April 1974, Volume 16 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Sporo-pollen Assemblage and Geological Age of the Lower Xinminbu Formation of Chiuchuan, Kansu
Author: Hs邦 Jen, Chiang Te-chin and Young Hui-chiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    The Lower Xinminbu Formation is a lacustrine deposit which consists mainly of black papery shales intercalated with greyish green thick-layered sandstones and grey thin-layered marls. There are greyish white and reddish brown thick-layered conglomerates in the basal part. The total thickness of this formation sums up to 1135 metres. The black shales are rich in fossil pollen and spores. One hundred and sixty-two rock samples collected from six natural sections and two bore-holes of the above-mentioned deposit at Hongliuxia, Xinminbu, Hanxia, etc. have been treated. A lot of fossil pollen grains and spores have been found from 33 samples of them. Twenty species (or forms) of pollen and spores referred to 19 genera are described in this paper. Two species are described as new. The sporo-pollen assemblage of the Lower Xinminbu Formation is characterized by the absolute predominance of the pollen grains of gymnosperms, by the diminution of the spores of fern, and by the presence of the pollen grains of angiosperms. The pollen of gymnosperms amount to 93.3% of the total number of the microflora. The spores of fern merely amount to 5.9% of the total number. Although the pollen of angiosperms arc rarely found, they play an important role in the microflora. The prominent characteristics of this microflora are the predominance of the pollen grains of Coniferae, the abundance of the spores of Schizaeaceae and the presence of the pollen grains of the angiosperms. Based on the palynological investigation, the authors consider that the Lower Xinminbu Formation should belong to Early Cretaceous in age, because the Early Cretaceous floras both in the Eurasian Continent and in the northern American Continent possess ordinarily the above-mentioned characteristics. According to the flora reflected by the present sporo-pollen assemblage, it may be supposed that the climate of the Chiuchuan Basin in the Early Cretaceous period was certainly rather warm and wet. It may be referred to subtropical type similar to that of southern China at the present time. Description of new species Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus sp. nov. (pl. 1, fig. 11; pl.2, fig. 1) 1962 Schizaea sp. 2 Chang p. 259, pl. 2, fig. 8a-c. Holotype: No. 593 (pl. 2, fig. 1) Diagnosis: Spores zizyphus-shaped, 33.06每43.50 米 ℅ 13.92每20.88 米, monolete. Exine about 1 米 thick, and thicker at both ends. Surface with 14 ㊣ ribs which are parallel to the long axis, straight or slightly curved, convergent or non-convergent at both ends. Ribs about 0.5每1.2 米 thick, and about 2 米 distant. Comparison: This kind of spores is similar to Cicatricososporites pseudodoro- gensis (R. Pot.) Pf. et Th. from Cretaceous of Quedlinburg (Weyland et Greifeld, 1953, p. 43, pl. 11, figs. 48每50, 53), but the latter is rounder, with non-parallel ribs, which are not convergent at both ends. Cingulatisporites ruginosus sp. nov. (pl. 2, figs. 2, 3, 3a) Holotype: No. 608 (pl. 2, fig. 3) Diagnosis: Spore rounded-triangular in polar view. Diameter 35.08每52.20米. Triradiate suture long, stretched up to the equator. Cingulum 3 to 8 米 wide, with wrinkles in layers. Exine at the angles of the spore thicker than that of the other parts. Surface with granular sculpture.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Studies of the Plant Communities on Sands at the Toutao Lake Basin in Ningsia
Author: Huang Yin-hsiao and Lin Shun-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    This paper deals with the water regime of the plant communities on sands at the Toutao lake basin of Alashan desert, Ningsia. By examining the relationship between the environmental conditions and the transpiration rates and green- part production of 13 species of plants mainly of in 3 plant communities, the results obtained may be briefly summarized as follows: 1) Rates and daily changes of transpiration for different species are closely related to the morphological and ecological characters of the plants under experimentation. Xerophytes seem to be characterized by their intense transpiration and daily changes, as expressed by the dior poly-peak curves, while in the succulent xerophytes occur the least transpiration and slow daily change, as shown by a mono-peak curve. The transpiration intensity of mesophytes gives intermediate type as demonstrated by the mono-or dipeak curve. Although eurytopic mesophytes have the greatest intensity of transpiration, but their daily changes are similar to those of mesophytes. The intensity of transpiration of plants is affected by environmental conditions as well as by the phenological phase. 2) Water loss of plants varies with the different species and plant communities. It is a function of the rates of transpiration and green-part production of plants, the latter playing the greatest role. In addition water loss in transpiration of plants is also affected by the content of soil moisture and the amount of precipitation. 3) The amount of water loss in the transpiration of plants growing on semi-mobile sands is well balanced with the content of soil moisture.
