January 1973, Volume 15 Issue 1


          Research Articles
A New Plant Resource in Yunnan--The ¡°Dragon Blood¡± (Dracaena cambodiana)
Author: Shan Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
Abstract (Browse 1941)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Observations on Effects of Various Oxygen Partial Pressures on Morpholigical and Constitutional Changes in Cucumber During Storage
Author: Li Yu, Wang Ven-houng, Duan Ching-hsia and MaoChun-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
Abstract (Browse 1730)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dolichopetalum Genus Novum Asclepiadacearum
Author: Tsiang Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sinopimelodendron, A New Genus of Euphorbiaceae from Kwangsi
Author: Tsiang Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Fossil Florule and Sporo-Pollen Assemblage of the Shang-In coal Series of Erhyuan, Yunnan
Author: Tao Jun-Rong and Kong Zhao-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    This paper deals with the florule and sporo-pollen assemblage of the Shang-In coal series of Erhyuan, Yunnan. The fossil leaves are mainly of Quercus, Q. semicarpifolia Sm., Q. pannosa H.-M., Q. monimontricha H.-M., Q. gilliana Rehd. et Wils. and Q. spathulata Seem. Besides, there are leaves of Acer paxii Fr., A. sp., Celts bungeana Blume, Viburnum ovalifolium Rehd., and Populus spp., cones of Pinus yunnanensis Fr., seeds of Abies, fruits of Trapa, pollen of Pinus yunnanensis Fr., P. sp., Abies, Picea,Cedrus, Tsuga, Podocarpus, Quercus, Betula, Acer, Ulmus, Michelia, Rosaceae, Erieaceae, Nymphaea, Trapa and Hydrocharis and spores of Polypodiaceae and Pteris. The plant fossils and sporo-pollen assemblage of the Shangin coal series indicate that the palaeoflora is quite close to the modern flora of Erhyuan. The vegetation is a kind of needle and broad-leaved mixed forest inhabiting subtropical mountains. Judging from the stratigraphical sequence and the characteristics of this flora,the geological age of the said coal series is late Pliocene. This flora is also very close to the middle-late Pliocene flora of Mt. Shisha Pangmaand probably belongs to the same palaeoflora. The present investigation leads us togain an insight into the nature of Pliocene flora east to the Himalayas, to determinethe geological age of the coal series, and to provide some palaeobotanical evidence on the history of floristic development of the present flora of western Yunnan.
Abstract (Browse 2018)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Discovery of a Quercus semicarpifolia Bed in Mount Shisha Pangma and its Significance in Botany and Geology
Author: Hs¨¹ Jen, Tao Jun-rong and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    Mount Shisha Pangma, one of the high peaks of the central Himalayas, is about 8,012 m in height above the sea level. At the foot of its northern slope, there is aseries of grayish yellow sandstones. Its exposed thickness is about 1,000 m. In the lower part of this sandstone series, a plant-bearing bed was discovered, inwhich were preserved leaves of evergreen oaks, Quercus semicarpifolia Sm., Qu. cf.pannosa Hand.-Mzt. and Qu. cf. senecens ttand.-Mzt.,, and a leaf of Cyperaceae(?). Under palynological investigation, a large amount of pollen grains of Cedrus (mostlyof C. deodara Loud.) and Quercus has been observed, counted about 59.1% and 72.2%of the sporo-pollen contents of the upper and lower parts respectively. Besides, pollenof Abies, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga, Betula, Ericaceae, Labiatae and Cyperaceae and sporesof Pteris, Polypodium and Selaginella were also observed. The sporo-pollen assemblagesof the upper and lower parts of this series are quite similar. Owing to the incrementof the amount of Abies pollen and the appearance of pollen grains of Picea, Pinus and some shrubby and herbaceous plants and spore of Selaginella, the flora of the laterstage is more complex than that of the earlier, and the floral development of the laterstage is more close to that in temperate climate rather than in subtropical. Anyway, the vegetation of that time is, as a whole, mainly represented by evergreen oak andCedrus forests. The climate then seems to be rather mild and rainy. The flora is more close to the late Pliocene flora of Northwestern Yunnan, themiddlelate Pliocene flora of south-eastern Europe and the early Pleistocene flora of Kashmir. The floral development of the said flora is quite identical with that of the Pliocene flora of Ebene (Sofia) of Bulgaria and that of the middle Pliocene flora of Cantal, southern France. The geological age of the present sandstone series is not earlier than the middle-late Pliocene. The climate of the fossil locality at present is very severe. The altitude is 5,700¨C5,900 m, above the sea level. Plants can no longer live even in mid-summer. Both the macro- and micro-plant fossils indicate that the climate then was rather warm and the altitude was only 2,500 m above the sea level. Evidently, Mt. Shisha Pangma has up-lifted about 3,000 m. since late Pliocene.
