January 1964, Volume 12 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Platymonas Found in Tsingtao and Their Morphological Variations
Author: Chang Te-jui, Zheng Bao-fu and Tang Zhi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    1. After studying the cultures of unicellular origin for more than two years, we have determined two species of Platymonas collected at Tsingtao--a new variety of Pl. helgolandica Kylin, i.e., Pl. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis Tseng et T. J. Chang var. nov*., and Pl. subcordiformis (Wille) Hazen. As compared with Pl. helgolandica var. helgolandica (with 2 to 9 stigmata), the new variety has, generally, only one stigma, and rarely 2 to 4; while the overall size varies more greatly, its length being from 16 to 30米. 2. The size and shape of both Pl. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Pl. subcordiformis are greatly affected by their living conditions and the flatness of their body shape is a matter of relativity. For instances, when cultured in fresh culture solution and favourable temperature, and under the condition in which the cell division is more rapid, they are smaller and flattened, even have a dorsoventral distinction, but while in old culture solution and low temperature, and under slow or non-dividing condition, they are larger and the transverse view of the body gradually becomes roundish. 3. The stigma position of Pl. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis is inconstant. When smaller, the single stigma lies generally near the pyrenoid, but after having grown old and large, it shifts to the anterior part of the body. The multi-stigmatic phenomenon oc- curs only in the period of transition from the smaller to the larger. On the other hand, the stigma position of Pl. subcordiformis is more constant and always adjacent to the pyrenoid. 4. Cyst formation occurs in both species when the culture becomes old, but on experiment with Pl. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis for more than one year, it proves that if the organism is continuously maintained in fresh culture solution, it will divide and redivide, but the cell never becomes large and no cyst formation occurs. 5. The rotation and, eventually, the inversion of the daughter protoplasts during cell division, as having been already well described by Zimmermann (1924), occur constantly in both species, and in fact, the strongly flattened and dorsoventral structure of the young Platymonas is principally owing to the inversing behaviour of the daughter protoplasts and the moulding influence of the mother cell wall. 6. In the old culture of Pl. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis, a rather rare and strange phenomenon was observed, i.e., some individuals were joined together in pairs in various manners while still moving about freely. This is described and interpreted here rather tentatively. 7. The limitation between the genera Platymonas and Pyramichlamys and that between the species Pl. subcordiformis, Pl. tetrathele and Pl. helgolandica are discussed also.
Abstract (Browse 2101)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histochemical Localization of Various Enzymes in Plant Vascular Bundles, with Special Reference to Their Significance in Transportation of Organic Substance
Author: Kuo Chi-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    Histochemical studies on the distribution of cytochrome oxidase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phophatase, and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) had been carried out on the growing cucurbita stem by the technique of cold free-hand section. The results obtained in this investigation are briefly summarized as following: 1. The activity of these enzymes described above is higher in the vascular bundle than that in the epidermal and ground tissues. 2. All of these enzymes are present in both the companion cells and the sieve cells, but only three of them (polyphenol oxidase, acid phosphatase, and ATPase) are observed in the xylem parenchyma. 3. It is remarkable to note that the cytochrome oxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and acid phosphatase are also demonstrated in the glandular hairs of the stem epidermis. 4. The cytochrome oxidase which is not usually present in the xylem parenchyma cells, may be found to be present in such cells at the areas with higher metabolic rate, such as in the internodes next to the apical meristem and in the pedicels of the female flowers or of the young fruits. 5. In addition to cytoplasm, the peroxidase also appears on the cell wall and on the cytoplasmic membrane. Similar result was obtained by biochemical analysis. The results presented here in this investigation demonstrate clearly that an intensive enzymatic activity does occur in the vascular bundles of the growing stem. This is of significance because it suggests that the presence of these enzymes in such tissue may participate actively in the transportation mechanism of organic substances.
