Special Issue: Plant Biotic Interactions   

April 2016, Volume 58 Issue 4, Pages 281每439.


Cover Caption: Plant Biotic Interactions
Plants are constantly under the attack of pathogens, pests and parasites, causing severe problems in food security and human health. While pathogens and pests find ways to invade their hosts, plants have evolved sophisticated immune systems to fight against infections. This special issue is dedicated to biotic interactions in plants.

 

          Editorial
Plant biotic interactions  
Author: Hailing Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 282每283
Published Online: April 7, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12476
      
    

Plants are constantly under attack by pathogens, pests, and parasites, resulting in severe consequences on global food production and human health. While pathogens and pests find their ways to invade and communicate with their hosts, plants have evolved sophisticated immune systems fight infections. In the field of plant-microbial interactions, although over the past years most of the studies have focused on the function and signaling pathways of plant disease resistance (R) proteins and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), as well as pathogen effector proteins, many new important research areas have emerged. This Special Issue includes eight invited review articles and four research papers. These reviews highlight the recent advances and latest discoveries in these new research areas and also touch on current serious issues in the crop production industry, aiming to attract more attention to these important, but often overlooked areas, and to stimulate new ideas for future research in the field of plant-biotic interactions.

Abstract (Browse 312)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
Protein trafficking during plant innate immunity  
Author: Wen-Ming Wang, Peng-Qiang Liu, Yong-Ju Xu and Shun-Yuan Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 284每298
Published Online: September 8, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12426
      
    

Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system to fight against pathogenic microbes. Upon detection of pathogen invasion by immune receptors, the immune system is turned on, resulting in production of antimicrobial molecules including pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Conceivably, an efficient immune response depends on the capacity of the plant cell's protein/membrane trafficking network to deploy the right defense-associated molecules in the right place at the right time. Recent research in this area shows that while the abundance of cell surface immune receptors is regulated by endocytosis, many intracellular immune receptors, when activated, are partitioned between the cytoplasm and the nucleus for induction of defense genes and activation of programmed cell death, respectively. Vesicle transport is an essential process for secretion of PR proteins to the apoplastic space and targeting of defense-related proteins to the plasma membrane or other endomembrane compartments. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of protein trafficking during plant immunity, with a focus on the immunity proteins on the move and the major components of the trafficking machineries engaged.

Abstract (Browse 592)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Efficient immune responses depend on the trafficking network to deploy the right defense-associated molecules in the right place at the right time. In this review we discuss the various aspects of protein trafficking during plant immunity, focusing on immunity proteins on the move and major components of engaged trafficking machineries.
From filaments to function: The role of the plant actin cytoskeleton in pathogen perception, signaling and immunity  
Author: Katie Porter and Brad Day
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 299每311
Published Online: October 30, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12445
      
    

The eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is required for numerous cellular processes, including cell shape, development and movement, gene expression and signal transduction, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. In recent years, research in both plants and animal systems have described a function for actin as the ideal surveillance platform, linking the function and activity of primary physiological processes to the immune system. In this review, we will highlight recent advances that have defined the regulation and breadth of function of the actin cytoskeleton as a network required for defense signaling following pathogen infection. Coupled with an overview of recent work demonstrating specific targeting of the plant actin cytoskeleton by a diversity of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses, we will highlight the importance of actin as a key signaling hub in plants, one that mediates surveillance of cellular homeostasis and the activation of specific signaling responses following pathogen perception. Based on the studies highlighted herein, we propose a working model that posits changes in actin filament organization is in and of itself a highly specific signal, which induces, regulates and physically directs stimulus-specific signaling processes, most importantly, those associated with response to pathogens.

Abstract (Browse 561)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The function of small RNAs in plant biotic stress response  
Author: Juan Huang, Meiling Yang and Xiaoming Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 312每327
Published Online: January 8, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12463
      
    

Small RNAs (sRNAs) play essential roles in plants upon biotic stress. Plants utilize RNA silencing machinery to facilitate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity to defend against pathogen attack or to facilitate defense against insect herbivores. Pathogens, on the other hand, are also able to generate effectors and sRNAs to counter the host immune response. The arms race between plants and pathogens/insect herbivores has triggered the evolution of sRNAs, RNA silencing machinery and pathogen effectors. A great number of studies have been performed to investigate the roles of sRNAs in plant defense, bringing in the opportunity to utilize sRNAs in plant protection. Transgenic plants with pathogen-derived resistance ability or transgenerational defense have been generated, which show promising potential as solutions for pathogen/insect herbivore problems in the field. Here we summarize the recent progress on the function of sRNAs in response to biotic stress, mainly in plant-pathogen/insect herbivore interaction, and the application of sRNAs in disease and insect herbivore control.

Abstract (Browse 530)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Small RNAs (sRNAs) play essential roles in plants upon biotic stress. This paper summarized the recent progress on the function of sRNAs in response to biotic stress, mainly in plant-pathogen/insect herbivore interaction, and the application of sRNAs in disease and insect herbivore control.
RNA silencing movement in plants  
Author: Glykeria Mermigka, Frédéric Verret and Kriton Kalantidis
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 328每342
Published Online: August 22, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12423
      
    

Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.