Abstract (Browse 2176)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide on Post-maturation of Tomato
Author: Li Yu, Wang Ven-houng, Mao Chun-yun and Duan Ching-hsia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    Physiological injury of tomato during storage appears under oxygen partial pressure lower than 1%, presumably due to fermentation. The critical value of oxygenpartial pressure for effective inhibition of tomato post-maturation is around 7% at 13¨C27 ¡æ. The optimum oxygen partial pressure for prolonged storage of tomato at 2%¨C13 ¡æ is around 2%¨C4%, and the peak of respiration is delayed. Maturation can beaccelerated, if the oxygen partial pressure is raised to 40%¨C50%. Application of Ethrel under 0%¨C1% oxygen at 27 ¡æ is ineffective in acceleratingmaturation. Acceleration of maturation due to increase in respiration can be inducedby raising the oxygen partial pressure above 2% CO2 enrichment may inhibit post-maturation of tomato but may cause fruit injuryat the same time. Both effects of CO2 can be antagonized by properly raising oxygen concentration.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Growth, Development and Yield Determining Process in Wheat P]ant Suitable Planting Density for Wheat Cultivation from the Consideration of Yield Components
Author: Wang Shih-chih
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    A survey of the yields of wheat crops in Peking area and in the sample fields were analysed. The levels of cultural management can be divided into eight categories, according to the correlation between the number of heads per mu and the averageweight of individual head. These categories for classification can be used as a standard for the measurement of suitable planting density. Several examples were given to explain the application of this kind of classification in field production. Based on the relationship between planting density and number of heads; the performance of plant sbearing larger or smaller number of ears and the requirement of various numbers of heads in different cultivating conditions, certain principles and quantitative indexes for determining the planting rate and seeding rate were suggested.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Search for Biologically Active Substances in Chinese Medicinal Plants--New Sources of Five Medicinal Alkaloids
Author: Hsiao Pei-ken, Feng Yu-shou, Hsia Kuang-cheng, Feng Shui-chi, Ling Shou-cb¨¹n and Chen Yu-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    The present paper deals with the results of hunting for new sources of five medicinal alkaloids. Reserpine: A study by means of paper chromatography and UV spectra indicated that reserpine was present in all five species and three varieties of Chinese Rau-volfia, viz. R. serpentina, R. yunnanensis, R. latifrons, R. tiaolushanensis, R. verticil-lata, R. verticillata var. rubrocarpa, R. verticillata var. hainanensis, R. verticillata var.oblanceolata, the total alkaloid and the reserpine percentage of these plants are givenin table 1. Atropine: Tested by the method of TLC of the Chinese solanaceous plants, hy-oscyamine has been shown to be present in Atropanthe sinensis, Mandrogora caules-cens, Hyoscyamus pusillus, Physochlaina infundibularis, Physochlaina physoides, Prze-walskia shebbearei, Przewalskia tangutica, Scopolia lurida, Scopolia tangutica. Furthermore, the major alkaloid isolated from the roots of Przewalskia shebbearei was identified as hyoscyamine based upon melting point, UV and IR spectra, the total alkaloidand hyoscyamine content was 1.89% and 1.65% respectively. Owing to the presenceof tropane group alkaloids in the genus Przewalskia, it thus reveals the ubiquitousexistence of these alkaloids in the whole genera of the Solanaceae-Solaneae-Hyoscya-minae (sensu Wettstein), which may be regarded as a high incidence of tropane-containing category. Strychnine: By means of an alkaloid screening method, three species of Strychnosappear to have a high alkaloid content, viz. S. pierriana, S. confertiflora and S. hainanensis. Strychnine is the princeple alkaloid identified in the seeds of S. pierriana and in the roots of S. confertiflora, while the seeds of S. hainanensis contains chieflybrucine. The total alkaloid content was 1.26% and 2.9% with strychnine content of1.1% and 0.04% for the 2nd and 3rd plant respectively. Ephedrine: A study has been made on the total alkaloid content as well as ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine percentages of genus Ephedra, obtained from autonomousregions Sinkiang and Tibet, the results are recorded in table 2. Berberine: The amount of berberine in Tibetan Berberis has also been determined.Berberis jamesiana Forrest et W. W. Sm. has been found to contain a high content of this alkaloid (7.07%¨C7.73%). Finally, the present work reveals that the Plant Phylogeny-Phytochemistry relationships can be satisfactorily used in the discovery of new sources of drugs.
