March 1964, Volume 12 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Some Suggestions on Making Illustrations
Author: Wang, F. H.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
Abstract (Browse 1735)  |  Full Text PDF       
ݧ ӧ٧է ٧ѧѧէߧ ܧ֧ߧ ֧ܧڧߧ
Author: اѧ ٧ڧ -ѧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Nuclear Structure as an Indication of Cold Resistance in Plants
Author: Chang Wei-chen, Yu Sun-jei and Wo Jin-hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reproductive Organs of Red Algae IV.
Author: K. C. Fan and Y. P. Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    The results of the present study show that in Gloiopeltis furcata the impregnated carpogonium produces a single connecting filament which is simple or forked. The connecting filament unites directly with the second or the third (or both) basal cell of the fertile branch cluster. The procarp of Gloiopeltis furcata, therefore, consists of a few auxiliary cells and several carpogonial branches.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Respiration of Bailan Melon Fruits III.
Author: Liang Hou-kuo and L Chung-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    The respiratory drift of intact fruits followed a similar course as that of fruit slices. The climacteric rise occurred about 40 days after anthesis. The relative importance of pentose phosphate (PP) pathway and of glycolytic (EMP) pathway of glucose dissimilation was estimated by fluoride inhibition and by assaying of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It was found that during the later stages of fruit development the contribution of the EMP pathway was increased while that of the PP pathway was decreased, the reverse was true at the early stages of fruit development. The favourable effects of pyruvate, malate, citrate and succinate and the inhibitory effect of malonate on melon fruit respiration suggested that the tricarboxylic acid cycle was operating in the fruit tissue. The results also indicated that the activity of the TCA cycle was higher at later stages than at early stages of fruit development. As the fruit reached the mature stage an increase in fermentation capacity was also noted.
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryogeny of Metasequoia
Author: F. H. Wang and N. F. Chien
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    The material of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng for the embryological investigation was collected in 1960 in its native land, Shui-sha-pa, Hupei province of central China. The development of the female gametophyte is described with reference to the extent of the free nuclear stage, followed by an alveolar growth. The free nuclei actually counted in two ovules were 1,764 and 1,872, and those at one cell layered stage were estimated about 4,000. The megaspore wall is one-layered and about 1.6 in thickness. The archegonial initials have their origin in the first walled cells and they can be distinguished from other gametophytic cells by their larger size. The archegonia are usually grouped into an archegonial complex which is terminal in position. The number of the archegonia varies from 8 to 11, and some abortive archegonial initials may be included among them. Four out of about 400 ovules examined possess a lateral archegonial complex or a single lateral archegonium in addition to the terminal one. The division of the central cell gives rise to the egg and the ventral canal nucleus which disintegrates usually soon after its formation. Occasionally the ventral canal nucleus may be retained in the upper part of the archegonium. It is probable that the presence of some nuclei in the upper part of some archegonia throughout the whole proembryonal stage is attributed to the further division of the persisting ventral canal nucleus. The male gametophytes were observed with the usual trio in the pollen tubeCthe spermatogenous cell (the body cell), the sterile nucleus (the stalk nucleus) and the tube nucleus. At first the trio appears to be of the same size, then the spermatogenous cell grows larger and larger on its way through the nucellus and finally reaches its maximum size before its division. The division of the spermatogenous cell takes place after it reaches the megaspore membrane and just before fertilization. Two sperms are identical. Fertilization took place between June 22C30, 1960. Only the nucleus of the sperm actually enters into the archegonium. It is much smaller than the egg nucleus. When it approaches the egg, the latter forms a concave surface facing the direction of the sperm nucleus. The proembryo begins its development with three free nuclear divisions; walls are formed at eight nuclei stage. The eight cells of the proembryo are arranged in the single open tier and the primary embryo cells, the relative numbers of which are usually 4:4 or 6:2, very rarely 5:3. The cells in the open tier are not walled above, while the primary embryo cells are arranged roughly in 2 tiers. With the simultaneous divisions of the cells in the open tier, two regular tiers are formed. The cells in the upper tier are still open to the cytoplasm above, while the tier below forms the prosuspensor. The primary embryo cells may divide once more and the divisions are not necessarily simultaneous. Some of them may remain undivided, thus the total number of the embryo cells varies from 3 to 12, with 4C7 as the usual range. The elongation of the prosuspensor pushes its terminal group of embryo cells into the female gametophytic tissue. The embryo cells cut off primary suspensor cells which elongate backwardly. As the prosuspensor and the primary suspensor cells continue to grow and become folded due to rapid elongation, the terminal cells at the primary suspensor ends divide in various ways and develope into multicellular embryos. The apical cell activity is generally not conspicuous. The embryonal tubes which elongate backwardly from the upper part of the embryos are usually formed when the embryos reach 30C40 cells stage. Just like the case in other conifers, in Metasequoia more than one archegonium may be fertilized at the same time, thus the simple polyembryony prevails. And in the same embryo system developed from the same fertilized egg, 3C12 individual embryos may be developed, thus the cleavage polyembryony is the usual case. Embryos are, therefore, rather many in early embryogeny. However, only a few of them may survive through embryonic selection and only one embryo is usually found in the mature seed as all the other embryos become collapsed during the course of embryogeny. The late embryogeny of Metasequoia is fundamentally similar to that of other conifers. Metasequoia agrees with Glyptostrobus in the well developed hypocotyl, in the lack of a pith and in the weak development of the root cap-suspensor region, but it differs from the latter in the number of the cotyledons. The embryogeny of Metasequoia resembles, in general, that of Sequoiadendron more nearly than that of any other conifer thus far investigated. In Sequoiadendron the cells in the upper tier (rosette tier) of the proembryo are walled above and may divided to produce rosette embryos. The archegonial complex is lateral in position and the number of archegonia is rather numerous, while the archegonial complex of Metasequoia is terminal in position and the number of archegonia is fewer. The appearance of the embryonal tubes is later in Metasequoia. Aside from these important differences, the similarities in embryogeny between Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron are very striking. Both have a similarity in the development and the general structure of the proembryo; both form a prosuspensor; both have a similarity in the formation of primary suspensors and the constant occurrence of cleavage polyembryony. The embryogeny of Metasequoia also resembles that of Sciadopitys in certain respects. Both form a prosuspensor and primary suspensors; both have a similarity in the formation of cleavage polyembryony. They differ, however, from each other in such important features as the way of grouping of the archegonia, the formation of the proembryo, the formation of rosette embryos, the extent of cleavage polyembryony and so on. The present work, therefore, does not support the conclusion of Schwarz and Weide (1962) that Metasequoia, Sequoia and Sequoiadendron should be reduced to one genus-Sequoia Endl. and it also does not support the proposal of Hu et Cheng (1948) that a new family Metasequoiaceae should be adopted. It appears that the genus Metasequoia should remain under Taxodiaceae.
Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Embryos of Pinus koraiensis Grown in vitro IV.
Author: C. L. Lee and Chang Hsin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    Various growth reactions were observed following different kinds of longitudinal splits in the radicles of the excised mature embryos or in the young roots (5C10 mm in length) of the intact embryos with female gametophytes in Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. If a shallow incision was made in the radicle of the excised embryo and groups of the initial cells were so equally divided in halves, a root primordium originated normally from cach half. However, they became small and abnormal roots and eventually ceased to grow. If a deep incision was cut through the groups of the initial cells extending towards the differentiated tissues, the incised portions split apart and subsequently recurred following 2C3 weeks culture. At this time the apical meristem quickly transformed to mature parenchyma and ceased to extend any further. It appeared to be that the more mature tissues as well as the apical initial cell groups would also affect the root development after the incision. With intact female gametophyte the initiation and growth of the roots were normal, however, following either shallow or deep incision of the radicle of the germinated embryo. It is therefore suggested that the female gametophyte of the pine seed is essential both as a nutritional source for germination and a regenerative factor of the radicle.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Growth of Excised Stem Tips of Stachys sieboldii II.
Author: C. L. Lee, Sun An-tze and Y. L. Kwei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    The present investigation deals with a comparative study on the growth of excised stem tips of Stachys sieboldii Miq. in vitro. The stem tips were excised from the tubers shortly after germination. Following ordinary cleansing and sterilization, the portions above the fifth node of the stem tips were cultured in basic media containing different concentrations of adenine, bee royal jelly, 2,4-D, indoleacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid, and gibberellin. Observations on the growth pattern following 1, 2, and 4 weeks of culture showed the effect of growth stimulation by the above mentioned organic substances at certain concentrations. Among those, indoleacetic acid and gibberellin of 0.5 ppm., bee royal jelly of 100 ppm and adenine of 1 and 10 ppm showed the most significant influence. Variations in the development of primordia of the adventitious roots were noticed at the base of the excised stem tips treated in vitro. At low concentrations the initiation, organization and extention of the adventitious roots were more or less normal, and the stem tips showed more rapid growth. However, at high concentrations, with the exceptions of those cultured in adenine and bee royal jelly media, the growth of the stem tips and their bases exhibited various degrees of modification, being most prominent in the naphthylacetic acid media. The loci of root initiation were not confined within the pericycle. At later stages, the primordia of the adventitious roots showed tumorous aggregations with loss of internal layering. The upper part of the stem tips ceased to extend at high concentrations. The internal layering and zonation disappeared. The apical meristem became parenchymatous. No new leaf primordium was initiated and, instead, those already present were greatly enlarged. Frequently, tumors of various sizes were seen in the young leaves.
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
٧֧ߧڧ ѧѧߧڧ ݧ ݧ֧ӧ ҧ ݧҧڧܧѧ ܧߧا (Sesamum indicum L.)
Author: -ѧߧ ا ѧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2258)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Allometric Growth of the Different Organs of Rice Plant
Author: H. S. Lei and D. B. Xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1964 12(3)
      
    The panicle weight (we) of rice plant and the total weight of aerial parts (wb) are positively and closely correlated. In fields of ordinary densities this relationship may be expressed by a linear regression we = b (wbC a) (1) according to Wang and Lei (1961). In the present experiment, analyses were made on the correlationships between the different organs and how these correlations are influenced by various factors such as planting density, artificial thinning and manuring. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In all the treatments, except artificial thinning, equation (1) expresses well the we wb relationship. The parameter b varies very little in these treatments, but variation of parameter a is considerable. 2. In very sparsely planted plots or artificially thinned plots, the we wb relationship is not strictly linear (fig. 1 & 2). For very large wb's, the observed values of we are lower than the values calculated from the linear equation. The relation is better expressed by the formula we = b (wbCa)c (4) . The significance of equation (3) as a generalized equation of the equation (1) and the classical allometric growth equation (y = b xc) is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2017)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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