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Microscopical Identification of Powdered Chinese Drugs IV
Author: Hsu Kuo-chuin, Chen Ling-wen, Chin Yung-luan, Liu Jing-han and Hsu Luo-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    The microscopic observation of powdered crude drugs is used as one of the scientific methods to identify the crushed crude drugs, especially the Chinese traditional pharmaceutical preparations such as pills, powders and pastilles. he powdered drugs which are the ingredients of these preparations, were selected and studied, among which the microcharacteristics of 35 species were published in the Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, Vol. 13, No. 3, 4, 5 in 1966. The present paper deals with more than 60 species studied and unpublished. It will be continuously reported in several issues.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Responses to Vitamin C of the Female Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    The spores of two selected strains and a common cultivated strain of Laminaria japonica were used to study the effects of vitamin C on the growth and maturation rates of female gametophytes. The spores were collected on slides. The treatment of vitamin C was given to young gametophytes at 7每10 ⊥. Three concentrations were used, 100 ml of sea water contained 1 mg, 10 mg and 100 mg of vitamin C respectively. The main results of the study are summarized as follows: (1) While the female gametophytes were mainly unicellular at low temperature, they tended to grow larger and become many-celled with the addition of vitamin C, the higher the concentration and the longer the treatment of vitamin C, the more prominent being the effects. (2) The maturation of female gametophytes were delayed by vitamin C as much as one month after three times of treatment. (3) There were significant differences in the growth and maturation rates of female gamtophytes treated with vitamin C in the same strain and between the two strains used in the experiment. As definite and indefinite variations were observed under the same condition, it was thus assumed that there were genetic differences among the female gamtophytes. The induction of mitosis by vitamin C in female gametophytes might be of some practical significance for cytological studies and breeding work through hybridization.
Abstract (Browse 1930)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Electron Transport of Photosystem II of Photosynthesis
Author: 6th Laboratory of Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    In spinach chloroplasts and PSj particles, photoreduction of DCIP and of FeCy (ferricyanide) respond differently to inhibition by DCMU or by Tris-washing. The effects are pH (Tris) and concentration (DCMU) dependent. At pH 8, DCIP photoreduction by chloroplasts and PSj particles were inhibited completely by Tris-washing (0.8 M), while a small amount of residual FeCy photoreduction still remained. In normal chloroplasts, at DCMU concentrations of 5 ℅ 10-5 and 5 ℅ 10-4 M, DCIP photoreduction was completely lost, while photoreduction of FeCy remained at about 11.5%. With Tris-washed chloroplasts, when photoreduction of DCIP was completely abolished by 5 ℅ 10-6 M, 5 ℅ 10-5 M and 5 ℅ 10-4 M DCMU, FeCy photoreduction still remained at 14.1%, 15.0% and 13.5% respectively. When comparied with that of the control. In normal PSj particles, DCIP photoreduction was completely inhibited by DCMU at concentrations of 5 ℅ 10-6 M and 5 ℅ 10-5 M, while they still retained a residual FeCy photoreduction of 13.8% and 11.7% respectively. With Tris-washed (pH 7.6, 0.8 M) PSj particles, the residual FeCy photoreduction was 26.2% and 19.2% at DCMU concentrations of 5 ℅ 10-7 and 5 ℅ 10-6 M respectively, while the DCIP photoreduction was completely inhibited. Activity of the residual FeCy photoreduction by Tris-washed or DCMU treated chloroplasts and PS-j particles is higher at short wavelength light (651米m) than at longer wavelength light (714 米m). The possible involvement of two short-wavelength light reactions in PSj is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Ethrel on the Ripening of Tomato and Watermelon
Author: Lee Shu-hsien, Chiang Yao-tiao and Poh Peng-thong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    From the results of the present experiment, it was found that ripening of tomato fruits can be hastened significantly with ethreleither by preharvest spray onto the plants or by dipping the fruits after harvest. Concentrations of the ethrel used for dipping ranged from 1,000 to 4,000 ppm. Temperature higher than 25 ⊥ during the ripening period was required in accelerating the fruit colour development, but no consistent differences was found between that of 20 ⊥ and that of 30⊥ of the dipping solutions used. Preharvest spraying with ethrel (500每2000 ppm) in the field also accelerated the fruit ripening by 6每8 days. The early yield of red mature fruits of the treated lots was thus increased considerably over that of the untreated lots. But it was net the case in the total yield. Such a pattern of yield increase was mainly due to the increase of fruit number per unit area, and not the average weight of fruits. No appreciable change was found in total soluble solids contents in the course of ripening, whereas the titratable acidity decreased rapidly. Maturation of watermelon could also be hastened by spraying with ethrel in the field from 100 to 500 ppm, and harvest was advanced by 5每7 days. Soluble solids contents were found to be higher in all regions of the treated fruits in comparision with the untreated ones at the same calender age of fruit development.
Abstract (Browse 3590)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Root Qualities of the Cultivated Chinese Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)
Author: Fu Keh-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
      
    Chinese liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fiseh.) was cultivated in Harbin since 1962. The morphology and microscopical features of 1 to 4 years old roots are described and illustrated with plates. The contents of water-soluble substances, glycyrrhizic acid and total reducing sugar of the roots are analysed and the results compared in the following table: Age of root water-soluble substances % glycyrrhizic acid % total reducing sugar % 1 43.89 5.49 19.82 2 41.01 6.76 13.66 3 42.86 9.48 12.75 4 39.96 10.52 12.22 it is clear that the 2 to 4 years old roots comform the requirments of Chinese pharmacopoeia in all respects. Therefore, the liquorice plant can be cultivated in Northeast China and the 3 years old root may be harvested and used for the making of liquorice extracts as it has not only the high yield of root, but also the high contents of water-soluble extractives and glycyrrhizic acid.
Abstract (Browse 1983)  |  Full Text PDF       
Successful Induction of Shoot Differentiation from the Calli of Soybean and Pea Hypocotyl
Author: Short Report on the National Conference of the Haploid Breeding of Tobacco
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simplified Procedure for the Determination of Acetylene Reduction by the Nitrogen-fixing System
Author: Laboratory of Nitrogen Fixation of Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Crotalaria assamica Benth. 〞A Resource Plant of Monocrotaline
Author: The Group of Crotalaria Plant Research, Hupeh Institute of Botany
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1974 16(4)
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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