Special Issue: Mineral Nutrient Sensing and Signaling   

March 2014, Volume 56 Issue 3, Pages 190每332.


Cover Caption: Mineral Nutrient Sensing and Signaling
About the cover: Soils are heterogeneous in nature, especially for nutrient availability, leading plants to evolve highly effective sensing and signaling systems in roots to mine the local soil environment to ensure acquisition of sufficient minerals for growth and development. One mining process is to optimize the positioning of new roots within regions of the soil that contain more minerals. Pictures displayed on the cover illustrate different types of root architecture resulting from anointer play between environment and genetically controlled root development (pictures provided by Dr. Randy Clark, Pioneer Hi-Bred).

 

          Editorial
Plant mineral nutrient sensing and signaling  
Author: Leon V. Kochian, William J. Lucas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 190每191
Published Online: February 13, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12180
Abstract (Browse 801)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
Molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate sensing, signaling, and adaptation in plants  
Author: Zhaoliang Zhang, Hong Liao and William J. Lucas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 192每220
Published Online: January 14, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12163
      
    

As an essential plant macronutrient, the low availability of phosphorus (P) in most soils imposes serious limitation on crop production. Plants have evolved complex responsive and adaptive mechanisms for acquisition, remobilization and recycling of phosphate (Pi) to maintain P homeostasis. Spatio-temporal molecular, physiological, and biochemical Pi deficiency responses developed by plants are the consequence of local and systemic sensing and signaling pathways. Pi deficiency is sensed locally by the root system where hormones serve as important signaling components in terms of developmental reprogramming, leading to changes in root system architecture. Root-to-shoot and shoot-to-root signals, delivered through the xylem and phloem, respectively, involving Pi itself, hormones, miRNAs, mRNAs, and sucrose, serve to coordinate Pi deficiency responses at the whole-plant level. A combination of chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and posttranslational events contribute to globally regulating a wide range of Pi deficiency responses. In this review, recent advances are evaluated in terms of progress toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events underlying control over P homeostasis. Application of this knowledge, in terms of developing crop plants having enhanced attributes for P use efficiency, is discussed from the perspective of agricultural sustainability in the face of diminishing global P supplies.

Zhang Z, Liao H, Lucas WJ (2014) Molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate sensing, signaling, and adaptation in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 192–220. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12163

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The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance  
Author: Jiping Liu, Miguel A. Piñeros and Leon V. Kochian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 221每230
Published Online: January 14, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12162
      
    

As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the triggering and regulation of cellular pathways and processes by Al. In this review of plant Al signaling, we begin by summarizing the understanding of physiological mechanisms of Al resistance, which first led researchers to realize that Al stress induces gene expression and modifies protein function during the activation of Al resistance responses. Subsequently, an overview of Al resistance genes and their function provides verification that Al induction of gene expression plays a major role in Al resistance in many plant species. More recent research into the mechanistic basis for Al-induced transcriptional activation of resistance genes has led to the identification of several transcription factors as well as cis-elements in the promoters of Al resistance genes that play a role in greater Al-induced gene expression as well as higher constitutive expression of resistance genes in some plant species. Finally, the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of Al resistance proteins is addressed, where recent research has shown that Al can both directly bind to and alter activity of certain organic acid transporters, and also influence Al resistance proteins indirectly, via protein phosphorylation.

Liu J, Piñeros MA, Kochian LV (2014) The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 221–230. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12162

Abstract (Browse 1381)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Transport, signaling, and homeostasis of potassium and sodium in plants  
Author: Eri Adams and Ryoung Shin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 231每249
Published Online: January 7, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12159
      
    

Potassium (K+) is an essential macronutrient in plants and a lack of K+ significantly reduces the potential for plant growth and development. By contrast, sodium (Na+), while beneficial to some extent, at high concentrations it disturbs and inhibits various physiological processes and plant growth. Due to their chemical similarities, some functions of K+ can be undertaken by Na+ but K+ homeostasis is severely affected by salt stress, on the other hand. Recent advances have highlighted the fascinating regulatory mechanisms of K+ and Na+ transport and signaling in plants. This review summarizes three major topics: (i) the transport mechanisms of K+ and Na+ from the soil to the shoot and to the cellular compartments; (ii) the mechanisms through which plants sense and respond to K+ and Na+ availability; and (iii) the components involved in maintenance of K+/Na+ homeostasis in plants under salt stress.