Abstract (Browse 2536)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of CCC on the Distribution and Accumulation of Materials during the Grain Filling Period in Wheat
Author: L¨¹ Chung-shu, Yang Cheng-te, Li Yu-cheng and Ching Hsin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    In small-plot and field trials with 4 cv. of spring wheat and 1 cv. of winter wheat,CCC was applied as foliar spray or as seed treatment in 1970¡ª1972. In all trials, the application of CCC reduced the stem length and increased the number of ears perplant and the number of grains per ear. The dry weight of grains per ear and the1000-grain weight were also increased. The final grain yield of the treated plots was 6%¨C31% higher than that of the controls. Application of CCC caused a marked in-crease in total dry weight of the plant and a greater proportion of their total drymatter concentrated in grains than that of the control plants. Increase in dry weight of the grain was closely correlated with the change in dryweight of the leaf and stem. The dry weight of the leaf and stem actually increasedat the beginning of the filling period, while the increase in dry weight of the grain wasat a low rate. When the increase in grain dry weight reached its maximum about18¨C30 days after anthesis, the amount of materials lost from the leaf and stem wasalso the greatest. The increase in grain dry weight of the CCC treated plants was lessthan that of the control plants during the first half of the filling period. As the maximum rate of grain dry weight increment approached, however, the increase ingrain dry weight of the CCC treated plants rose to much higher rate than that of the controls, and such a high level of increment was maintained by the treated plantsuntil maturity. The total dry matter lost from the leaf of the treated plants was also greater than that from the controls. These results indicated that an important effect of CCC on wheat is to promote the accumulation of materials in grains during the laterstage of the filling period.
Abstract (Browse 2000)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Probable Mechanism of the Intercellular Migrating Chromatin Substance in the Pollen Mother Cells
Author: Cheng Kuo-chang, Nien Hsiu-wan, Yang Chin-lan and Wang I-hsiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    The occurence of intercellular migration of chromatin substance in the pollen mother cells is one among many important phenomena observed during meiosis, especiallythe stage when syndesis between homologous chromosomes has attracted many investigators. Years ago we have reported on this subject from various angles. At first we have described the cellular and nuclear characteristics of the migrating chromatin substsnceand then we studied the morphology and physiology of these cells in the migrating stage (Cheng et al, 1955, 1956, 1959, 1.964). Since then the source of the energy for intercellular migrating chromatin substance has been inverstigated by comparing the effects of metabolic poisons and reduced oxygen tension on respiration and migration. It has been found that both respiration and migration might be inhibited simultaneously. Based upon the results ginven in those former reports and data presented in this paper, we propose a working hypothesis on the probable mechanism of the intercellular migrating chromatin substance in the paragraph below. The streaming of karyolymph plays a prominent role in the intercellular migrating chromatin substance in the pollen mother cells, and the folding and unfolding processes of the contractile protein may furnish the motive force for the migration of chromatin through the cell wall. The source of the energy for both protoplasmicstreaming and migration of the chromatin substance is supplied by ATP (adenosinetriphosphate) which is produced in the process of aerobic respiration.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigations on the Anther Culture in Vitro of Nicotiana tabacum L. and Capsicum Annuum L.
