March 1974, Volume 16 Issue 3


          Research Articles
The Scanning Electron Microscopical Investigation on the Spore of Some Species of Pteridophytes
Author: Chang Yu-lung, Shi Yi-chen and Du Nai-chiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Propagation of Gastrodia elata Bl.
Author: Chou Hsan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
Abstract (Browse 1787)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Genera and Species of the Late Triassic Plants from Yungjen, Yunnan I.
Author: Hs Jen, Chu Chia-nan, Chen Yeh, Tuan Shu-yin, Hu Yu-fan and Chu Wei-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    This paper deals with fifteen plants, all new to science, of late Triassic (Keuper), found in the district Yungjen, Yunnan. These plants are Angiopteris antiqua, A. yungjenensis, Pecopteris callipteroides, Rireticopteris microphylla, Lureticopteris mega- phylla, Mixopteris intercalaris, Pachypteris chinensis, P. yungjenensis, Sagenopteris glossopteroides, S. stenofolia, Sphenozamites yungjenensis, Otozamites megaphyllus, O. recurvus, Sphenobaiera bifurcata and Yungjenophyllum grandifolium. The genera Rireticopteris, Lureticopteris, Mixopteris and Yungjenophyllum all are recommended as new species. The fossil Originally described as Lonchopteris (?) sp. from the Lower Chinle Formation of Arizona by Daugherty (1941) is suggested better to be included in the new genus Rireticopteris, as R. arizonica. The fossils formerly described as "Glossopteris indica Schimper" and "G. angus- tifolia Brongn." by Zeiller (1902-3) from the Upper Triassic of Tai-Pin-Tchang (Yunnan) are included in Sagenopteris glossopteroides and S. stenofolia respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2279)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Leaf Cells of WheatThe Ontogeny of Winter Wheat and Variations in the Structure of the Mesophyll and Many Other Types of Cells
Author: Tuan Hsu-chuan, Hsu Lin-ching, Tso Po-yu and Hung Wei-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    The main shoot of the winter wheat, Nongda 183, develops 13C14 leaves. As a rule, each leaf with its various types of cells, as well as the area of the leaf blade and sheath show a series of changes from simple to complex in morphology and dimension when the rank of the leaf rises from the lowest to the flag leaf. Leaves from the lower ranks, including all the autumn leaves, are consisting of 80% of 1C3 linked cells in the mesophyll. Leaves from the higher ranks (spring leaves) have more multi-linked cells (from 3-links up). The flag leaf is consisted 77% of mesophyll cells having more than 4-links. The higher ranked spring leaves have more types of cells, besides the mesophylls, than those from the lower ranks. The sheath cells of high ranked leaves and the green glume and lemma cells of the spike have also the peak, dale, isthmus and link formation. The spring sown vernalized winter wheat spiked with its 7th leaf, the cell components of which is equivalent to the flag leaf (the 13th) of the autumn sown plant. In the spring sown unvernalized winter wheat, the cell components of its 7th leaf are far behind in delvelopment when compared with the vernalized and the regular autumn sown plant, although all of them were grown and mature in the same environment. The meaning of these changes in the structure and morphology of the cells, the cells in the glume and lemma, and the ontogeny of the main shoot with their environment are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       

Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
Abstract (Browse 1272)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Brown Core of Pear Fruit . The Enzymatic Browning of Polyphenolic Acid During Storage
Author: Research Group for the Brown Core of Pear, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    The physiological causes of the core browning of pear fruit during storage were studied. The polyphenol oxidase activity in the core, flesh and skin were determined and the site of highest aetivity was found in the core. The distribution of the total polyphenolic content in the different parts of the pear fruit was similar to that of polyphenol oxidase activity. In the brown core the amount of the polyphenolic substances decreased markedly as compare with the normal ones The separation and identification of the polyphenolic substances were carried out by paper chromatography and high voltage electrophoresis. Seven compounds were found in: the core; five in the flesh and six in the skin. The chlorogenic acid was the major component. The ultraviolet spectra of the chlorogenic acid oxidized by the polyphenol oxidase indicated: that the absorption peak of chlorogenic acid at 324 m decreased after the oxidation. The absorption spectra gradually increased toward the utraviolet region, and was similar to that of the natural brown product of pear fruit. These results show that the physiological cause of the core browning is due to the enzymic browning reaction and the principal substate in the core is chlorogenic acid.
Abstract (Browse 2133)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Application of Gibberellin on Rice . The Effects of Gibberellin on the Vegetative Period of Rice Plant
Author: Phytohormone Group, Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation, Chekiang Academy of Agriculture
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    The present report is the second part of a series work on the application of gibberellin on rice-plant. The effects of this growth substance applied at vegetative period were summarized as follows: The emergence and growth of tillers are important characters of rice-plants at vegetative period. In order to improve the features of tillers such as the earliness of tillering, the qualities of the tillers, the percentage of mature panicles among total tillers and the maturity and economic yields, the authors applied this growth substance at vegetative period by foliar spray. The results show that gibberellin acts on the rice-plant in two-fold manner, it promotes the emergence of the main stems and the tillers to form bigger panicles soon after transplanting and inhibites the emergence and growth of the small latter tillers, then the number of tillers per area eon- trolled and a higher yield may be obtained if this chemical is applied at the right time. The factors which influence the yields were: the control of the emergence of latter tillers, the decrease of ineffective tillers, the increase the output of the small tillers, concentrateion of the assimilates into the main stems and early formed tillers, and consequently bigger and more fertile panicles were formed. At the same time, such treatment may hasten the heading of young panicles and accelerates the processes in the filling of grains and early maturity. In order to obtain a higher yield and early ripe, as a rule, there are factors one must bear in mind: First, the time of application, it is suitable take to give the treatment at the end of effective-tiller stage, which is near the maximum tillering stage, about 20 to 25 days after transplanting. This above mentioned stage is earlier in spring varieties than autumn ones, and earlier in early duration varieties than late duration ones. Second, the concentration of gibberellin, 10 ppm are quite proper for spring varieties and 20 ppm for autumn ones. The Japonica varieties may need a higher ppm than the Indiea varieties. Finally, the number of fondamental seedlings per area must be more than the ordinary paddy fields in order to compensate the possible shortage of panicles by this treatment.
