, and as such, it permits the cell to control where and when to assemble actin arrays. It is encoded by a multigene family comprising 21 members in Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis formins can be separated into two phylogenetically-distinct classes: there are 11 class I formins and 10 class II formins. Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation and elongation stimulated by each formin isovariant, and how the different isovariants coordinate to regulate actin dynamics in cells. Here, we characterize a class II formin, AtFH19, biochemically. We found that AtFH19 retains all general properties of the formin family, including nucleation and barbed end capping activity. It can also generate actin filaments from a pool of actin monomers bound to profilin. However, both the nucleation and barbed end capping activities of AtFH19 are less efficient compared to those of another well-characterized formin, AtFH1. Interestingly, AtFH19 FH1FH2 competes with AtFH1 FH1FH2 in binding actin filament barbed ends, and inhibits the effect of AtFH1 FH1FH2 on actin. We thus propose a mechanism in which two quantitatively different formins coordinate to regulate actin dynamics by competing for actin filament barbed ends.

Zheng Y, Xin H, Lin J, Liu CM, Huang S (2012) An Arabidopsis class II formin, AtFH19, nucleates actin assembly, binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, and antagonizes the effect of AtFH1 on actin dynamics. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 800–813.

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Four Closely-related RING-type E3 Ligases, APD1¨C4, are Involved in Pollen Mitosis II Regulation in Arabidopsis  
Author: Guo Luo, Hongya Gu, Jingjing Liu and Li-Jia Qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2012 54(10): 814-827
Published Online: September 19, 2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01152.x

Ubiquitination of proteins is one of the critical regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. In higher plants, protein ubiquitination plays an essential role in many biological processes, including hormone signaling, photomorphogenesis, and pathogen defense. However, the roles of protein ubiquitination in the reproductive process are not clear. In this study, we identified four plant-specific RING-finger genes designated Aberrant Pollen Development 1 (APD1) to APD4, as regulators of pollen mitosis II (PMII) in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.). The apd1 apd2 double mutant showed a significantly increased percentage of bicellular-like pollen at the mature pollen stage. Further downregulation of the APD3 and APD4 transcripts in apd1 apd2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in more severe abnormal bicellular-like pollen phenotypes than in apd1 apd2, suggesting that cell division was defective in male gametogenesis. All of the four genes were expressed in multiple stages at different levels during male gametophyte development. Confocal analysis using green florescence fusion proteins (GFP) GFP-APD1 and GFP-APD2 showed that APDs are associated with intracellular membranes. Furthermore, APD2 had E2-dependent E3 ligase activity in vitro, and five APD2-interacting proteins were identified. Our results suggest that these four genes may be involved, redundantly, in regulating the PMII process during male gametogenesis.

Luo G, Gu H, Liu J, Qu LJ (2012) Four closely-related RING-type E3 ligases, APD1–4, are involved in pollen mitosis II regulation in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(10), 814–827.

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