Abstract (Browse 610)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
RNA silencing produces signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. In this review several aspects of this mechanism are discussed.
Language of plants: Where is the word?  
Author: Maja Šimpraga, Junji Takabayashi and Jarmo K. Holopainen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 343每349
Published Online: November 13, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12447
      
    

Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) causing transcriptomic, metabolomic and behavioral responses in receiver organisms. Volatiles involved in such responses are often called “plant language”. Arthropods having sensitive chemoreceptors can recognize language released by plants. Insect herbivores, pollinators and natural enemies respond to composition of volatiles from plants with specialized receptors responding to different types of compounds. In contrast, the mechanism of how plants “hear” volatiles has remained obscured. In a plant-plant communication, several individually emitted compounds are known to prime defense response in receiver plants with a specific manner according to the chemical structure of each volatile compound. Further, composition and ratio of volatile compounds in the plant-released plume is important in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions mediated by plant volatiles. Studies on volatile-mediated plant-plant signaling indicate that the signaling distances are rather short, usually not longer than one meter. Volatile communication from plants to insects such as pollinators could be across distances of hundreds of meters. As many of the herbivore induced VOCs have rather short atmospheric life times, we suggest that in long-distant communications with plant volatiles, reaction products in the original emitted compounds may have additional information value of the distance to emission source together with the original plant-emitted compounds.

Abstract (Browse 519)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
As chemical factories, plants emit various biogenic volatile organic compounds. Moreover, plants do talk via sending messages, using syllables, words and distinguishing dialects. The short and long distance communication between plant-plant and plant-insect exists, suggesting that emitted compound(s) and reaction product(s) may have signaling value for orientating insects.
Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators  
Author: Isgouhi Kaloshian and Linda L. Walling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 350每361
Published Online: October 15, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12438
      
    

Hemipteran and dipteran insects have behavioral, cellular and chemical strategies for evading or coping with the host plant defenses making these insects particularly destructive pests worldwide. A critical component of a host plant's defense to herbivory is innate immunity. Here we review the status of our understanding of the receptors that contribute to perception of hemipteran and dipteran pests and highlight the gaps in our knowledge in these early events in immune signaling. We also highlight recent advances in identification of the effectors that activate pattern-triggered immunity and those involved in effector-triggered immunity.

Abstract (Browse 599)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In this review we address the status of our understanding of the early events in plant host innate immune signaling against hemipteran and dipteran insects. We also highlight recent advances in identification of insect effectors from these taxa that affect immunity.
New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria  
Author: Luisa F. Castiblanco and George W. Sundin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 362每372
Published Online: September 17, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12428
      
    

Biofilms are complex bacterial assemblages with a defined three-dimensional architecture, attached to solid surfaces, and surrounded by a self-produced matrix generally composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, lipids and extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation has evolved as an adaptive strategy of bacteria to cope with harsh environmental conditions as well as to establish antagonistic or beneficial interactions with their host. Plant-associated bacteria attach and form biofilms on different tissues including leaves, stems, vasculature, seeds and roots. In this review, we examine the formation of biofilms from the plant-associated bacterial perspective and detail the recently-described mechanisms of genetic regulation used by these organisms to orchestrate biofilm formation on plant surfaces. In addition, we describe plant host signals that bacterial pathogens recognize to activate the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to multicellular behavior.

Abstract (Browse 670)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Biofilms are bacterial aggregations surrounded by a matrix made of sugars, proteins, and DNA, which provide bacteria with protection against harsh environmental conditions. In this review, we examine the formation of biofilms by plant-associated bacteria and the genetic regulation of biofilm formation on plant surfaces.
Huanglongbing: An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world's citrus  
Author: John V. da Graça, Greg W. Douhan, Susan E. Halbert, Manjunath L. Keremane, Richard F. Lee, Georgios Vidalakis and Hongwei Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 373每387
Published Online: October 15, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12437
      
    

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. The destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. Recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of HLB is shaped by multiple elements, in which host defense responses may also play an important role. This review is intended to provide an overview of the importance of HLB to a wider audience of plant biologists. Recent advances on host-pathogen interactions, population genetics and vectoring of the causal agent are discussed.