Abstract (Browse 2078)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Report on the Vertical Distribution of the Rice Varieties in Szemao, Yunnan
Author: Department of Agronomy, Kwangtung Agriculture-Forestry College and Department of Biology, Yunnan University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    The present paper deals with a survey of the vertical distribution of rice varieties in Szemao region which is situated at southwestern Yunnan. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. In Szemao region, the vertical distribution of "Hsien" and "Keng" is very prominent. In general, below the altitudes of 1,400 m there is what the masses call "Hsien" belt where "Hsien" varieties are cultivated while over 1,800 m there is "Keng" belt and between 1,400 mC1,800 m. there is the mixed belt of the two. This succession of the "Hsien" and "Keng" varieties caused mainly by the ascendence of altitude is shown by the number of varieties and their cultivated area respectively. 2. With the ascending of the altitude the height of the plant is reduced, the leaves become shorter, the hulled and unhulled grains are shorter and narrower, the color of lemma-palea looks deeper, and the color of pericarp changes from white to red. 3. According to our survey at the mixed belt of "Hsien" and "Keng", we found that some varieties have characteristics of both "Hsien" and "Keng" thus making them difficult to define in classification. 4. We have collected 74 upland varieties with glabrous spiklets in this region. Through careful examination we recognized that they belong to "Keng". In the classification of rice varieties the shape of the sterile glume was somehow neglected. After comparison among our material we found that the shape of sterile glumes is a variable character. The margin of the sterile glume in the different varieties may be entire, undulate, dentate, lobed and deep-lobed. The sterile glumes of some varieties are glabrous and others hairy. It seems to us that the shape of sterile glume may more or less be a worthy character in the classification of cultivated rice varieites.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Inquiring into Several High Yielding Indice of "Yu-Pao" Wheat Culture and the Ways to Control Them
Author: Laiyang Agriculture School, Shangtung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
Abstract (Browse 1717)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Study on the Isolation and Identification of Physiological Active Substance in Water Chestnut
Author: Group of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Department of Biology, Hangchow University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Vegetation of the Hsi-Sha Islands
Author: Chang Hung-ta
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(3)
    The Hsi-Sha Islands is situated in the South China Sea between latitudes 15º30 and 17º30N, longitudes 111º and 113º E. As well as the Tong-Sha, Chung-Sha and Nan-Sha Islands, Hsi-Sha Islands is Chinese territory since ancient times. The group of Hsi-Sha Islands consists of more than twenty islands, lagoons, atolls and reefs composed entirely of coral deposits. Geologically, during the beginning of Quaternary the coral reefs (appeared) in the shallow bottom of the South China Sea, subsequently, the sea bottom subsided down gradually, and the reefs uplifted year by year on opposite direction. At present, the islands rise more than one thousand metres from the bottom of the deep water, and extend no less than 10 metres above the sea. Overlying the calcareous rock are the guano deposits, it covers nearly the whole area of the islands and forms a bed of 1C2 metres thickness. The Flora is represented by comparatively few species, so far as we know, no more than sixty species are existing on the islands, all of them seem to have been immigrants by various ways from the neighboring continents and islands, particularly Hainan, with only one exception, i.e. Pisonia grandis, the plants collected on the His-Sha Islands are the same as those reported for Hainan, some of them, such as Scaevola hainanensis, Bidens biternata and Angiopteris fukiensis, are endemics of Hainan flora, although no real endemics are to be found on the coral islands. The remarkable characteristics of the vegetation tends to be xerophytic. The characteristics occur in two forms, one in the succulent feature of the herbs and shrubs, the other in the indumentum of the stems and leaves. A similar feature is to be found on the arborescent species, although Pisonia grandis grows to a height over 10 metres with a trunk of 60 cm in diameter, the tree is weekly lignified, a lot of water-storage tissues composed of parenchymatous cells replaced the fibrous cells and vessels in the xylem. The plant communities are in the condition of different stages of succession. Three serel communities are recognized: Mobile dune community occurs along the sea shore. It is characterized by the halophytic habit. The runners are peculiarly well fitted to act as a pioneer in stabilizing the sandy shore. Coast scrub community lies in the inner part of the mobile dune community, and stands along the rims of the islands. It is characterized by the drier habitat, and most of the shrubs and herbs are xerophytic in habit. Forest community is situated in higher stage of the succession. It is constituted by a single dominant, Pisonia grandis, and occurs over the central part of the islands, and the trees are growing upon the guano deposits. Since typhoon in frequent, the forest is suffered heavy destruction repeatedly, in certain locality, it would bring about regressive succession.
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
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