January 1965, Volume 13 Issue 1


          Research Articles
Quantitative Estimations of Downward Oxygen Transport from Aerial to Subterranean Parts in Intact Seedlings of Rice and Other Plants
Author: K. Z. Bai, M. S. Sung and C. H. Lou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    Quantitative estimations of downward oxygen transport from aerial to subterranean parts in intact seedlings were carried out in the present investigation with the respiratory hydrometer specially designed by us for this purpose. The chief object of the investigation is rice, a crop which is notable for its marshy habitat and whose submerged roots are in particular demand of such transport. Some other common plants (wheat, pea, water cress, etc.), either of marshy or of mesophytic habitat, have also been included in the investigation for comparison. Although rice has long been known for its capability of downward oxygen transport, as has often been revealed by various qualitative demonstrations and indirect estimations; yet, data of direct quantitative measurement of the actual amount transported, so far as we are aware, have been very scanty. The few attempts of bringing about such quantitative measurement in an intact plant are made by enclosing its shoot and root in two adjoining compartments respectively, and gas analysis is made on samples taken from each compartment at intervals. The procedure is so elaborate and tedious that estimations on a large scale could not be readily carried out and the results have often been rendered unreliable by mishandling of the plant and air leakage between the compartments. Proposals to the path and mechanism of downward oxygen transport in higher plants have largely been based upon such scanty quantitative approximations and various qualitative observations, and the conclusions derived therefrom are contraversial and far from being convincing. The presentation in this communication of a simple yet accurate experimental method for the quantitative determination of this kind might be opportune and appropriate. The basic principle of the respiratory hydrometer employed in this investigation has been given previously (Lou et al., 1963). Seedlings raised in water culture are inserted into the vessel of the hydrometer (Fig. 1) with its aerial part in the air space above and roots in the water passage below. As the diffusion rate of oxygen in water is about 1/300,000 that in air, the submerged roots of an intact rice seedling practically have their immediate oxygen supply cut off and have to rely upon the oxygen transported from above. Downward oxygen transport in intact seedlings can be easily estimated through the following procedures and the results thus obtained are summarized below: 1. The difference between two consecutive determinations of the oxygen absorbed by the aerial parts of intact seedlings made before and after their roots are severed gives the amount of oxygen transported downwards to roots. For the marshy plant (rice, water cress), it is about 50% (range: 30%每70%) of the total amount absorbed; whereas for ordinary land plants raised in water culture (wheat, pea), it is 20%每30% of the total. 2. The above results are in good agreement with those obtained by determining the respiratory quotients of intact seedlings first in air (e.g.R.Q. < 1 in case of rice seedling) and then with their roots submerged in water (R.Q. < 0.5). The difference between the two consecutive determinations again gives the fraction of oxygen transported downwards. 3. Either by varying the oxygen supply to the aerial part (from 1/4 to twice the oxygen content in air) or by increasing the oxygen consumption of the root through temperature increase or DNP stimulation, the oxygen concentration gradient along the vertical axis of the plant can be steepened or lessened at will. When such experiment is carried out in rice seedlings, the amount of oxygen transported downwards increases with the gradient.
Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth of the Tops of Sweet Potato and the Translocation of the Nutrients from Leaves
Author: Ting Yuan-shu and Tseng Kwang-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    1. Experiments were carried out in Hangchow on the increase of dry matter in the tops of sweet potato plants. The increase can be divided into three periods: (1) slow accumulation of dry matter; (2) rapid increase of accumulation of dry matter, reaching a maximum; (3) decline of accumulation of dry matter, later on account of senility and the dropping of leaves, there was a marked reduction in the dry matter of the tops. The increase in dry matter is in proportion to the leaf area. The amount of fertilizer used is closely related to the increase of dry matter and leaf area. 2. The yield of sweet potato is related to the increase in dry matter of the tops of the plant. To a certain extent, the greater the amount of dry matter, the more rapidly will the tubers enlarge, finally results in a higher yield. Excessive use of fertilizer leads to an abnormal elongation of the plant. During this period an increase in dry matter of the tops not only fails to induce the enlargement of the tubers, but also leads to the consumption of the dry matter, and consequently causes a reduction in yield of sweet potato. From the curve of T/R ratio, the sooner the downward translocation of the tops nutrients occurs, the faster the tubers will form and enlarge. 3. Experiments with p32 show that the various growth conditions of the tops are closely correlated with the translocation of the tubers. With well growing and high yielding plants the nutrients move from the tops to the tubers as soon as the root enlarges. This translocation is even accelerated during the later stage. During the earlier stage of development, much of the plant nutrition is translocated to the stems and leaves, particularly to the latter; then gradually it is diverted to the leaves and the root system, and finally concentrates in the roots. The increase of the area of green leaves and the number of branches during the period of early growth, and the promoting of favourable conditions for the formation and enlargement of the roots, as well as the facilitating of the translocation of nutrients to the roots during the later stage are the determinative factors necessary for obtaining high yield of sweet potato.
