February 1966, Volume 14 Issue 2


          Research Articles
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Author: -էڧߧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Biology of Macrofungi with Reference to their Cultivation
Author: C. Teng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
    Nutrition, pH, temperature, moisture, light, and aeration as factors influencing mycelial growth, primordia formation, and development of sporophores of 25 species of basidiomycetous macrofungi were studied, of which 18 species produced normal or nearly normal fruit-bodies in the laboratory. It was found that various agricultural by-products and farm wastes, such as sawdust, wood shavings, fallen leaves, soybean hay, bean pods, corn culms, paddy straw, rice glumes, wild grasses, etc. enriched with 20%C25% by weight of rice or wheatbran, made suitable substrata for most of the lignicolous species investigated with the exception of Tremella fuciformis and Lentinus edodes, and that well fermented dungs of domestic animals, such as horse, cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, and poultry, appeared to be satisfactory substitutes for bran as accelerators for fructification. Yields of carpophores were more or less directly proportional to the percentages of accelerators added to the substratum. The vegetative growth of the majority of species studied took place over a wide pH range of 3.0C8.0, with the optimum at 5C6, while the optimal pH for Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, and Hericium erinaceus being about 4.0 and the maximum pH limit for H. erinaceus only 5.4. In Auricularia hispida, the pH range for fructification and that for mycelial growth were almost the same, but in Collybia velutipes and Agaricus bitorquis the pH range for sporogenesis was much more restricted, the optimal being 5C6 and 7C8 respectively. Most of the species investigated produced mycelium within a temperature range of 6C36, the optimum being about 24C27. However, the optimal temperatures for Auricularia auricula, Poria cocos and Volvariella volvacea var. heimii were found to be 30 or more. The temperatures required for sporophore and for primordia formation varied from species to species. While the fruit-bodies of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus sapidus appeared only after "chilling", temperature fluctuations did not exert any stimu- lating effect on primordia differentiation in some other species. Using the temperature requirement for the initiation of primordia as the criterion, the species studied were grouped into the following categories: (1) high-temperature species, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus rhodophyllus, Collybia radicata, Volvariella bombycina, and Volvariella volvacea var. heimii, with their optimum and maximum tem- peratures for primordia initiation exceeding 24 and 30 respectively; (2) intermediate species, such as Auricularia auricula, Tremella fuciformis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pholiota adiposa, Agaricus bitorquis, and Agaricus rubellus, with their maxima not exceeding 28 and with the optimum lying within 20C24 ; and (3) low-temperature species, such as Auricularia hispida, Hericium erinaceus, H. caput-medusae, Pleurotus sapidus, Lentinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, and Agaricus bisporus, with their maxima not exceeding 24 and with the optimum under 20 . Thus, under natural climatic conditions of a given region, without artificial heating or cooling, it was deemed practicable to arrange, according to the temperature response of the various species, a series of mushroom crops to be grown in rotation the year round. Moisture was found to have considerable influence on vegetative growth as well as reproduction. Most of the lignicolous species grew well on the sawdust medium, which contained 100%C340% by weight of water. Moisture content between 260%C340% was more favourable for fruiting, and several flushes were secured. At 100% moisture, fruiting was considerably delayed and only one flush of poorly developed carpophores was obtained. Aeration also played an important role in basidiocarp development. Stagnant humid air or CO2-laden atmosphere markedly inhibited pileus development, diminishing the size of pilei and causing morphological abnormalities. Adequate supply of fresh air with 80%C90% relative humidity tended to maintain a normal rate of transpiration, thereby guaranteeing a flourishing crop. In some species, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Tremella fuciformis, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Volvariella bombycina, Hericium erinaceus, Auricularia hispida, Armillaria mucida, and Lentinus edodes, light was found to be absolutely necessary. In these species, primordia formation would not commence until exposed to light. Certain other species, such as Auricularia auricula, Pleurotus rhodophyllus, Collybia velutipes, Pholiota adiposa, and Agaricus bitorquis, were able to fructify in total darkness, though their primordia formation was promoted by light. For the normal development and pig- mentation of fruit-bodies, light appeared to be essential. Morphological abnormalities, such as long slender stipes and thin rudimentary pilei occurred in total darkness. Results of experiments indicated that in most of the species studied, light reduced mycelial growth. The inhibitory effect was mainly due to the blue region (380C540 m) of the visible spectrum rather than the red region (570C920 m). On the contrary, light at the blue end was shown to be most effective and even essential for fructification; the red end being similar to darkness, evoked almost no response. Having analyzed the results obtained, it seems reasonable to assume that the ontogeny of higher Basidiomycetes consists most probably of four developmental stages, viz., (1) the stage of vegetative growth, (2) the stage of primordia initiation, (3) the stage of sporophore development, and (4) the stage of basidiospore formation, each of which has its own physiological characteristics and metabolic speciality.Hence the requirements of the various stages differ considerably.