Abstract (Browse 1784)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Sources of Grain Material, the Mobilization and Redistribution of Material among Organs and between Culms of the Wheat Plant, and the Soil Moisture Effect
Author: Yu Shu-veng, Wang Huai-chi, Chien Jen and Yin Hung-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    Experiments were carried out with wheat plant in pot cultures to assess the contributions to grain material from assimilation by different organs during the ripening period and from reserve material in these organs, and to evaluate the amount of trans- located material between culms. The influence of soil moisture on these processes was also investigated. Twelve treatments (defoliation, deearing) were made as shown in Fig. 1. Only the main stem and the largest tiller were kept in each plant and subjected to these treatments at the time of ear emergence; the remaining tillers had been removed at an earlier stage. Two levels of soil moisture, namely 20% and 15% to soil dry weight, were maintained during the post-ear emergence period. The results may be summarized as follows. 1. The dry weight gained from current photosynthesis after ear emergence nearly equals to the dry weight of grains (Table 1). The substances lost from vegetative parts amount to no more than 10% of the grain weight if they were all translocated to the ear. Decrease of the carbohydrate supply to the ear by either defoliation or drought, or both, causes an increased drain on the reserve material in the vegetative parts, but the maximum amount does not exceed 1/3 of the grain weight. The translocated material comes mainly from the stem, its amount being determined primarily by the relative supply and demand. 2. The most important organ of dry matter production during the ripening period is the leaf-blades. The ear and the stem plus sheath make approximately equal contributions (Table 2). Under our experimental condition, the leaf-blades contribute about 2/3, and the ear and the stem plus sheath about 1/6 each to the total net assimilation. Difficiency of soil water leads to a considerable reduction in the assimilation by leaf-blades, while that of other organs is little affected (Table 5). 3. The removal of leaf-blades enhances the assimilatory activity of the remaining stem, sheath, and ear, indicating the existence of a compensatory reaction between the various green organs (Table 2). The amount compensated is, however, not large, being only about 1/5每1/3 of their original assimilation, and can make up only 1/10每2/10 of the loss due to defoliation. If there is another available source of material such as a leaf-bearing culm on the plant, no compensatory reaction can be observed. 4. The assimilation of the leaf and stem is markedly inhibited after the removal of the ear. The inhibition may amount to 80%每90% of their original assimilatory capacity. No inhibition is observed if there is a leafless culm on the plant. The absolute amount of inhibition is smaller when the assimilation of leaf-blades is low due to water shortage. 5. There is no translocation of assimilates under ordinary conditions between earbearing culms. Transport takes place only when there is a great difference in supply and demand between them. A defoliated culm can derive 1/2每3/4 of its grain weight from another intact culm (Tables 2, 5). 6. Removal of the aerial part of one culm at earing stage makes the remaining culm grow better than when both are present. Apparently the higher root/top ratio improves the water supply and the assimilatory activity (Tables 7, 8).
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Presence of Two Light-Dependent Enzymatic Processes Accompanying Fluorescence Decay in Wheat Leaves during Photosynthesis
Author: P.C. Chow, S.C. Lin, Z.C. Chu, K.F. Shien and P.S. Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    Excised leaves of wheat (var. Lungta 183) previously kept in the dark for 30 minutes were illuminated with light of wave lengths shorter than 525 米m and the time course of their fluorescence decay was followed at 685 米m for up to 6 minutes (or longer) in respect to temperature and certain metabolic inhibitors. The intensity of fluorescence decreased from an initial maximum to a lower constant level within a few minutes with a clearly defined second peak (Fig. 2). The higher initial intensities may be restored by periods of darkness, so that the decay process can be repeated by periods of illumination following periods of darkness (Fig. 3). Within the temperature range studied (2每45⊥) the rate of fluorescence decay as well as the time of appearance and amplitude of the second rise were temperature dependent (Fig. 2). An increase in temperature hastened the first two items, while the amplitude of the secondary rise had a negative temperature coefficient (Fig. 2). No peak appeared at 2 ⊥ even after prolonging the experiment to 15 minutes, and in leaves which were subjected to 45 ⊥ the decay as well as the second rise were abolished (see Chow et al, 1963). The behaviours of the fluorescence decay and that of the second rise toward metabolic inhibitors are different. In general, the former is sensitive to those affecting the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) pathway of carbohydrate oxidation and the latter to those for electron transfer and phosphorylation. Sodium azide (10每4 to 10每2 M) has no effect on fluorescence decay (Fig. 5). DNP (2,4-dinitophenol) and KCN partially inhibit the process at higher concentration (5 ℅ 10-3M) and are without effect at lower (10每4 M) concentrations (Fig. 4). On the other hand, the second peak was significantly inhibited by Na-azide, KCN and DNP, and the inhibition was proportional to concentration (5 ℅ 10每3 M to 10每4 M). Malonate was without effect on the second rise (Fig. 6), but it significantly inhibited (at 5 ℅ 10-2 M) the fluorescence decay (Fig. 6, 1). This inhibition was reversed by addition of succinate (Fig. 6, 2) or fumarate (Fig. 6, 3). It is concluded from these experiments that two light-dependent enzyme catalyzed reactions are related to the phenomenon of fluorescence decay in these wheat leaves. One of these, the second rise, is affected by azide and DNP, and may therefore be concerned with electron transfer and phosphorylation, and the other, which is malonate sensitive, may be concerned with the TCA pathway of carbohydrate metabolism.