Abstract (Browse 2265)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Light Intensity on Certain Biological Characters of Rauvolfia
Author: Y. Z. Feng, S. C. Yu and J. H. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    The effect of light intensity on Rauvolfia yunnanensis was studied under four different light conditions, namely: 1. 100% daylight (shadeless); 2.73% (27% shaded); 3. 48% (52% shaded) ; 4. 28% (72% shaded). The most suitable light intensity required for the growth of plant, both on the plant height and diameter, was varying from 28% daylight (at dry season) to 73% daylight (at foggy season) at different seasons. Under the half shaded condition (48% light intensity), the annual production of roots, leaves and stems was greater than under any other light conditions (100%, 73% or 28% light intensity). The total number of flowers was depressed markedly by shading, but the number of fruits yielded was higher under 73% light intensity. The number of embryoless seeds was as high as 96% under full light condition (100% light intensity), but decreased apparently under the shading of forest canopy. The size of leaves, fruits and seeds was varying quite a bit with different light intensities. Finally, we have to mention that the alkaloid contents in the leaves tended to increase with the decreasing of the light intensity.
Abstract (Browse 1962)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Formation of Adventitious Roots and Buds in the Petiole of Detached Leaf of Pelargonium Graveolens
Author: C. L. Lee, Y. S. Hu and S. J. Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    Median sized leaves of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. after being excised from the middle of the petioles were planted in quartz sand or common sand in greenhouse. After one week in culture, calluses were formed aberrantly at the wound surface of the petioles of most of the detached leaves. By the second week, adventitious roots initiated somewhere in the callus close to the vascular tissue of the splitted base of the petiole. Adventitious buds also initiated from the callus, but they were not related to the vascular tissue in the origin. There were two different modes of initiation: one from the depth of the callus (endogenous) and the other near its surface (exogenous). Soon after, the distal end of the bud primordium became flattened (most of them became inverted triangular in outline) as was seen in the longitudinal section. Later, the middle part of the distal end became depressed and differentiated into the first leaf primordium and the apical meristem. As the young bud became further elongated, the leaf primordia were consecutively formed. Consequently the structure of the adventitious buds approached normal. The apical portion emerged from the sand was similar to the mature one in structure.
Abstract (Browse 2245)  |  Full Text PDF       
妖忘忌抖攻忱快扶我快 改技忌把我抉抖抉忍我我 Camellia Oleosa Rehd.
Author: 孛忘 孚批改 - 忱我批扶抉
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of the Shoot Apex of Glyptostrobus pensilis Koch
Author: C. H. Yu and T. L. Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    1. A series of studies on the structure of the shoot apices in various genera of the Taxodiaceae, except Glyptostrobus was carried out by Cross (1939, 1941, 1942, 1943a, b). In the last two pieces of his above mentioned works, he repeatedly suggested that there was a basic structure pattern which characterized the family. Results obtained from the present investigation lend support to this view. 2. From a comparative point of view concerning the structure of the apical meristem, it may be said that the family Taxodiaceae is a very natural one, any attempt on subdividing it into several separate families, as Hayata (1932) did, seems to be unnecessary. 3. It is very interesting to note that the cellular pattern of the Glyptostrobus shows more affinity with that of the sequoias than with that of Taxodium. Whereas the structures of the apices of Taxoclium and Metasequoia possess more similarities. 4. Cross (1942) proposed that an entirely discrete surface layer might be evolved in the apical meristem of the Taxodiaceae as a result of a gradual diminution and ultimate loss of the periclinal divisions in the outer cells of the shoot apex. In his subsequent papers (1943a, b), more evidence were added in this respect. The present observation is in accord with Cross' findings.
