May 2013, Volume 55 Issue 5, Pages 409ĘC485.

Cover Caption: Leaf Complexity in Lotus japonicus
About the cover: The compound leaf of Lotus japonicus possesses 5 visible leaflets and 2 degenerated leaflets. In this issue, Wang et al. (pp. 419ĘC433) show that multiple genetic components and plant hormones are integrated to determine leaf complexity. PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determine the basipetal leaflet initiation and the leaflet number. Down-regulation of PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO genes results in reduced leaf complexity.


          Invited Expert Reviews
Molecular Control of Flowering in Response to Day Length in Rice  
Author: Vittoria Brambilla and Fabio Fornara
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 410-418
Published Online: March 18, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12033

Flowering at the most appropriate times of the year requires careful monitoring of environmental conditions and correct integration of such information with an endogenous molecular network. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a facultative short day plant, and flowers quickly under short day lengths, as opposed to Arabidopsis thaliana whose flowering is accelerated by longer days. Despite these physiological differences, several genes controlling flowering in response to day length (or photoperiod) are conserved between rice and Arabidopsis, and the molecular mechanisms involved are similar. Inductive day lengths trigger expression of florigenic proteins in leaves that can move to the shoot apical meristem to induce reproductive development. As compared to Arabidopsis, rice also possesses unique factors that regulate expression of florigenic genes. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in day length perception, production of florigenic signals, and molecular responses of the shoot apical meristem to florigenic proteins.

Brambilla V, Fornara F (2013) Molecular control of flowering in response to day length in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1111/jipb. 55(5), 410–418.

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          Original Article
Multiple Components are Integrated to Determine Leaf Complexity in Lotus japonicus
Author: Zhenhua Wang, Jianghua Chen, Lin Weng, Xin Li, Xianglin Cao, Xiaohe Hu, Da Luo and Jun Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 419-433
Published Online: May 13, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12034
    Transcription factors and phytohormones have been reported to play crucial roles to regulate leaf complexity among plant species. Using the compound-leafed species Lotus japonicus, a model legume plant with five visible leaflets, we characterized four independent mutants with reduced leaf complexity, proliferating floral meristem (pfm), proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), fused leaflets1 (ful1) and umbrella leaflets (uml), which were further identified as loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis orthologs LEAFY (LFY), UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) and PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), respectively. Comparing the leaf development of wild-type and mutants by a scanning electron microscopy approach, leaflet initiation and/or dissection were found to be affected in these mutants. Expression and phenotype analysis indicated that PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determined the basipetal leaflet initiation manner in L. japonicus. Genetic analysis of ful1 and uml mutants and their double mutants revealed that the CUC2-like gene and auxin pathway also participated in leaflet dissection in L. japonicus, and their functions might influence cytokinin biogenesis directly or indirectly. Our results here suggest that multiple genes were interplayed and played conserved functions in controlling leaf complexity during compound leaf development in L. japonicus.

Wang Z, Chen J, Weng L, Li X, Cao X, Hu X, Luo D, Yang J (2013) Multiple components are integrated to determine leaf complexity in Lotus japonicus. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 419–433.

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Identification and Functional Analysis of Three MAX2 Orthologs in Chrysanthemum
Author: Lili Dong, Abdurazak Ishak, Jing Yu, Ruiyan Zhao and Liangjun Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 434-442
Published Online: April 25, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12028

MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2), initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction. Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a, b, and c). Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B), and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s. Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds. On a cellular level, we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells, which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis. The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2–1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog. These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum.

Dong L, Ishak A, Yu J, Zhao R, Zhao L (2013) Identification and functional analysis of three MAX2 orthologs in chrysanthemum. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 434–442.

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Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S1 self-incompatibility Locus-linked Pollen 3.15 Gene in Citrus Reticulata
Author: Hong-Xia Miao, Zi-Xing Ye, Yong-Hua Qin and Gui-Bing Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 443-452
Published Online: April 3, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12026

Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a highly polymorphic locus called the S-locus, which is an important factor that can result in seedless fruit in Citrus. The S1 self-incompatibility locus-linked pollen 3.15 gene (S1-3.15) belongs to a type of S locus gene. The role of S1-3.15 in the SI reaction of Citrus has not yet been reported. In this study, full-length sequences of cDNA and DNA encoding the S1-3.15 gene, referred to as CrS1-3.15, were isolated from ‘Wuzishatangju’ (Self-incompatibility, SI) and ‘Shatangju’ (Self-compatibility, SC). The predicted amino acid sequences of CrS1-3.15 between ‘Wuzishatangju’ and ‘Shatangju’ differ by only three amino acids. Compared to ‘Wuzishatangju’, three bases were substituted in the genomic DNA of CrS1-3.15 from ‘Shatangju’. Southern blot results showed that one copy of CrS1-3.15 existed in the genomic DNA of both ‘Wuzishatangju’ and ‘Shatangju’. The expression level of the CrS1-3.15 gene in the ovaries of ‘Shatangju’ was approximately 60-fold higher than that in the ovaries of ‘Wuzishatangju’. When ‘Wuzishatangju’ was cross-pollinated, the expression of CrS1-3.15 was upregulated in the ovaries at 3 d, and the highest expression levels were detected in the ovaries at 6 d after cross-pollination of ‘Wuzishatangju’ × ‘Shatangju’. To obtain the CrS1-3.15 protein, the full-length cDNA of CrS1-3.15 genes from ‘Wuzishatangju’ and ‘Shatangju’ was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Pollen germination frequency of ‘Wuzishatangju’ was inhibited significantly with increasing CrS1-3.15 protein concentrations from SI ‘Wuzishatangju’.

