January 1975, Volume 17 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Two Convenient Isolation Methods for Mesophyll Cells used in Plant Cell Culture
Author: Hsu Lin-ching, Yeh Ho-chun and Hung Wei-lien
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    This paper reports two isolation methods for mesophyll cells used in plant cell culture. These methods of isolation are by hand grinding and by electro-magnetic stirring. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods as compared to the routine enzyme isolation, method are discussed. Their application in protoplasts isolation and cytological researches are tested and discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1675)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Genera and Species of the Late Triassic from Yungjen, Yunnan II.
Author: Hs邦 Jen, Chu Chia-nan, Chen Yeh, Hu Yu-fan and Tuan Shu-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    This paper is a continuation of the paper "New Genera and Species of the late Triassic from Yungjen, Yunnan, i." the writers in the present paper describe further a new genus: Tachingia; 12 new species: Thaumatopteris nodosa, Cladophlebis yungjenensis, C. calcariformis, C. imbricata, Ctenis yungjenensis, C. multinervis, Pseudoctenis gigantea, Pterophyllum yunnanense, Anomozamites alternus, A. ptilus, A. pachylomus, Tachingia pinniformis and a new combination: Ctenopteris chinensis.
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light and Electron Microscopical Observations on Cytomixis and the Study of its Relation to Variation and Evolution
Author: Cheng Kuo-chang, Nieh Hsiu-wan, Yang Chin-lan, Wang I-hsiu, Chou Ing-shou and Chen Jy-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    Cytomixis has been studied with the light microscope using species of Lilium davidii var. willmottiae, Lycium chinense, Allium fistulosum and Allium cepa and electron microscope using Lilium davidii var. willmottiae. With the electron microscope, the cytoplasm and chromatin of a Lilium pollen-mother-cell (PMC)was observed passing into a neighbouring cell through several adjacent plasma channels. Cytomixis appears to be a natural phenomenon occurring either in the resting stage or meiosis between PMCs and other types of cells with thin or thick walls that are connected by cytoplasmic bands. Five different types of cytological abnormalities have been described also: 1. PMCs with decreased and increased chromosome numbers, 2. changes in chromosome structure, 3. appearance of enucleate and binucleate PMCs, 4. Registered bigger and smaller than normal pollen grains, and 5. detected unviable pollen grains. These types of abnormalities could be the result of cytomixis. Probably cells that are enucleate or have great disturbances in chromosome numbers and structure will die, while those with minor losses may survive. They may produce viable gametes or zygotes. In a very low frequency they may be expected to effect fertilization and thus give rise to aneuploid and polyploid progeny in a population. Cytomixis could be one of the modes of origin of B chromosomes by fragmentation of A chromosomes. Considering the above observations it may be thought that cytomixis in microsporogenesis and pollen development in many genera and families of flowering plants will increase our understanding of evolutionary mechanisms at cytological level.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Essential Oils of the Family Lauraceae from Yunnan 111. The Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oils of Three Species of the Lauraceous Plants
Author: Essential Oils Research Group, Laboratory of Phytochemistry, Institute of Botany, Yunnan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    The present work is a report on the studies of the chemical constituents of the essential oils of three species of the lauraceous plants in the province of Yunnan, namely Cinnamomum aff. tamala Nees et Eberm., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., L. euosma W. W. Smith. Their oils were analysed by applying a combination of the following techniques: (a), fractional distillation; (b), silica gel column chromatography; (c), thin-layer chromatography; (d), preparation of derivative; (e), gas chromatography. Cinnamomum afftamala Nees et Eberm. is widely distributed in the southern part of Yunnan. The properties of the essential oil from a collection at Yu-Hsi were the following: yield of oil (from fresh leaves) 1.1%; d1818 0.8736; nD14 1.4590; 汐D14-12.9˚;1-citronellal (汐D-13.9˚) content 58.1%, and l-citronellol (汐D-9.5〞10˚) content 10.8%. They are higyly purified laevo citronellal and laevo citronellol first isolated from the nature. The chemical constituents besides l-citronellal and l-citronellol were 汐-pinene 1.2%; camphene 0.6%; dipentene 1.2%; cineope 1.2%; p-cymene 2.2%; methylheptenone 1.9%; d-linalool 2.5%; camphor 3.2%; d-isopulegol 4.4%; d-汐-fenchylalcohol 2.9%; citral 2.5%; geraniol 0.9%; safrole 1.2%; 汐-humulene 3%; and a minor amount of eugenol. The properties of the essential oil from the fresh fruits of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. collected at Si-Chaur, Yunnan were as the following: yield of oil 1.6%每3%; d1818 0.8978; nD14 1.4871; 汐D+2〞4.3˚ The pressence of citral (62.5%), methylheptenone (3.1%), d-limonene (11.6%) and d-linalool (2.5%) reported by previous workers was confirmed. In addition, the oil was found to contain ten previously unreported constituents. They were as follows: 汐-pinene (1.6%), camphene (3.5%), p-cymene (0.3%), citronellal (7.6%), camphor (0.8%), geranyl acetate (0.9%), 汐-terpineol (1.5%), geraniol (1.1%), safrole (0.9%) and 汐-humulene (1.2%). The essential oil from the fresh fruits of Litsea euosma W. W. Smith collected at Teng-Thong, Yunnan is the following. Yield of oil 2.5%每3%; d2222 0.8891; nD22 1.4825; 汐D+1.2˚; aldehyde and ketone content (hydroxylamine method) 90%. The following constituents were identified in this oil: citral 80.5%; 汐-pincne 0.8%; camphene 0.9%; d-limonene 5.1%; p-cymene 0.3%; methylheptenone 1.4%; d-citronellal 3.9%; d-lina-lool 2.8%; camphor 0.8%; geraniol 1.9%; and 汐-humulene 1.4%. In addition, a new column chromatography method, named ascending column chromatography method is also reported in the present paper.