Abstract (Browse 2656)  |  Full Text PDF       
Reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (Hill Reaction) by Chloroplasts with Different Chlorophyll a/b Ratios Under monochromatic Light
Author: P. C. Chow, Y. K. Yeh and P. S. Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
    Chloroplasts with different chlorophyll a/b ratios were isolated from 7 to 8 days old wheat seedlings and the activities of reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DPIP) by these chloroplasts as function of the chlorophyll a/b ratios were studied under mono-chromatic light (650 m , 670 m, 680 m, 707 m). It was found that the DPIP reducing activities by these chloroplasts varied with their chlorophyll a/b ratios, and these variations are affected by the wavelengths of the illuminating light. Under 650 m, at the a/b ratios of 2.2 to 2.82, the activities of DPIP reduction in- creased with the a/b ratios, but decreased when the a/b ratios were higher than 2.82. Under 670 m, the DPIP reducing activities also varied with the a/b ratios of isolated chloroplasts. However, the variation was more gradual and steadier. Under 680 m, the DPIP reducing activities increased with the a/b ratios over 3.0, but decreased rather suddenly at a/b ratio of 3.30. Essentially the same relation held for 707 m, but the Hill reaction activities ceased to decline farther when a/b ratio rose to 3.40 at 707 m. When the results were analyzed in terms of the relative activities of the chloroplasts of the above mentioned wave lengths, it was found that the values of the "relative activity" (a/a+b) declined steadily from 1.47C1.29 at an a/b ratio range of 2.05C3.40, while the values of the "relative activity" (b/a+b)increased steadily from 3.10--4.40 at the same range of a/b ratios. But it is to be noted that, under 650 m, the (a/a+b) was 1.36 at the a/b ratio range of 2.63C2.82. Interesting enough, the DPIP reducing activities were the highest of all with these a/b ratios. Activities of DPIP reduction by isolated chloroplasts kept at 0 , 20 , 30 , and 45 diminished with time when illuminated at all wavelengths. However, for those kept at 45 their activities were lost after 20 minutes, except those illuminated with the wave length of 680 m which still maintained 30 % of the initial activity. When kept at the above mentioned temperatures, the chlorophyll a/b ratios of all batches of chloroplasts declined steadily with time. The above results are interpreted as being indicative of the possibility that the pigment systems for the partial reaction (Hill reaction) of the over-all photosynthesis process consisted mainly of Chlb650 and Chla670. And the correlation of temperature and abolition of activity reduction of DPIP of chloroplasts varied under monochromatic light of different wave lengths.