Miao HX, Ye ZX, Qin YH, Hu GB (2013) Molecular characterization and expression analysis of S1 self-incompatibility locus-linked pollen 3.15 Gene in Citrus reticulata. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 443–452.

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Identification of Expressed Resistance Gene Analogs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Expressed Sequence Tags
Author: Zhanji Liu, Suping Feng, Manish K. Pandey, Xiaoping Chen, Albert K. Culbreath, Rajeev K. Varshney and Baozhu Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 453-461
Published Online: March 18, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12037

Low genetic diversity makes peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) very vulnerable to plant pathogens, causing severe yield loss and reduced seed quality. Several hundred partial genomic DNA sequences as nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes (R) have been identified, but a small portion with expressed transcripts has been found. We aimed to identify resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to develop polymorphic markers. The protein sequences of 54 known R genes were used to identify homologs from peanut ESTs from public databases. A total of 1,053 ESTs corresponding to six different classes of known R genes were recovered, and assembled 156 contigs and 229 singletons as peanut-expressed RGAs. There were 69 that encoded for NBS-LRR proteins, 191 that encoded for protein kinases, 82 that encoded for LRR-PK/transmembrane proteins, 28 that encoded for Toxin reductases, 11 that encoded for LRR-domain containing proteins and four that encoded for TM-domain containing proteins. Twenty-eight simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from 25 peanut expressed RGAs. One SSR polymorphic marker (RGA121) was identified. Two polymerase chain reaction-based markers (Ahsw-1 and Ahsw-2) developed from RGA013 were homologous to the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) resistance gene. All three markers were mapped on the same linkage group AhIV. These expressed RGAs are the source for RGA-tagged marker development and identification of peanut resistance genes.

Liu Z, Feng S, Pandey MK, Chen X, Culbreath AK, Varshney RK, Guo B (2013) Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 453–461.

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Fine Mapping of RppP25, a Southern Rust Resistance Gene in Maize
Author: Panfeng Zhao, Guobin Zhang, Xiaojun Wu, Na Li, Dianyi Shi, Dengfeng Zhang, Chunfang Ji, Mingliang Xu and Shoucai Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 462-472
Published Online: April 11, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12027

Southern rust (Puccinia polysora Underw.) is a major disease that can cause severe yield losses in maize (Zea mays L.). In our previous study, a major gene RppP25 that confers resistance to southern rust was identified in inbred line P25. Here, we report the fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of RppP25 from the near-isogenic line F939, which harbors RppP25 in the genetic background of the susceptible inbred line F349. The inheritance of resistance to southern rust was investigated in the BC1F1 and BC3F1 populations, which were derived from a cross between F939 and F349 (as the recurrent parent). The 1:1 segregation ratio of resistance to susceptible plants in these two populations indicated that the resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Ten markers, including three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and seven insertion/deletion (InDel) markers, were developed in the RppP25 region. RppP25 was delimited to an interval between P091 and M271, with an estimated length of 40 kb based on the physical map of B73. In this region, a candidate gene was identified that was predicted to encode a putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) protein. Two co-segregated markers will aid in pyramiding diverse southern rust resistance alleles into elite materials, and thereby improve southern rust resistance worldwide.

Zhao P, Zhang G, Wu X, Li N, Shi D, Zhang D, Ji C, Xu M, Wang S (2013) Fine mapping of RppP25, a southern rust resistance gene in maize. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 462–472.

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Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Rice Spotted-leaf Mutant HM47 with Broad-spectrum Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  
Author: Bao-Hua Feng, Yang Yang, Yong-Feng Shi, Hai-Chao Shen, Hui-Mei Wang, Qi-Na Huang, Xia Xu, Xiang-Guang LĘ╣ and Jian-Li Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 473-483
Published Online: February 4, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12021

A stable inherited rice spotted-leaf mutant HM47 derived from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank was identified. The mutant expressed hypersensitive response (HR)-like symptoms throughout its whole life from the first leaf to the flag leaf, without pathogen invasion. Initiation of the lesions was induced by light under natural summer field conditions. Expression of pathogenesis-related genes including PAL, PO-C1, POX22.3 and PBZ1 was enhanced significantly in association with cell death and accumulation of H2O2 at and around the site of lesions in the mutant in contrast to that in the wild-type (WT). Disease reaction to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae from the Philippines and China showed that HM47 is a broad-spectrum disease-resistant mutant with enhanced resistance to multiple races of bacterial blight pathogens tested. An F2 progeny test showed that bacterial blight resistance to race HB-17 was co-segregated with the expression of lesions. Genetic analysis indicated that the spotted-leaf trait was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively named splHM47, flanked by two insertion/deletion markers in a region of approximately 74 kb on the long arm of chromosome 4. Ten open reading frames are predicted, and all of them are expressed proteins. Isolation and validation of the putative genes are currently underway.

Feng BH, Yang Y, Shi YF, Shen HC, Wang HM, Huang QN, Xu X, L¨uXG, Wu JL (2013) Characterization and genetic analysis of a novel rice spotted-leaf mutant HM47 with broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(5), 473–483.

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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 484-484
Published Online: May 13, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12029
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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(5): 485-485
Published Online: May 13, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12055
Abstract (Browse 552)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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