December 2014, Volume 56 Issue 12, Pages 1110每1192.


Cover Caption: Split-root system in symbiosis research
About the cover: Legume-Rhizobium interactions are governed by both local and systemic signals. In this issue, Larrainzar et al. (pp. 1118每1124) provide a comprehensive overview on the application of splitroot systems to understand the systemic or local signaling involved in symbiosis establishment, nodule number and nitrogen fixation under a variety of stress conditions.

 

          Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1110每1111
Published Online: December 2, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12309
Abstract (Browse 318)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Minireview
Involvement of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the regulation of epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis  
Author: An Yan, Minjie Wu, Yongqin Zhao, Aidong Zhang, Bohan Liu, John Schiefelbein and Yinbo Gan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1112每1117
Published Online: May 23, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12221
      
    

Cell fate determination is a basic developmental process during the growth of multicellular organisms. Trichomes and root hairs of Arabidopsis are both readily accessible structures originating from the epidermal cells of the aerial tissues and roots respectively, and they serve as excellent models for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling cell fate determination and cell morphogenesis. The regulation of trichome and root hair formation is a complex program that consists of the integration of hormonal signals with a large number of transcriptional factors, including MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors. Studies during recent years have uncovered an important role of C2H2 type zinc finger proteins in the regulation of epidermal cell fate determination. Here in this minireview we briefly summarize the involvement of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the control of trichome and root hair formation in Arabidopsis.

 

Yan A, Wu M, Zhao Y, Zhang A, Liu B, Schiefelbein J, Gan Y (2014) Involvement of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the regulation of epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1112–1117. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12221

Abstract (Browse 1148)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Split-root systems applied to the study of the legume-rhizobial symbiosis: What have we learned?  
Author: Estíbaliz Larrainzar, Erena Gil-Quintana, Cesar Arrese-Igor, Esther M. González and Daniel Marino
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1118每1124
Published Online: June 26, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12231
      
    

Split-root system (SRS) approaches allow the differential treatment of separate and independent root systems, while sharing a common aerial part. As such, SRS is a useful tool for the discrimination of systemic (shoot origin) versus local (root/nodule origin) regulation mechanisms. This type of approach is particularly useful when studying the complex regulatory mechanisms governing the symbiosis established between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria. The current work provides an overview of the main insights gained from the application of SRS approaches to understand how nodule number (nodulation autoregulation) and nitrogen fixation are controlled both under non-stressful conditions and in response to a variety of stresses. Nodule number appears to be mainly controlled at the systemic level through a signal which is produced by nodule/root tissue, translocated to the shoot, and transmitted back to the root system, involving shoot Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. In contrast, both local and systemic mechanisms have been shown to operate for the regulation of nitrogenase activity in nodules. Under drought and heavy metal stress, the regulation is mostly local, whereas the application of exogenous nitrogen seems to exert a regulation of nitrogen fixation both at the local and systemic levels.

 

Larrainzar E, Gil坼Quintana E, Arrese坼Igor C, González EM, Marino D (2014) Split坼root systems applied to the study of the legume坼rhizobial symbiosis: What have we learned? J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1118–1124. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12231

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          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Tertiary montane origin of the Central Asian flora, evidence inferred from cpDNA sequences of Atraphaxis (Polygonaceae)
Author: Ming-Li Zhang, Stewart C. Sanderson, Yan-Xia Sun, Vyacheslav V. Byalt and Xiao-Li Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1125每1135
Published Online: June 12, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12226
      
    

Atraphaxis has approximately 25 species and a distribution center in Central Asia. It has been previously used to hypothesize an origin from montane forest. We sampled 18 species covering three sections within the genus and sequenced five cpDNA spacers, atpB-rbcL, psbK-psbI, psbA-trnH, rbcL, and trnL-trnF. BEAST was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship and time divergences, and S-DIVA and Lagrange were used, based on distribution area and ecotype data, for reconstruction of ancestral areas and events. Our results appear compatible with designation of three taxonomic sections within the genus. The generic stem and crown ages were Eocene, approximately 47 Ma, and Oligocene 27 Ma, respectively. The origin of Atraphaxis is confirmed as montane, with an ancestral area consisting of the Junggar Basin and uplands of the Pamir-Tianshan-Alatau-Altai mountain chains, and ancestral ecotype of montane forest. Two remarkable paleogeographic events, shrinkage of the inland Paratethys Sea at the boundary of the late Oligocene and early Miocene, and the time intervals of cooling and drying of global climate from 24 (22) Ma onward likely facilitated early diversification of Atraphaxis, while rapid uplift of the Tianshan Mountains during the late Miocene may have promoted later diversification.

 

Zhang ML, Sanderson SC, Sun YX, Byalt VV, Hao XL (2014) Tertiary montane origin of the Central Asian flora, evidence inferred from cpDNA sequences of Atraphaxis (Polygonaceae). J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1125–1135. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12226

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          Molecular Physiology
Slr0151 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is required for efficient repair of photosystem II under high-light condition
Author: Haomeng Yang, Libing Liao, Tingting Bo, Lei Zhao, Xuwu Sun, Xuefeng Lu, Birgitta Norling and Fang Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1136每1150
Published Online: August 22, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12275
      
    

Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes that have adapted successfully to adverse environments including high-light irradiation. Although it is known that the repair of photodamaged photosystem II (PSII) in the organisms is a highly regulated process, our knowledge of the molecular components that regulate each step of the process is limited. We have previously identified a hypothetical protein Slr0151 in the membrane fractions of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Here, we report that Slr0151 is involved in PSII repair of the organism. We generated a mutant strain (Δslr0151) lacking the protein Slr0151 and analyzed its characteristics under normal and high-light conditions. Targeted deletion of slr0151 resulted in decreased PSII activity in Synechocystis. Moreover, the mutant exhibited increased photoinhibition due to impairment of PSII repair under high-light condition. Further analysis using in vivo radioactive labeling and 2-D blue native/sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the PSII repair cycle was hindered at the levels of D1 synthesis and disassembly and/or assembly of PSII in the mutant. Protein interaction assays demonstrated that Slr0151 interacts with D1 and CP43 proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that Slr0151 plays an important role in regulating PSII repair in the organism under high-light stress condition.

