January 1974, Volume 16 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Palynological Analysis Peat-bogs of Siyao Lake, Mount Hsishan, Nanchang, Kiangsi Province
Author: Wang Kai-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    The peat-bogs in Mount Hsishan, Nan. chang, is widely distributed. It is one of the typical peat-bogs in South China. For palynological study, the author has collected some samples from three boring cores, and has found pollen and spores of many species. In the assemblages, Pinus and Castanopsis are absolutely predominant in number, and there are also some of Liquidambar, Alnus, Eurya, Salix, Ilex, Quercus, Myrica, Sapium, Cunninghamia and others. Herbaceous pollen and spores in assemblages are rare, and in a subordinate position, in which are mostly pollen of Gramineae and Compositae, and a certain number of pollen of aquatic plants. As to spores, Pteridium and Polypodiaceae are in large numbers. The data of the palynological assemblages indicate that the flora was evergreen forest of broad-leaved trees evergeen forest of conifer, and with some few mixed forest of broad-leaved dediduous trees. The data of polynological analysis of Siyao Lake distinctly shows that there are four stages in the vegetative evolution in the district of Mount Itsishan in Itolocene: first stage recorded the forest dominated by Castanopsis; second stage, the foresr dominated by Pinus; third stage, mixed forest dominated by Alnus and Pinus, fourth stage, mixed forest with some Castanopsis and Quercus. Inferring from the above mentioned fact, it is to be assumed that the age of the formation of peat-bogs in Mount Hsishan began from the Atlantic stage of Holocene.
Abstract (Browse 2036)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytochemical Studies on Cell Plate Formation During Mitosis and Meiosis of Vicia faba
Author: Chu Pao-lan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    With the somatic cells and pollen mother cells of Vicia faba as material, the cytological and cytochemical aspects of cell plate formation were analysed. Cytochemical tests were carried out with staining methods for polysaccharides and RNA. At the end of anaphase or the beginning of telophase in mitotic cells the spindle region between the two sister groups of chromosomes is transformed into the phrag moplast. The cell plate is formed from small granules, which fuse at the equatorial plane within the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast extends laterally, growing through the cytoplasm on both sides, and with its extension the cell plate is finally formed across the cell. When stained by PAS reaction, the phragmoplast of somatic cells shows a faintly pink color. The cell plate gives a strong staining reaction for polysaccharides. The metaphase spindle of somatic cells is stained a rich red by methyl-green-pyronin and is clearly distinguishable from the cytoplasmic area. The phragmoplast is rich in RNA and the cell plate also contains abundant RNA. In metaphase and anaphase of the first meiotic division, the spindle formation is regular, but there is no phragmoplast formed at the end of' division. In early telophase of the first meiosis, at the equatorial plane of the spindle can be seen a membraneous structure, which seems to be the first stage of cell plate formation. It appears only at the equatorial plane of the spindle, but does not extend centrifugally on both sides and it finally disappears at the end of the first meiotic division. This structure is negative in the staining reaction for polysaccharides and RNA. The present authors consider that the cell plate cannot accomplish its development at least partly because of absence of polysaccharides and RNA. In metaphase and anaphase of the second meiotic division, the spindle is formed, but no phragmoplast appears. After the four daughter nuclei have become organized, a spindle is reformed between every two nuclei, making a total of six spindles. At the equatorial plane of every spindle one can see the formation of the cell plate, which gives Positive staining reaction for polysaccharides and RNA. Constriction furrows then start at the periphery of cytoplasm and proceed inward along the cell plate until they meet at the center, so that there is a simultaneous division of the protoplast into four microspores. The chemical nature of the small granules or vesicles, described previously by other authors, from which the cell plate is formed and the mechanism of the formation of the cell plate is briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Embryogeny of Cathaya (Pinaceae)
Author: Wang Fu-hsiung and Chen Tsu-keng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    The present paper deals with the embryogeny of Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang, a new conifer discovered in China in 1958. The material used for study was collected in 1960 and 1962 in type locality, Hua-Ping Forest Region, Lungsheng Hsien, Kwangsi Province, China. There are 2每3 archegonia in a prothallus, apical in position. Fertilization took place within the last ten days of June, 1960. The proembryo consists of 4 tiers of 4 cells each. As the suspensor cells elongate, the embryo cells begin to divide and the 2-celled embryos begin to form; soon the cell at the posterior end elongates to form the embryonal tube to strengthen the suspensor while the cell at the apical end begins to divide. When the 2-celled embryo with 2 embryonal tubes is formed, the cleavage of 4 embryos becomes obvious. Cleavage polyembryony is a constant feature for Cathaya and this agrees with that of