Abstract (Browse 3228)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of the Plumule of Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn. and the Nature of its Scale
Author: Wang Hsi-ching and Y Bing-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
    The structure of the plumule of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and its feature covered with scale are seldom seen in dicotyledon. The fact that the plumule possesses scale is even more uncommon. This particular phenomenon is investigated by observing the differentiation of the plumule apex and the development of the leaf organs. After the seed is formed, the embryo has two young leaves and a terminal bud covered with scale. In the bud it has already differentiated the 3rd and the 4th leaf primordium and a shoot apex, the differentiation of which is very complex. So the structure of the plumule passes through 4 plastochrons altogether. It is made clear through observation and analysis that, before the 4th leaf primordium is formed, the transforma- tions of the shoot apex of the embryo in each plastochron are fundamentally alike. After the 4th leaf primordium is developed, the shoot apex becomes complex and there appear 3 different active cell regions which become the bases of vegetative bud of the seeding apex. The development of these 3 active cell regions will be stated in The Structure of the Vegetative Bud of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and the Nature of its Scales. The apices of the plumule are almost slightly domed in structure. As a rule, their width is from 95 to 107 . Their height is from 17 to 20 during one plastochron. Before the 3rd leaf initiation, the anatomical structure of apices is examined and the fol- lowing zones may be delimited: zone of tunica initials, zone of corpus initials, peripheral zone, and zone of rib meristems. It is frequently observed that the cell of corpus in subapical peripheral zone develops periclinal division, which is the initial cell of leaf primordium; Procambium will appear before the stage of the appearance of leaf buttress. The apex of the plumule is in an apical position, but when the seedling is formed, as the developing leaves are alternate, the directions of the shoot apex are changed, simultaneously the base part of the leaf encloses the axis, and the adaxial meristem also differentiates the scale which encloses the terminal bud, thus placing the bud in axillary of the leaf and forming a zigzag phenomenon of the axis of the seedling. Above the basal adaxial side of the leaf primordium develops the scale of the plumule with meristem periclinal division of closely attached protoderm as its base. So the scale of the plumule of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and the axillary stipule are of the same origin. To sum up, the scale of the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. is differentiated from the adaxial meristem of the basal part of the leaf primordium, and is the derivative part of the leaf. It has the same function as the coleoptile of the monocotyledon. Whether they are homologous organs or not is still to be investigated.
Abstract (Browse 2412)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Crystals in Some Species of Allium
Author: S. H. Wu and C. K. Tsai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
    In the course of a study of the nuclear behaviour in a few species of Allium, we have observed various forms of crystals appearing in the cells of the leaf sheath and scales at different developmental stages. When the crystals first appear in the cells of the growing leaf sheath and scales, they are few in number and very small in size. With the organs concerned gradually becoming mature and senescent, the crystals not only increase in size and number but also vary in forms. For example, in addition to the most numerous column-like crystals, various other forms of single crystals and different types of druses also occur. Moreover, a tetragonal one may form on a druse of columnal crystals or a small round crystal is often observed on a columnal one. In a few cases, a group of small angular crystals is left behind in the place of the nucleus, while the later disappeared. Microchemical tests indicate that the nature of the well-formed crystals in the cytoplasm is evidently calcium oxalate. In the cells of the senescent leaf sheath and scales, the existence of plasmodesmata of a mixture of nuclear material and cytoplasm, as is evidenced by staining with acetocarmine, is clearly discernible. In the nuclei of some cells there are different numbers of unstained bodies and the chromatic material has apparently diminished. The release of achromatic material from the nucleus into the cytoplasm has also been observed in rare cases. These phenomena together with the deposition of crystals in the cytoplasm seem to facilitate the intercellular movement of the protoplasm by which the organic materials may be transported from the senescent organ to the inner growing one. This is an additional support to the view advanced in a previous paper (Lou, Wu et al., 1956).
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The Persistent Effect of Co60 -Rays on the Chromosome Aberrations in the Root-tip Cells of Onion
Author: T. C. Wang, M. T. Tang and S. C. Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
Abstract (Browse 1965)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Author: اѧ ٧ڧ -ѧ ѧ -ݧڧߧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Author: ѧݧ ڧ - ٧ -ߧߧ ֧
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1966 14(2)
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
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