Abstract (Browse 2247)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on the Growth Yield and Carbohydrate-Nitrogen Metabolism of Rice Plant
Author: C. L. Chang, C. Tsui and L. F. Yen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    This work was carried out by field experiment in 1961 and 1962 to study the effect of nitrogen-level upon the metabolism, growth, and yield of rice. The main results obtained were as follows: 1. The yield of rice increases proportionally to the nitrogen level below 10每15 kg/mou. The high nitrogen level increases the number of spikes, but decreases the number of grains per spike and the weight per 1000 grains. 2. The effect of the amount of nitrogen applied on the growth was different with various organs. After the differentiation of panicle, the high level of nitrogen retards the growth of sheath and stem, but promotes the growth of leaf blade. Hence the sheath/leaf ratio decreases with the increase of nitrogen level. When the sheath/leaf ratio is higher, the weight per 1000 grains and the grains per spike increase also. 3. The carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism is varied with the amount of nitrogen applied. Starch accumulates more in the sheath and stem at the lower nitrogen level. At the time of heading, the starch translocates from the sheath and stem to the spike. On the basis of this investigation, it may be suggested that the sheath/leaf ratio and the dynamic accumulation of starch in the sheath and stem could be used as the physiological indication for the application of nitrogen fertilizer.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Increasing the Salt Tolerance of Soybean and Italian Millet (Setaria italica)
Author: Pang Shih Chuan, Chang Sian Tze and Wu Ching Fung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    The effects of seed treatment of soybean and millet with different available mineral solutions were studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of increasing the salt tolerance and raising the seed yield of soybean and millet. The main results and conclusions are summarized as follows: 1. Seeds were treated with various concentrations of CaC12, NaC1, NaHCO3, Na2SO4, and saline soil from Chao-Tung, AN-Ta districts. Based on our experimental results the degree of tolerance of each variety varied both with different salts and with various concentrations of the same salt. It was shown that each variety had its own limited adaptability to salt hardiness. 2. Early workers, discussed the salt tolerances of trees, shrubs, or crops, claiming that the tolerant degree of plants was directly correlated with the concentrations of salt content. Results of our experiment indicated that the salt tolerance of each variety might be increased only when seeds were treated with a definite available concentration of a suitable solute. 3. Under the treatment of different mineral solute, soybean and millet showed radical changes in germination rate, germination percentage, seedling survival and growth. Based on our results soybean showed relatively higher germination percentage and growth of seedlings; under the treatment of 0.3%, 0.5%, CaC12; 1% NaCl; 0.5% Na2SO4; 1% NaHCO3 and light saline soil from Chaotung; while with Italian millet similar effects were obtained with the treatment of 0.5%, 1% CaCl2; 1%, 3% NaCl; 2% NaHCO3; 1% Na2SO4 and light saline soil. 4. In soybean, the treatment of 1% CaC12; 3% NaCl; 1% NaHCO3; and light saline soil increased photosynthetic rate, and decreased respiratory intensity. In millet, similar effects were obtained with 1.5% CaC12; 7% NaCl; 4% NaHCO3. In regard to the chlorophyll content, 1% CaC12; 1%, 3% NaC1; 1%, 4% NaHCO3 treatments, resulted in a somewhat slight increase in quantity. The activity of catalase was more or less irregular. The oil content of soybean seed showed an increase of over 2%, with 1 % CaC12;1% NaHCO3; and heavy saline soil treatment. 5, Salt treatments exert a significant influence on seed yield, both in soybean and millet. According to our experimental results, it has been shown that the treatment with 1% CaCl2; 3% NaCl; and light saline soil to soybean raised the yield more than 10%; while to millet, the solution of 1%, 1.5%, 2% CaC12; 7% NaC1; 4% NaHCO3 increased the yield over 10% too.