Pinus, Cedrus, Keteleeria or Tsuga but differs from that of Pseudolarix, Abies. Picea, Larix or Pseudotsuga of Pinaceae. The rosette cells, however, are never divide in Cathaya, and the total number of the embryos formed is fewer than that of Pinus. No matter how many embryos are formed in the early embryogeny, usually only one of them develops into the mature embryo of the seed. The late embryogeny and the structure of the mature embryo of Cathaya are fundamentally similar to those of Pinus. The hypocotyl axis is comparatively well developed. There is a pith in the center. The procambium surrounds the pith and on its outer side is the cortex. The dermatogen covers the hypocotyl axis and the cotyledons. The procambinm extends up to the tip of the cotyledons. Mesophyll and procambium constitute the cotyledom. The shoot apex remains within the free apex of the axis and it is in the inactive state. The root cap is also well developed and the root initials locate in the center of the boundary between the root cap and the hypocotyl axis. The root cap is differentiated into two distinct regions: the column and the peri-column. Cells in the column are arranged in vertical rows with transverse divisions, while those in the peri-column are arranged in an oblique way, almost vertical in the peripheral layers. There is no distinct boundary between the peri-column and the cortex but no dermatogen covers over the peri-column. Secretary cells are scattered in cortex, procambium and in cotyledonary tissues. No secretary cells are found in pith and root cap. The embryogeny of Cathaya resembles that of Pinus more nearly than that of any other conifers. But it disagrees with the conclusion drawn from the data of the wood anatomy as reported by 岐扯快扶抗抉-朱技快抖快志扼抗我抄 我 坎批忱抗快志我折 (1958). They considered that Cathaya resembled that of Pseudotsuga or Picea so far as the wood anatomy was concerned. From the embryological data Cathaya is quite different from that of Pseudotsuga or Picea because no cleavage polyembryony occurs in both of them. Our conclusion, however, agrees with that of Erdtman (1963) taken from the pollen morphology because Cathaya has small pinoid pollen grains and cannot be referred to Pseudotsuga as suggested by Greguss on anatomical grounds.
Abstract (Browse 2130)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Conditions for the Induction of Rice Pollen Plantlets and Certain Factors Affecting the Frequency of Induction
Author: Wang Ching-ch迂, Sun Ching-san and Chu Zhih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    The present paper deals with the factors affecting the induction, formation, differentiation and the frequency of induction of rice pollen plantlets cultured in vitro. We have obtained the following results. 1. If the suitable stage of the development of pollen (late uninuclear stage at the verge of first mitosis) is ascertained, pollen callus may be obtained on a simple medium containing 2,4-D (2 mg/l) and sucrose (6%). The gorwth substance, the source of carbon and the osmotic pressure are the necessary conditions for triggering the first division of the pollen. The complex medium consisting of minerals, trace elements, vitamins, sucrose and growth substances is not necessary for the initiation and the early growth of pollen callus, but all these factors in the medium are beneficial for the further development of the callus. 2. Sucrose in the medium plays a significant role in the regulation of osmotic pressure. Excessively high concentration of sucrose inhibits callus formation. 3. Coconut milk, casein hydrolysate, mononucleotide and some other organic supplements are obviously beneficial to callus formation and the subsequent differentiation of the organs. 4. If the culture medium is supplemented with 2-chlorethyl-phosphonie acid (8 ppm, 40 ppm) or when the raceme of the rice is pretreated at 10 ⊥, for 48 hours, the frequency of the formation of the pollen callus will be greatly promoted. 5. The age of the pollen callus affects the ability of the organ differentiation; the older the callus is, the lower the induction frequency of the pollen plantlets. The causes and the mechnisms of the above mentioned results have been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Abscission of Young Fruits in Relation to Changes of Phosphate Contents in Apple
Author: Liang Hou-kuo, Yu Li-chun, Lin Kuo-fen and L迂 Chung-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    Changes of the phosphate compounds and the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into various phosphorus-containing compounds in both developing and abscissing fruits of &Tompkins King* apple were investigated in 1962每1964. It was found that in abscissing fruits, the contents of inorganic phosphates were higher, while those of organic phosphates were lower than in developing fruits. The activity of ATPase was also lower in abscissing than in developing fruits. Experiments with p32-labeled phosphate indicated that the uptake of p32 by abscissing fruits was much less active than by developing fruits. There was more radioactivity in sugar-phosphates, high-energy nucleotides, phospholipids, nucleic acids and phosphoproteins in developing than in abscissing fruits. Similar results were obtained in fruit flesh and in seeds. The above results suggest that the shortage of food supply and the low level of phosphorylation in young fruit may cause suppression in fruit growth and alteration in normal metabolic pathway, which in turn may eventually bring about the senescence and abscission of the young fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth Factors in Water Chestnut [Eleocharis tuberosa (Roxb.) Roem. et Schult.] Juice j. Studies on the Physiological Activities of Water Chestnut Juice and in Comparison with Other Plant Hormones