 

Yang H, Liao L, Bo T, Zhao L, Sun X, Lu X, Norling B, Huang F (2014) Slr0151 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is required for efficient repair of photosystem II under high坼light condition. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1136–1150. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12275

Abstract (Browse 799)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root indole-3-acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche
Author: Qing Zhao, Yu Wu, Lei Gao, Jun Ma, Chuan-You Li and Cheng-Bin Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1151每1163
Published Online: May 15, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12217
      
    
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with numerous biological functions. However, the influence of sulfur nutrient availability on the regulation of root development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. root development and growth to different levels of sulfate, demonstrating that low sulfate levels promote the primary root elongation. By using various reporter lines, we examined in vivo IAA level and distribution, cell division, and root meristem in response to different sulfate levels. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of in vivo cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels were measured. Root cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels are positively correlated with external sulfate levels in the physiological range, which eventually affect root system architecture. Low sulfate levels also downregulate the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and transport, and elevate the accumulation of PLT1 and PLT2. This study suggests that sulfate level affects the primary root elongation by regulating the endogenous auxin level and root stem cell niche maintenance.

 

Zhao Q, Wu Y, Gao L, Ma J, Li CY, Xiang CB (2014) Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root Indole坼3坼acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1151–1163. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12217

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Identification of microRNAs in six solanaceous plants and their potential link with phosphate and mycorrhizal signaling
Author: Mian Gu, Wei Liu, Qi Meng, Wenqi Zhang, Aiqun Chen, Shubin Sun and Guohua Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1164每1178
Published Online: June 26, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12233
      
    
To date, only a limited number of solanaceous miRNAs have been deposited in the miRNA database. Here, genome-wide bioinformatic identification of miRNAs was performed in six solanaceous plants (potato, tomato, tobacco, eggplant, pepper, and petunia). A total of 2,239 miRNAs were identified following a range of criteria, of which 982 were from potato, 496 from tomato, 655 from tobacco, 46 from eggplant, 45 were from pepper, and 15 from petunia. The sizes of miRNA families and miRNA precursor length differ in all the species. Accordingly, 620 targets were predicted, which could be functionally classified as transcription factors, metabolic enzymes, RNA and protein processing proteins, and other proteins for plant growth and development. We also showed evidence for miRNA clusters and sense and antisense miRNAs. Additionally, five Pi starvation- and one arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-related cis-elements were found widely distributed in the putative promoter regions of the miRNA genes. Selected miRNAs were classified into three groups based on the presence or absence of P1BS and MYCS cis-elements, and their expression in response to Pi starvation and AM symbiosis was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). These results show that conserved miRNAs exist in solanaceous species and they might play pivotal roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses.

 

Gu M, Liu W, Meng Q, Zhang W, Chen A, Sun S, Xu G (2014) Identification of microRNAs in six solanaceous plants and their potential link with phosphate and mycorrhizal signalings. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1164–1178. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12233

Abstract (Browse 956)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
OsSERK1 regulates rice development but not immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Magnaporthe oryzae
Author: Shimin Zuo, Xiaogang Zhou, Mawsheng Chen, Shilu Zhang, Benjamin Schwessinger, Deling Ruan, Can Yuan, Jing Wang, Xuewei Chen and Pamela C. Ronald
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(12): 1179每1192
Published Online: September 29, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12290
      
    
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of plant development and immunity. The rice genome contains two SERK genes, OsSerk1 and OsSerk2. We previously demonstrated that OsSerk2 is required for rice Xa21-mediated resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and for normal development. Here we report the molecular characterization of OsSerk1. Overexpression of OsSerk1 results in a semi-dwarf phenotype whereas silencing of OsSerk1 results in a reduced angle of the lamina joint. OsSerk1 is not required for rice resistance to Xoo or Magnaporthe oryzae. Overexpression of OsSerk1 in OsSerk2-silenced lines complements phenotypes associated with brassinosteroid (BR) signaling defects, but not the disease resistance phenotype mediated by Xa21. In yeast, OsSERK1 interacts with itself forming homodimers, and also interacts with the kinase domains of OsSERK2 and BRI1, respectively. OsSERK1 is a functional protein kinase capable of auto-phosphorylation in vitro. We conclude that, whereas OsSERK2 regulates both rice development and immunity, OsSERK1 functions in rice development but not immunity to Xoo and M. oryzae.

 

Zuo S, Zhou X, Chen M, Zhang S, Schwessinger B, Ruan D, Yuan C, Wang J, Chen X, Ronald PC (2014). OsSERK1 regulates rice development but not immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Magnaporthe oryzae. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 1179–1192. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12290

Abstract (Browse 1009)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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