Abstract (Browse 2571)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Induction of Populus Pollen-Plants
Author: Wang Ching-ch邦, Chu Zhih-ching and Sun Ching-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    Haploid plantlets were successfully induced from Populus nigra anthers cultured in vitro on synthetic medieum.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stimulation of Plant Exudation by Ethrel
Author: Laboratory of Phytohormone, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid was applied at 5%每10% to the trunks of five species from four different families of plants, Hevea brasiliensis, Pterocarpus indicus, My roxylon balsamum, Rhus sp., and Pinus massoniana. A markedly significant difference was found in the exudation between the treated and the untreated plants. No matter what the family of plants was tested, it is a general phenomenon that the amount of exudation was much increased by the 2-chloroethytphosphonic acid treatment. These results are discussed with regard to the possible role of 2-chloroethylphos-phonic acid on the stimulation of exudation which has been ascribed to be the response of wounding or other stresses by some authors.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Key-Fruit Oils of Six Species of Ulmus
Author: Fat and Oils Research Group, 4th Laboratory, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    The oil contents, the oil characteristics and the compositions of the mixed fatty acids of the oils in the key-fruits of the six species belonging to Ulmus have been examined . Among these six species, four species (U. parvifolia Jacq., U. macrocarpa Hance, U. propinqua Koidz. and U. laciniata (Trautv.) Mayr.) are not recorded before. The present paper deals with the analytical results on key-fruit oils of the six species of Ulmus. The key-fruit samples of U. propinqua Koidz. and U. laciniata are obtained from Kirin. The key-fruit samples of U. pumila L., U. laevis Pall., U. parvifolia Jacq. and U. macrocarpa Itance are obtained respectively from Shantung, Sinkiang, Chekiang and Peking. U. pumila L., U. macrocarpa Hance, U. propinqua Koidz. and U. laciniata (Trautv.) Mayr. belong to Sect. Ulmus. U. parvifolia Jacq. and U. laevis Pall. belong respectively to Sect. Microptelea and Sect. Blepharocarpus. Although these elm trees belong to different sections in taxonomy and the analytical samples are obtained from various regions, their key-fruit oils have a relatively consistent character, that. is, the key-fruit oils are low in the iodine value and are high in the saponification value, the saturated fatty acids of the short chains occupy a large proportion, and the capric acid is a major fatty acid component which constitutes 44.8每66.5 per cent of the total fatty acids. It is made clear that this character appears to show the chemical character of the key-fruit oils of the various species of ulmus.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Utilization of Solar Energy of Wheat in Peking District
Author: Photoenergy Utilization Research Group, Laboratory of Agrometeorology, Peking Academy of Agriculture
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1975 17(1)
      
    This paper reports on the nature of total solar radiation on wheat throught its growing seasons in Peking district and the utilization of solar energy of different densities of wheat plant population at the brigades of Xujiawu and Tayuan. Basing upon the economical and biological yields of 400每500 kg per mu (1 mu=1/15 hectare), the rate of solar energy utilization are estimated to be 0.4%每0.5% and 1.17%每1.89% respectively. When compared with some otheer advanced brigades in Peking, these rates are lower than the average, and too far below the record rate of 5.09% From the standpoint of solar energy utilization, &observed rate of productivity, the intensity of photosynthesis and the relationship between the rate of solar energy utilization and yield there is enough potentiality to increase the yield per unit area. Finally the density of plant population per mu is also an important factor in the utilization of solar energy.
Abstract (Browse 2035)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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