Author: Liu Shih-feng, Wang Hung-hsin, Yang Shan-ying, and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    We have shown that some growth substances existed in water chestnut. These substances could be extracted with alcohol, adsorbed on active carbon and retained on the anion exchange resins which could be eluted with 3N formic acid. The physiological activities were shown to be capable of promoting the callus growth of Par thenocissus tricuspidata Pench and Nicotiana tabacum L.; accelerating the callus formation of Vitis vinifera L.; inducing the bud formation from cambium of N. tabacum L.; the root formation from the cutting of Hibiscus syriacus L.; the breaking of dormancy of potato tubers; the growth of pea and rice embryos cultured in vitro and stimulating the growth and spore formation of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. However, these growth substances were not effective toward the straight growth of wheat coleoptile, neither effective towards the growth of rice seedlings nor the retention of chlorophyll in detached leaves. Bioassay and preliminary chemical identification shown that the effective substances for growth in water chestnut probably are not due to auxin, gibberellin or cytokinin.
Abstract (Browse 2176)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Agarophytes I. The Optimum Growth Temperature of the Carpospore-Germlings of Gracilariopsis Sj?stedtii and the Seasonal Growth of the Sporelings
Author: Fan Kung-ch邦, Li Wei-hsin, Wang Yung-ch邦an, Fan Y迂n-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    Carpospore-germlings of the marine alga Gracilariopsis sjostedtii (Kylin) Dawson cultured at different temperatures in enriched sea water showed a maximum rate of growth at 25 ⊥. In addition, the germlings demonstrated a marked ability to withstand temperature as high as 35 ⊥. This distinct behaviour indicates that the sporelings of this species play an important role in with standing the high-temperature months in the biennial cycle of vegetative growth. Ecological observations confirm our assumption. According to our survey data, plantlets about 1 cm in height do exist in the natural habitat at Zhanjiang from July. to September when the larger thalli are completely damaged. The most luxurious population of the sporelings appeared in April, May and June with an apparent diminution in the hottest months (from July through September). At that time of the year, the vegetative growth almost entirely stopped. These dormancy-like plantlets, however, grew anew and formed the plantlets of October and early November as the water temperature declines. They grew vigorously throughout the winter and attained the tallest growth in the following spring.Cutting experiments for the wild plant have been carried out in the field. The average growth rate obtained for the generative thalli was found to be 0.6 cm per day.
Abstract (Browse 2106)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Growth, Development and Yield Determining Process in the Wheat Plant j. the Interrelationship Between Growth and Accumulation of Assimilates in Organs and its Effect on the Grain Formation
Author: Wang Shih-chih, Chu Te-hui, Fong Chen-liang and Sa Hong-wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
      
    Experiments have been carried out in Peking in 1962每1963 with 3 varieties of winter wheat: "A. U. 183", "Peking n" and "B. M; i". After they have turned green in the spring, they were treated with ammonium sulphate and watered at three different stages: Stage i, March 20th; Stage j, March 30th; Stage k, April 18th. The purpose is to study the interrelationship between the plant growth, organ development, the accumulation & distribution of dry matter and carbohydrates under different treatments, and to study the effect of their relation to the growth of ears and yields. Results on yields: All three varieties have the highest yields with Treatment k, giving on increase in production of 16.1%, 6.5% & 5.9.% respectively, as compared with that after Treatment i. In Treatment k, the number of ears per mu is less, the average number of grains per ear & the weight of the grains increased more than in the other treatments. The main results after the testing & analysis of the main stalk of ※A. U. 183§ are as follows: 1. With early treatment in spring, the leaves, sheathes, middle & lower nodes grow faster, longer and with bigger volume, but delay the growth rate of the later-growing organs, including the ear. The upper most node, ear & grains are smaller. On the contrary, when the treatment is delay, the early-growth organs are smaller, but the growth rate of the later-growing organs and the appearance of ears quicken, the upper nodes grow longer. Concurrently grains & the weight of grain increase. Through different treatments, it was noticed that the growing condition of early organs are closely related to the sizes of the later growing organs. The different conditions of fertilizers & watering produce apparent difference in the relation between different treatments. 2. During the growth of a wheat plant, some organs grow faster, while others slower. During the entire period of development, the same organ, it sometimes grows faster & sometimes slower. This illustrates that the growth of a plant & its various organs is not homogeneous & unbalanced. This unbalanced condition reflects the interrelationship of the growth of organs & the effect of different treatments. 