February 1974, Volume 16 Issue 2


          Research Articles
Plant Fossils of the Mesozoic Coal-Bearing Strata of Ja'an Szechuan, and their Geological Age
Author: Hu Yu-fan, Tuan Shu-yin and Chen Yeh
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
Abstract (Browse 2066)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of the Developmental Anatomy of Chinese Jujube Fruit
Author: Wang Hsin-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
    The fruit of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) was commonly known as "stone fruit", which posseses a course of growth and development quite different from that of other stone fruits. The latter usually consists of three developmental stages. However, that of the jujube fruit was identified to undergo four stages, namely, stardish-like, conical, long-ovate, and elliptic stages, each exhibited its own morphological and structural characteristics. It has been demonstrated that during the process of fruit ripening in jujube, there were two types of active intercalary meristem, the style-base meristem and the regenerated disk meristem. Their activities initiated a series of vigorous and complex alteration in various parts of jujube flower after blooming. The most prominant feature of such was that the initially formed cup-shaped calyx-tube, after the merisremic activation, was pushed to the fruit base and became inversely invaginated. The degenerated disk and floral-part residue were then located at the rim of the concaved calyx-tube forming a ring of brownish vestigial structure which was characteristic to jujube fruit. Since the non-carpel disk was also involved in the development of fruit, the au thor supports the idea that jujube fruit may not be a real stone fruit.
Abstract (Browse 2420)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on the Absorption Spectra of Some Green, Brown and Red Algae
Author: Zhou Bai-cheng, Zheng Shun-qin and Tseng Cheng-kuei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
    The absorption spectra of 10 species of marine algae, including 4 species of green algae, 3 species of brown algae and 3 species of red algae, collected from Tsingtao were measured by Shibata's opal glass method. The characteristics of the absorption spectra of these three groups of algae, the absorption maxima and bands of chlorophylls, phycobilins and fucoxanthin in vivo were discussed on the basis of the absorption spectra of these marine algae and the difference spectra between the brown or red algae and the green algae. The results were presented in Table 1. On the basis of the results from the comparative studies on the differences between the absorption spectra of brown algae and those of green algae and on the difference spectra of green algae at 485 (or 480) 米m were attributed to blue band absorption maximum of chlorophyll b, thus supporting the view point of Barer (1955) and French (1960). In the difference spectra between brown and green algae, the negative peak at 655 米m and the peak at 525 米m show repectively the positions of the absorption maximum of the red band of chlorophyll b in green algae and of fucoxan-thin in brown algae. On the basis of the absorption spectra of red algae and the characteristics of the red band absorption peak and the negetive peak in the difference spectra between red and green algae, the red band absorption peak of the chlorophyll d of red algae in vivo appeared to be located at a longer wave position than that of the red band absorption peak of chlorophyll a. Comparative studies of the absorption spectra of three species belonging to two different classes of red algae, namely, Porphyra yezoensis of the more primitive class Bangiophyceae or Protoflorideae, and Halymenia sinensis and Phycodrys radicosa of the more advanced Floridophyceae, showed marked differences in these two groups of red algae. Members of the Floridophyceae including the Halymenia, the Phycodrys and four other species, all showed three phycoerythrin absorption peaks, respectively at 500, 540 (or 535) and 560 米m, differening from each other only slightly in heights, as previously reported for other Floridophyceae by Haxo and Blinks (1950) and Saenger et al (1969). Whereas in Porphyra of the Bangiophyceae, there were only two absorption peaks, respectively at 500 and 565 米m, differening significantly from each other in height. As we have previously reported, marked differences in the amount and composition of their phycobilin contents were shown between Porphyra yezoensis from regions with rich mineral nutrients and those from regions with meagre mineral nutrients, as well as between the different portion of the same thallus. It is therefore suggested that presence of such variations and differences of the phycobilin systems in the red algae may be of significance in the study of the evolution of this group of algae and in the study of ecological adaptation.
Abstract (Browse 4085)  |  Full Text PDF       
Wood Anatomy of Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
    The present paper contributes a knowledge of the wood structure of Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun, a new monotypic genus of the family Magnoliaceae. The anatomical features of this wood are described as follows. Wood diffuse-porous; pores 53每80 per sq. mm., solitary or multiple in radial groups of 2每3 (may up to 7), pore clusters also occured but rare, more or less angular in shape; vessel perforations scaraliform, with 1每8 bars, generally 2每3 or 4, intervascular pittings scaraliform, fine spiral thickenings also present, vessel segments 650每1020 米, generally 1500 米 long; wood rays of heterogeneous type IIB rarely IIA with 1, sometimes 2每3 rows of upright cells on both margins, oil cells present in some occasion, uniseriate rays 3每9 cells, 135每270 米, generally about 7 cells, 185 米 high, the multiseriate rays up to 7 cells, 65 米, generally 2每3 cells, 45 米 wide and 14每32 cells 415每830 米, generally about 28 cells, 621 米 in height; fiber tracheids 650-2000 米, generally 1500 米 long; wood parenchyma terminal, narrow banded (2每3 cells wide), rarely in paratracheal scanty. The present work agrees with that Prof. Chun (1963) claimed that the affinity of this genus lies closer to the genera Michelia and Talauma macromorphologically, but so far as the wood structures are concerned, the present genus is quite similar to Michelia and less similar to Talauma.
Abstract (Browse 2413)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Brown Core of the Pear Fruit I. The Effect of Temperature on the Brown Core
Author: Three-in-one Combination Experimental Group from Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica and Peking Fruit Company
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
    The influence on the brown core of the pear fruit during storage was compared with the following factors: storage temperature; date of harvest; age of tree and district of cultivation. The results showed that the occurrence of the core browning was affected by storage temperature and date of harvest. To cool fruit rapidly or placing fruit in cold storage below 10 ⊥, causes the brown core of the pear fruit during early stage of storage. Regulating the temperature of storage is very effective in controlling brown core during early stage of storage, and in preventing the occurrence of brown core from late stage of storage. Early harvest is also effective in controlling brown core.
Abstract (Browse 2002)  |  Full Text PDF       
Hormonal Control of Boll Shedding in Cotton Plant
Author: Hsu Ten-wei, Cheng Chat-wing and Tang Yu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
    The physiological mechanism of boll shedding is not yet known with certainty. It is desirable, the control of boll shedding in cotton plant, to clear up this problem in order to devise means for. The present report concerns mainly with the results on the hormonal control of boll shedding. On the hypothesis that growth hormone is responsible for the normal development of fruits, we compared the relative auxin contents of fertilized and unfertilized bolls of the cotton plant. It was found that the fertilized bolls contained more growth-promoting substances than the unfertilized bolls. On the other hand, the unfertilized bolls contained more growth-inhibiting material than the fertilized ones. The principle endogenous growth substance of cotton bolls was identified to be idole-3-acetic acid by Salkowski's reaction and by IAA-oxidase. Further experiments showed that application of exogenous auxin to the unfertilized bolls not only decreased the percentage of shedding but also stimulated development of young bolls. On the basis of the results of soluble carbohydrate analysis and isotope tracer experiments, it is concluded that a competition for nutrients may exist between the growth of reproductive and vegetative organs and that both fertilization and IAA control the transport trend of foliar assimilates. Plant hormone controls boll setting in cotton plants by affecting the distribution and translocation of photosynthetic products.
Abstract (Browse 2450)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Application of Gibberellin on Rice I. Effects of Gibberellin in Reproductive Period of Rice-Plants
Author: Wang Hsi, Shih Yi-ping, Sun Jen-ching and Chin Tzu-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(2)
Abstract (Browse 2129)  |  Full Text PDF       
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