Author: Kuo John-shang, Wang Yu-ying, Chien Nan-fan, Ku Shu-jong, Kung Ming-liang and Hsu Hui-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    The present article deals with an investigation on the anther culture in vitro of tobacco and red pepper. The tobacco anthers were cultured in vitro on 4 different media. Best result was obtained with Nitsch H medium; Blaydes was less effective. The percentage of the embryoids formation increases with the addition of 10%¨C20% (v/v) cocoanut milk. The embryoids may be induced with sucrose from 1%¨C4%; and 3% is the optimum. The anthers of different developmental stages were cultured in vitro for comparison. It is found that when the anther with its pollen grains at the 1-nucleate stage, while the nucleus is situated on one side of the pollen, is the best material for haploid seedling induction. The embryoids were mainly formed in two ways: They were formed either from the development of equal division of the 1-nucleate pollen grain or from the vegetative nucleus of the unequal division of the 1-nucleate pollen grain. The generative nucleus may divide only once or several times but eventually the nucleus and its derivatives degenerate. The chromosome number of the root tip or shoot apex of the pollen plants is found to be n=24; the haploid nature of this plant was confirmed. Colchicine of different concentrations was used to double up the chromosomes of the haploid plantlets. In this way many diploids were obtained and among them a few were tetraploids. The production of the embryoids by different means was discussed. The red pepper anthers were cultured in vitro on NT and MS media, supplemented with different growth substances at the stage when its only nucleus is situated on one side of the pollen grain. The anthers gave rise to embryoids and calli. The development of the 1-nucleate pollen grain through ¡°proembryo¡± to the formation of the seedling was observed. The development of the embryoids is similar to that of the zygotic embryo. The development of the embryoids from the pollen grains may cease to grow at any stage, hence a few of them may develop into seedlings. The connection between the multicellular ¡°proembryo¡± and the pollen grain can be seen. The cells inside the pollen grain are large and stained lightly, while the cells of the embryoids outside the pollen grain are small, meristematic and closely arranged; some of them being in the initial stage of differentiation. The cells of the root tip and the callus have been examined with acetocarminesquash method. The chromosome number was found to be n=12; therefore these plantsand calli are haploids.
Abstract (Browse 2374)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on the Cold Resistance of Plants--Ultrastructural Changes of the Wheat Cells in the Winter Period
Author: Chien Ling-cheng, Ching Yu-hsiang and Chang Pau-tien
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    The present work was undertaken with an attempt to study the ultrastructural changes of two wheat varieties which differ from each other in cold resistance. The plants of these two different varieties were cultivated under the same environmental conditions. For comparative studies, materials of these two varieties were collected at the same time and made preparations with the same technique for electron microscopy. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. In the prime stage of tillering, the pores of the nuclear membrane of both the winter and the spring varieties were widely open, while the chromatic and nucleolar materials were observed to traverse the pores into the cytoplasm. When winter arrived, with the temperature dropping the nuclear pores of the hardy winter wheat gradually disappeared, and those of the nonresistant spring wheat, however, remained open. It showed that there must be a close correlation between the behaviour of the nuclear pores and the physiological activities of the plants. The authors have considered that the behaviour of the nuclear pore may have an important bearing on the cessation of the cell division and growth activity and on the causality of the development of cold resistance in wheat plants at low temperature. 2. A phenomenon of zipper-like arrangement of the proplastids occurred in young leaf cells of the hardy wheat in the winter period, but under the same condition no such phenomenon was found in those of the non-resistant variety. 3. As the temperature fell in the late autumn or early winter, the wheat plants were in hardened condition, the mitochondria of the winter wheat increased in size and changed in form, as protrusions and invaginations of various shapes appeared with atendency of the protrusion of one mitochondria inserting into the invagination of the other. The number of the mitochondrial cristae also increased. In the spring wheat, however, there were no such changes in the mitochondria.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Author: Ta§¯b §±§ï§«-xya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
Abstract (Browse 2407)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigations on the Induction and Morphogenesis of Wheat (Triticum vulgare)Pollen Plants
Author: Chu Zhih-ching, Wang Chin-ch¨¹, Sun Chin-san, Chien Nan-fan, Yin Kwang-chu and Hs¨¹ Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1973 15(1)
    The development of haploid plants has been successfully induced from wheat (Triticum vulgare) pollens by means of the anther cultured in vitro. On the MS medium supplemented with 2¨C20 mg/l 2,4-D and various organic addenda, out of 21094 inoculated anthers taken for culture from 27 hybrids or varieties, 103 produced calli. All the calli developed from dehisced anther sacs. Microscopical examinations indicated that these calli were formed by repeated divisions of the pollengrains. 5 days after, the pollen calli were transferred into the medium containing either 0.2¨C2mg/l NAA and 0.2¨C2mg/l kinetin or 0.5 mg/l IAA and 15% cocoanut milk, differentiation of shoots began to occur. It was also found that if the anthers were inoculated on the MS medium containing either 20% cocoanut milk or 2 mg/l IAA and 2 mg/l kinetin, shoots would develop directly from the anther sacs. The chromosome counts in root tips of 6 plantlets examined gave the number 21, confirming that they are haploids. The haploid plants produced spikes but did not setseeds.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
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