Abstract (Browse 1979)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differentiation of the Shoot Apex and its Relationship to the Development of the Vegetative Organs in Spring Wheat (Yu-Chung-Hung and Kansu 96) under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents
Author: C. L. Pan, H. L. Hu and C. C. Tzao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    1. In each stage of the differentiation of the growing cones of these two varieties of wheat, their morphological characters are the same as of the general wheat, their fourth stage being the sign of the beginning of their reproductive structures. 2. The sequence of the differentiation in the development of spikelets is as follows: first the outer glume, then the inner glume, the lemma of the first flower, the primordium of the first flower, the lemma of the second flower and finally the primordium of second flower, etc.; while it is the palea, the stamens, the pistil and the lodicules for the flower part. 3. The differentiations of the primordiums of stamens and pistil start at the same time as the appearance of the awn. 4. It was found that in Kansu 96 the rate of the differentiation of the growing cones is more rapid, its volume bigger, the number of its spikelets and flowers, the chance of fruitification and its yield higher, than those of Yu-Chung-Hung, but the average individual weight of the grain is lower than that of the latter. 5. The rate of the differentiation of the growing cones will be slowed, and the numbers of spikelets, flowers and grains increased if a high moisture content of soil is present. The shape of the spike is grand and close under irrigation, but under drought it is slender and soft. Although the yield of Yu-Chung-Hung is lower than that of Kansu 96, but it appears to have a higher hydronasty than the latter. 6. It was shown in our investigation that the Kansu 96 appears to be of drought resistance. 7. Under normal conditions and in the same variety, the appearances of the leaf and the node of the stem, and the developmental phases of plants may be suggested as an indication of the differentiation of the growing cones. It is recommended that they can be used as a field crop.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on the Cold Resistance of Plants-Morphological Changes of the Intracellular Structures of Wheat in the Overwintering Period
Author: L. C. Chien and S. H. Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1965 13(1)
    The present work comprises a study of 6 wheat varieties of various degrees of cold resistance. They are: 2 winter varieties, Nungta 183 and Huapei 187; 2 spring varieties, Nanta 2419 and Piy邦; and 2 intermediate varieties (according to their winter hardiness), Pima No. 1 and Pingy邦an 50. All these varieties were cultivated under the same natural conditions. Cytological changes of each of the varieties were studied comparatively at different stages of the overwintering period. In addition, certain morphological and physiological features of the above mentioned varieties were also studied. With the temperature gradually falling in autumn, the rate of the cell divisions and the physiological activities of the nucleoli of the winter varieties decreased, the growth of the plants and the development of the apical cones were suppressed, and so more storage materials were left. The less hardy and non-hardy varieties, on the other hand, retained their cytophysiological activities and high growing rate, so that the stored materials were much less than those left in the winter varieties. However the non-resistant varieties could not withstand the winter frost and survived no more. The plants of the less hardy varieties were partly killed by winter frost. When the temperature dropped further in winter, plasmolysis gradually appeared in the cells of the tillering nodes of the cold resistant wheat plants, and it disappeared with the return of the warmer weather. The degrees of the plasmolysis in different varieties were found proportional to their cold hardiness, and no plasrnolysis was observed in the spring wheat. Thus a correlation apparently exists between the plasmolysis and the cold resistance in wheat. In winter, the vacuoles of the young leaf cells and of the cells of the primary meristematic tissues of the apical cones became smaller and smaller, while a dense reticular structure appeared in the cytoplasm. In spring, the vacuoles restored, and the reticular structure disappeared. It seems that the occurrence of the reticular structure in the winter season is also closely correlated with the cold resistance of the wheat plants. It was found that the nuclei and the chloroplasts of the winter varieties were more resistant to cold than those of the less resistant and non-resistant varieties. The stability of these structures increased in hardened condition. Morphological changes of the chloroplasts of the young leaf cells occured from autumn to winter, they were transformed from polymorphic to uniformly globular. The chloroplasts of some cells were balling together, however, they actually retained their individualities. The chondriosomes increased in size and quantity during the hardened period. They became short and thick, some were in globular form or they clumped together in severe winter, and gradually restored when warmer weather arrived in the spring. The correlations of the mitosis, the plasmolysis, the appearance of the reticular structure in the cytoplasm and the stability of the nuclei with the cold resistance of the wheat were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2035)  |  Full Text PDF       
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