Adams E, Shin R (2014) Transport, signaling, and homeostasis of potassium and sodium in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 231–249. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12159

Abstract (Browse 915)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Signaling events during initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  
Author: Alexa M. Schmitz and Maria J. Harrison
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 250每261
Published Online: January 4, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12155
      
    

Under nutrient-limiting conditions, plants will enter into symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for the enhancement of mineral nutrient acquisition from the surrounding soil. AM fungi live in close, intracellular association with plant roots where they transfer phosphate and nitrogen to the plant in exchange for carbon. They are obligate fungi, relying on their host as their only carbon source. Much has been discovered in the last decade concerning the signaling events during initiation of the AM symbiosis, including the identification of signaling molecules generated by both partners. This signaling occurs through symbiosis-specific gene products in the host plant, which are indispensable for normal AM development. At the same time, plants have adapted complex mechanisms for avoiding infection by pathogenic fungi, including an innate immune response to general microbial molecules, such as chitin present in fungal cell walls. How it is that AM fungal colonization is maintained without eliciting a defensive response from the host is still uncertain. In this review, we present a summary of the molecular signals and their elicited responses during initiation of the AM symbiosis, including plant immune responses and their suppression.

Schmitz AM, Harrison MJ (2014) Signaling events during initiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 250–261. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12155

Abstract (Browse 999)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Research Prospective
Meta-analysis and candidate gene mining of low-phosphorus tolerance in maize  
Author: Hongwei Zhang, Mohammed Shalim Uddin, Cheng Zou, Chuanxiao Xie, Yunbi Xu and Wen-Xue Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 262每270
Published Online: January 17, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12168
      
    

Plants with tolerance to low-phosphorus (P) can grow better under low-P conditions, and understanding of genetic mechanisms of low-P tolerance can not only facilitate identifying relevant genes but also help to develop low-P tolerant cultivars. QTL meta-analysis was conducted after a comprehensive review of the reports on QTL mapping for low-P tolerance-related traits in maize. Meta-analysis produced 23 consensus QTL (cQTL), 17 of which located in similar chromosome regions to those previously reported to influence root traits. Meanwhile, candidate gene mining yielded 215 genes, 22 of which located in the cQTL regions. These 22 genes are homologous to 14 functionally characterized genes that were found to participate in plant low-P tolerance, including genes encoding miR399s, Pi transporters and purple acid phosphatases. Four cQTL loci (cQTL2-1, cQTL5-3, cQTL6-2, and cQTL10-2) may play important roles for low-P tolerance because each contains more original QTL and has better consistency across previous reports.

Zhang H, Uddin MS, Zou C, Xie C, Xu Y, Li WX (2014) Meta坼analysis and candidate gene mining of low坼phosphorus tolerance in maize. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 262–270. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12168

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          Research Articles
Identification of a novel pathway involving a GATA transcription factor in yeast and possibly in plant Zn uptake and homeostasis  
Author: Matthew J. Milner, Nicole S. Pence, Jiping Liu and Leon V. Kochian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 271每280
Published Online: January 17, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12169
      
    

To gain a better understanding of the regulation of Zn homeostasis in plants and the degree of conservation of Zn homeostasis between plants and yeast, a cDNA library from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating plant species, Noccaea caerulescens, was screened for its ability to restore growth under Zn limiting conditions in the yeast mutant zap1Δ. ZAP1 is a transcription factor that activates the Zn dependent transcription of yeast genes involved in Zn uptake, including ZRT1, the yeast high affinity Zn transporter. From this screen two members of the E2F family of transcription factors were found to activate ZRT1 expression in a Zn independent manner. The activation of ZRT1 by the plant E2F proteins involves E2F-mediated activation of a yeast GATA transcription factor which in turn activates ZRT1 expression. A ZRT1 promoter region necessary for activation by E2F and GATA proteins is upstream of two zinc responsive elements previously shown to bind ZAP1 in ZRT1. This activation may not involve direct binding of E2F to the ZRT1 promoter. The expression of E2F genes in yeast does not replace function of ZAP1; instead it appears to activate a novel GATA regulatory pathway involved in Zn uptake and homeostasis that is not Zn responsive.