Abstract (Browse 630)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most important disease on citrus industry. HLB development and severity are a function of multiple elements, in which plant innate immunity, pathogen population in a specific growth region, vector spreading and jumping between regions and among hosts are major contributors.
          Research Articles
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus attack affects a group of compounds rather than rearranging Phoenix canariensis metabolic pathways  
Author: Antonio Giovino, Federico Martinelli and Sergio Saia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 388每396
Published Online: September 24, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12430
      
    

The red palm weevil (RPW; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is spreading worldwide and severely harming many palm species. However, most studies on RPW focused on insect biology, and little information is available about the plant response to the attack. In the present experiment, we used metabolomics to study the alteration of the leaf metabolome of Phoenix canariensis at initial (1st stage) or advanced (2nd stage) attack by RPW compared with healthy (unattacked) plants. The leaf metabolome significantly varied among treatments. At the 1st stage of attack, plants showed a reprogramming of carbohydrate and organic acid metabolism; in contrast, peptides and lipid metabolic pathways underwent more changes during the 2nd than 1st stage of attack. Enrichment metabolomics analysis indicated that RPW attack mostly affected a particular group of compounds rather than rearranging plant metabolic pathways. Some compounds selectively affected during the 1st rather than 2nd stage (e.g. phenylalanine; tryptophan; cellobiose; xylose; quinate; xylonite; idonate; and iso-threonate; cellobiotol and arbutine) are upstream events in the phenylpropanoid, terpenoid and alkaloid biosynthesis. These compounds could be designated as potential markers of initial RPW attack. However, further investigation is needed to determine efficient early screening methods of RPW attack based on the concentrations of these molecules.

Abstract (Browse 581)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The red palm weevil (RPW) is severely harming many palms worldwide. We found that the physiological reaction of the palm to the RPW early attack mostly consist in a change of the carbohydrate and organic acid content of leaves. Thus, some of these compounds could be designated as potential markers for early RPW colonisation.
Quantitative resistance against Bemisia tabaci in Solanum pennellii: Genetics and metabolomics  
Author: Floor van den Oever-van den Elsen, Alejandro F. Lucatti, Sjaak van Heusden, Colette Broekgaarden, Roland Mumm, Marcel Dicke and Ben Vosman
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 397每412
Published Online: November 18, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12449
      
    

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was used to elucidate the genetic background of whitefly-resistance related traits and associated biochemical traits in this species. Minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for whitefly adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) were identified and some were confirmed in an F2BC1 population, where they showed increased percentages of explained variance (more than 30%). Bulked segregant analyses on pools of whitefly-resistant and -susceptible F2 plants enabled the identification of metabolites that correlate either with resistance or susceptibility. Genetic mapping of these metabolites showed that a large number of them co-localize with whitefly-resistance QTLs. Some of these whitefly-resistance QTLs are hotspots for metabolite QTLs. Although a large number of metabolite QTLs correlated to whitefly resistance or susceptibility, most of them are yet unknown compounds and further studies are needed to identify the metabolic pathways and genes involved. The results indicate a direct genetic correlation between biochemical-based resistance characteristics and reduced whitefly incidence in S. pennellii.

Abstract (Browse 536)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in worldwide tomato cultivation. Some wild relatives of tomato show resistance to the whitefly. We identified a strong source of resistance in Solanum pennellii. The genetic and biochemical basis of the resistance were analysed and metabolites linked to the resistance were identified.
Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles  
Author: Fiammetta Alagna, Mario Kallenbach, Andrea Pompa, Francesca De Marchis, Rosa Rao, Ian T. Baldwin, Gustavo Bonaventure and Luciana Baldoni
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 413每425
Published Online: February 28, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12343
      
    

Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

Abstract (Browse 832)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Olive fly (Bactroceraoleae R.), the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.), strongly affects fruits and oil production. We demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins.
Bacillus cereus AR156 primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing miR825/825* and activating defense related genes in Arabidopsis  
Author: Dongdong Niu, Jing Xia, Chunhao Jiang, Beibei Qi, Xiaoyu Ling, Siyuan Lin, Weixiong Zhang, Jianhua Guo, Hailing Jin and Hongwei Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(4): 426每439
Published Online: November 3, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12446
      
    

Small RNAs play an important role in plant immune responses. However, their regulatory function in induced systemic resistance (ISR) is nascent. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces ISR in Arabidopsis against bacterial infection. Here, by comparing small RNA profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000-infected Arabidopsis with and without AR156 pretreatment, we identified a group of Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially regulated by AR156 pretreatment. miR825 and miR825* are two miRNA generated from a single miRNA gene. Northern blot analysis indicated that they were significantly downregulated in Pst DC3000-infected plants pretreated with AR156, in contrast to the plants without AR156 pretreatment. miR825 targets two ubiquitin-protein ligases, while miR825* targets toll-interleukin-like receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) type resistance (R) genes. The expression of these target genes negatively correlated with the expression of miR825 and miR825*. Moreover, transgenic plants showing reduced expression of miR825 and miR825* displayed enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR825 and miR825* were more susceptible. Taken together, our data indicates that Bacillus cereus AR156 pretreatment primes ISR to Pst infection by suppressing miR825 and miR825* and activating the defense related genes they targeted.

Abstract (Browse 545)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
microRNAs are small molecules with big influence in shaping the relationship between plants and their associated microbes. Here we show that microRNAs can alert healthy plant tissues for upcoming pathogen infections. This finding will be helpful in developing biological disease-control management with less environmental impact.
 

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