Abstract (Browse 2190)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on the Changes of Growth Substances and Some Carbohydrates in Pea Seedlings
Author: Y. C. Gwan, J. L. Feng and L. T. Hsu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    The effects of gibberellic acid on the changes of growth substances and some carbohydrates in pea seedlings were investigated. The principal results obtained are as follows: (1) When the peas were imbibed with an aqueous solution of gibberellic acid for six hours, the first internode showed the most pronounced growth response as compared with the other parts of the pea seedlings. (2) The growth substances in the terminal bud of the control and that of the gibberellic acid treated seedlings were different from each other qualitatively and quantitatively as demonstrated by means of the wheat straight growth and rice seedling test on paper chromatograms from purified extracts, In the control plants considerable amounts of inhibitor 汕 complex was present whereas in the treated seedlings little or no such inhibitor was detected. The contents of indole acetic acid and indole acetonitrile of the control plants were higher than those of the treated plants. In addition, trace amount of gibberellic acid was found in the treated plants and none was detected from the controls. (3) The amounts of reducing sugars and cell wall substances of the first internode of treated seedlings were 140%每143% and 150%每174%, respectively, as compared with those of the control plants. Also the oxygen uptake of the first internode of the treated plants was 1.5每2 times of that of the corresponding part of the controls. (4) Analysis of the contents of starch and reducing sugars in the cotyledons revealed that the former decreased while the latter increased as compared with the controls. The activity of the amylases of the treated seedlings was also higher. It appears that imbibing peas with gibberellic acid enhanced the growth of young pea seedlings (especially the first internode). There were an increase in respiration, an increase in reducing sugar and cell wall material in this internode, and an increase in amylases activity and starch disappearance in the cotyledons. All these effects may have causal relation with each other and with the decreasing of a natural growth inhibitor in the terminal bud.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Morphological Differentiation of Excised Stems of Mentha arvensis L. I. The Effect of Colchicine upon the Excised Stem Tips
Author: C. L. Lee, Y. S. Hu and S. J. Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    The excised stem tips of Mentha arvensis L. which had been cultured in vitro with various concentrations of colchicine manifested a series of changes of the internal structures. If 0.1% of colchicine was added into the culture medium as soon as the excised stem tips were explanted, the formation of the adventitious roots normally found at the base of the excised stem tips was completely inhibited. Nevertheless the internode between the fifth and the sixth node showed tremendous bulging. Five days after the excised stem tips being cultured in vitro, various aqueous concentrations of colchicine were added, as soon as some of the adventitious roots had been established at the base. The distal ends of the already grown adventitious roots, after 24 hours of treatment, showed spindle-shaped swellings and the roots ceased to elongate. Longitudinal sections of the tumefacient part exhibited remarkable increment in size of the cortical and stelar cells. Furthermore, the nuclei of these cells were irregularly aggregated. By this time the layers of the root-cap showed reduction in number and its cells were considerably modified. The internode between the fourth and the fifth or the fifth and the sixth node apparently tumefied concomitantly with the various changes in the internal structures. The activities of the apical meristem had been greatly reduced and no further extention in length could be discerned. After the excised stem tip was treated with colchicine within one week, the lowest node was cut and transplanted into a new tube with medium devoid of colchicine. Five days after such treatment, the newly formed adventitious roots were visible near the cut surface at the base. These roots, in general, appeared similar to normal ones and were capable of growing continously. Although most of the apexes displayed no growth activities, one or both axillary buds at the fifth or sixth node promptly elongated; these were never being tumefied. Results from a series of aseptic cultures substantiated with certainty the finding that the excised stem tips treated with various concentrations of colchicine could not effectively form polyploidy with regularity in the meristematic cells. However, colchicine caused abnormal growth in various tissues, and especially induced different degrees of tumefaction. Descriptions of the anatomical and cytological changes of the excised stem tips treated with colchicine were also presented.
Abstract (Browse 2105)  |  Full Text PDF       
妙抉把扳抉抖抉忍我攸 扭抑抖抆扯抑 把抉忱忘 Anemone L.
Author: 妊我 妒- 忪改扶 我 完忪忘扶 孛戒我扶 -找忘扶
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
Abstract (Browse 1800)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Phenomenon of Nuclear Intercellular Extrusion in Plant Epidermal Tissue
Author: Wu Siao-hang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(1)
      
    1. A brief historical review on the reports of the occurrence of intercellular extrusion of nuclear material of the vegetative organ, is given, especially with regard to the epidermal tissue of higher plants. Interpretations of this phenomenon both normal and abnormal by various authors are presented. 2. Some interesting phases of this phenomenon have been investigated by using Allium fistulosum as material. Based on observations and experiments of the present investigation, it is suggested that the intercellular extrusion of nuclear material of the epidermal cells may be an artificial phenomenon. For these cells in a piece of epidermal tissue have been injured during the process of stripping. 3. Analysis of the dynamics of the processes of the breakdown of epidermal cell-wall and the nuclear intercellular extrusion shows that the nuclear material mechanism of the intercellular extrusion of epidermal tissue undergoing the stripping treatment would be as follows: On the one hand, the working pressure or the source of bending force of stripping treatment is the mechanical force which causes a strong bending stress in the epidermal cell and cracks its cell-wall. On the other hand, by forming an non-equilibrium of the two intracellular pressures between the cell just broken and its neighbouring cracked cell or cells, the former cell presses its nucleus close against the split-opening of the cellwall at first; later, by the same way, the content of the nucleus would be more or less extruded via the split-opening into the neighbouring cell or cells. The process of nuclear intercellular extrusion of the epidermal tissue under stripping treatment is thus completed.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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