Milner MJ, Pence NS, Liu J, Kochian LV (2014) Identification of a novel pathway involving a GATA transcription factor in yeast and possibly in plant Zn uptake and homeostasis. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 271–280. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12169

Abstract (Browse 654)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  
Author: Kalpana Nanjareddy, Lourdes Blanco, Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Xochitl Alvarado Affantrange, Federico Sónchez and Miguel Lara
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 281每298
Published Online: January 4, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12156
      
    

Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and enhanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean.

Nanjareddy K, Blanco L, Arthikala M坼K, Affantrange XA, Sánchez F, Lara M (2014) Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Integr Plant Biol 56: 281–298. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12156

Abstract (Browse 1077)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparative genetic analysis of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatases AtPAP10, AtPAP12, and AtPAP26 provides new insights into their roles in plant adaptation to phosphate deprivation  
Author: Liangsheng Wang, Shan Lu, Ye Zhang, Zheng Li, Xiaoqiu Du and Dong Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 299每314
Published Online: February 15, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12184
      
    

Induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that helps plants survive and grow under phosphate (Pi) deprivation. In Arabidopsis, there are 29 purple acid phosphatase (AtPAP) genes. To systematically investigate the roles of different AtPAPs, we first identified knockout or knock-down T-DNA lines for all 29 AtPAP genes. Using these atpap mutants combined with in-gel and quantitative APase enzyme assays, we demonstrated that AtPAP12 and AtPAP26 are two major intracellular and secreted APases in Arabidopsis while AtPAP10 is mainly a secreted APase. On Pi-deficient (P−) medium or P− medium supplemented with the organophosphates ADP and fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), growth of atpap10 was significantly reduced whereas growth of atpap12 was only moderately reduced, and growth of atpap26 was nearly equal to that of the wild type (WT). Overexpression of the AtPAP12 or AtPAP26 gene, however, caused plants to grow better on P− or P− medium supplemented with ADP or Fru-6-P. Interestingly, Pi levels are essentially the same for the WT and overexpressing lines, although these two types of plants have significantly different growth phenotypes. These results suggest that the APases may have other roles besides enhancing internal Pi recycling or releasing Pi from external organophosphates for plant uptake.

Wang L, Lu S, Zhang Y, Li Z, Du X, Liu D (2014) Comparative genetic analysis of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatases AtPAP10, AtPAP12, and AtPAP26 provides new insights into their roles in plant adaptation to phosphate deprivation. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 299–314. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12184

Abstract (Browse 615)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
SbHKT1;4, a member of the high-affinity potassium transporter gene family from Sorghum bicolor, functions to maintain optimal Na+/K+ balance under Na+ stress  
Author: Tian-Tian Wang, Zhi-Jie Ren, Zhi-Quan Liu, Xue Feng, Rui-Qi Guo, Bao-Guo Li, Le-Gong Li and Hai-Chun Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(3): 315每332
Published Online: December 11, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12144
      
    

In halophytic plants, the high-affinity potassium transporter HKT gene family can selectively uptake K+ in the presence of toxic concentrations of Na+. This has so far not been well examined in glycophytic crops. Here, we report the characterization of SbHKT1;4, a member of the HKT gene family from Sorghum bicolor. Upon Na+ stress, SbHKT1;4 expression was more strongly upregulated in salt-tolerant sorghum accession, correlating with a better balanced Na+/K+ ratio and enhanced plant growth. Heterogeneous expression analyses in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that overexpressing SbHKT1;4 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na+ stress, and such hypersensitivity could be alleviated with the supply of elevated levels of K+, implicating that SbHKT1;4 may mediate K+ uptake in the presence of excessive Na+. Further electrophysiological evidence demonstrated that SbHKT1;4 could transport Na+ and K+ when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The relevance of the finding that SbHKT1;4 functions to maintain optimal Na+/K+ balance under Na+ stress to the breeding of salt-tolerant glycophytic crops is discussed.

Wang TT, Ren ZJ, Liu ZQ, Feng X, Guo RQ, Li BG, Li LG, Jing HC (2014) SbHKT1;4, a member of the high坼affinity potassium transporter gene family from Sorghum bicolor, functions to maintain optimal Na+/K+ balance under Na+ stress. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 315–332. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12144

Abstract (Browse 1067)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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