3. The dry matter of the entire plant increases during its growth. But the dry weight of the same vegetative organ, sometimes increases & sometimes decreases, in accord with the difference of the conditions of additional fertilizer and watering. From the time when wheat turns green to the stage of ear-formation, the decrease of dry matter in the lower leaves in treatment i is the highest, while in treatment k, the dry matter decreased, in the lower sheathes is the highest. The sheaths are the organs for storing carbohydrates during the early growth stages. The decrease of dry matter of sheath can be considered as the supplier of storage matter to the later-growing organs. Present experiment proves that with larger amount of decrease of the dry matter in the sheaths during this period, the growth of the upper node, ears & grains are comparatively better. Leaves are not the main storage organs. The decrease of dry matter only means leaf senescence. 4. Before earing, the content of the soluble sugar & starch in the sheath is more than other organs and may increase or decrease markly. After heading, the stalk keeps the maximum dry matter content and decreases in large quantity since the mid- die stage of grainfilling. At that time, most of the content accumulates in the ears. There is the difference between the changes of the sugar content & the starch. Starch is a quite stable material for storage. Marked decrease appears at the times when wheat has turned green & during the early stage of node elongation, though there is no marked change in treatments. While sugar content decreases rapidly after applying fertilizer & watering, and increase rapidly when fertilizer & water are under controlled conditions. During the period from shooting up to earing, both sugar and starch decrease greatly in the sheath in all 3 treatments. The increase or decrease of sugar & starch corresponds to the change of dry weight. Therefore it can be assumed that the change of the dry weight mainly reflects the increase or decrease of the carbohydrates storage. 5. In the course of the wheat growing, the increase in volume of plant does not correspond with the increase of dry weight. Therefore the dry weight per unit volume, the specific gravity, varies apparently. During the period of wheat green- resuming to the stage of stem-extension, the increase of volume is faster than that of the dry weight so that the specific gravity of wheat plants of all 3 treatments decrease markedly, & continues to decrease until the stage of node elongation. After shooting, the specific gravity begins to increase. While the grains are in formation, the specific gravity rises immensely. The comparison of the treatments shows: before node elongation the specific gravity of treatment k is the highest, treatment j, the second, & treatment i the lowest. It indicates that when the fertilizer & water are applied later, the volume of plant increases slower, while the dry matter accumulates faster. Whitehead (1962) initiated the experiment taking "Surplus material" as the relation between dry weight & leaf area. We use the formula as follow: 汐=loge W2/V2-loge W1/V1 S= 汐﹞1/2(W1+W2) 汐, is the average comparative increase of specific gravity between 2 sampling periods; S, is the quantity of comparative "surplus material"; W, is the dry weight & V, is the volume of the plant. There is a close relationship between the change of comparative "surplus material'' & the change of the daily growing rate of average volume. Treatments show a common tendency from the time the plant has been turning green until all its organs developed, that is, when the growth is faster, the "surplus material" will be lesser; and as the previous stage grows faster, the plant has less "surplus material", the growth of the later stage will be slower, & the "surplus material" increases, then the tempo of the growth of the next stage will be faster, & "surplus material" will decrease. The whole process of the growth of the wheat plant is wave-like, faster & slower, rises & falls, while the rise and fall of the "surplus material" is vise versa. 6. In wheat production, seedling stunting (to reduce or delay in applying fertilizer & watering during the period from the wheat is turning green up to the elongation of node) is often used to control the growth of the plant. Under the conditions of high rate of fertilizer & high density in the field, to induce the tillers develope towards two different directions. That is to say, one portion grows to shooting and earing rapidly & let the rest remain sterile, in order to reduce the density & at the same time, keep the growth of wheat plant to conform with its level of assimilation, to unify the contradiction between the vegetative growth & reproductive growth. Then it will help to increase the number and weight of grains & stronger the stalks to resist lodging. Under the condition of the lower rate of fertilizer the vegetative organ does not grow as desired, then it is necessary to apply fertilizer & water in time during the period from the wheat turns green to elongation of node in order to enhance the vegetative organs grow faster & larger & achieve high crop production.
Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Chilling Temperature on the Effect of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Plants Sensitive to Chilling (Cucumis sativas L.)
Author: Wang Ai-kuo, Kuo Chun-yen, Sun Kwei-fen and Loo Le-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(1)
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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