February 1976, Volume 18 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Preliminary Report on Maize Anther Culture
Author: The Cooperative Group of Haploid Breeding of Maize of the Experimental Station of Dong Bei Wang Commnue and of Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Electron Theory of Catalysis Applied to Photosynthesis A Rsum of the Work Done During the Last Ten Years (Continued)
Author: Fan Yi-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
Abstract (Browse 1729)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tissue Culture of Medicinal Plants I. Callus Cultures of Scopolia Acutangula for the Production of Hyoscyamine and Scopolamine
Author: Zhng Gung-zh and Ling Zhng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
      
    For the purpose of inducing callus from excised stem segments of Scopolia acutangula, Linsmair-Skoog's medium was better than Nitseh-Hiller's or White's medium. The optimum temperature for callus growth was about 26 and the optimum pH was about 5.5 under our experimental conditions. Identification by paper chromatography, thinlayer chromatography and ultra- violet absorption spectrum of methyl alcohol extracts of callus and stems of S. acutangula demonstrated that the callus had the capability to synthesize hyoscamine and scopolamine. The results of chromatographic analyses indicated that callus also synthesized three unknown alkaloids and a compound which was able to produce blue fluorescence under ultra-violet light. The quantities of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in the stems of intact plants were 0.123% and 0.016% respectively, while in the callus they were 0.025% and 0.105%. Light not only strongly stimulates the growth of callus but also promotes bio- synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine. However, whether in light or darkness, growth curves of the callus are sigmoid. Following prolonged cultural period, the quantity of hyoscyamine in callus decreases, while the quantity of scopolamine in- creases. The effects of various growth substances such as 2,4-D, IAA, NAA, gibberellin and kinetin are not the same on the growth of callus and on the content of scopo- lamine produced. The best growth was obtained in Linsmair-Skoog's medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. The stimulatng effect of NAA on the production of scopolamine is more obvious than that of 2, 4-D, whereas the effects of gibberellin and kinetin are quite insignificant.
Abstract (Browse 2082)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Steroidal Sapogenins of Agave III. Isolation and Identification on Steroidal Sapogenins from Some Species of Agave
Author: Chen Yan-rong and Huang Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
      
    In order to search for more raw material for the industrial production of steroid drugs, with the help of several plantations, 17 samples of 5 different species of Agave, namely A. americana L., A. sisalana Perr., A. cantala Roxb, A. angustifilia Haw, and a variety of A. americana gathered from Kwangtung, Kwangsi, and Fu- kien were examined. Hecogenin, the valuable raw material for the commercial production of steroid hormones, was found in all the samples tested. For the purpose of reasonable ultilization of the waste juice from the textile manufacturing, three species were selected for more detail study, -sitosterol, neotigogenin, hecogenin, gitogenin, chlorogenin and manogenin were isolated from the leaves of A. cantala Roxb growing in Fukien; tigogenin, hecogenin, and chlorogenin from the leaves of A. angustifolia Haw growing in Kwangtung; tigogenone, -sitosterol, tigogenin, hecogenin, 9-dehydroheeogenin, shlorogenin and hainangenin from the leaves of a variety of A. americana growing in Kwangtung were isolated. This work is not only useful for commercial production of hecogenin and tigogenin, but also has some theoretical interest.
Abstract (Browse 2295)  |  Full Text PDF       
Physiological Analysis of the Ripening-promoting Effect of Ethrel in Rice
Author: Wang Hsi and Shih Yi-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
      
    but in comparison with the properly matured control, the grain yield of the treated plants was reduced because of the poor grain filling. This paper discusses the physiological basis of the ripening-promoting effect of Ethrel According to the experimental results, the acceleration of metabolic activity during the maturity period is one of the physiological causes of the ripening effect. Spraying Ethrel during the heading period of rice promoted the hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the vegetative organs and strengthened the synthesis in the reproductive organs. In the rice grain, the activity of phosphatase was enhanced, and the rate of starch accumulation accelerated. On the other hand due to the enhancement of the protein and chlorophyll degeneration in the functional leaf, and the decrease of photosynthetic rate, the plant community showed senescence. Moreover, the in- crease of the respiratory rate in the functional leaf increased the wasting away of dry matter and energy, as a result, the rice grain was lighter than that of the control. As with fruits of other plant species, the respiratory climacteric of the grains of the treated rice plants was advanced during the ripening process, this is also considered as one of the important physiological expressions of the ripening-promoting effect of Ethrel.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytological Observations on Anther and Pollen Developments of Male Sterile and Male Fertile Lines of Wheat
Author: Speciality in Plant Genetics and Breeding of Department of Biology, Peking University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
      
    What anther development and microsporogenesis of male-sterile lines (Peking No. 8 andEarliness No. 1) were studied in comparison with those of their main- tainer lines. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Pollen aborting in male-sterile lines might occur in various stages of microsporogenesis. However, the degeneration of pollen at later stage of microsporogensis of male-sterile lines was the critical stage, so that the microspores at this stage failed to carry on' their male gametogenesis in many cases. 2. Before the commencement of microsporogenesis, more than 90% of the microspores of male-sterile, developed in the similar manner to that of maintainer lines, and only a few of them revealed various abnormalities and led to the abortion of microspores with the following abnormalities: 1. the abnormal fusion of anther cham- bers, 2. the disorganization of microspore mother cells with normally developed tapetal layers, 3. the microspore mother cells fused together to form pesiplasmodium, 4. the disorganized microspore mother cells fused with tapetal cells to form pesiplasmodium, some microspore cells transformed into unusual giant cells, 5. the tapetal cells disorganized before microsporogenesis and 6. and formed a tapetal pesiplasmodium, the hypertrophy of tapetum.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on Deferring Senescence of Cucumber Fruits During Storage
Author: Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(2)
      
    Senescence is the key problem of cucumber storage. The influence on the senescence of cucumber fruits during storage was studied with respect to the following factors: temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ethylene. The results showed that regulating the storage temperature is effective in controlling senescence of cucumber fruits during storage. Senescence can be deferred if the temperature of storage is kept at 10C13. At this temperature range, by controlling the oxygen partial pressure at 2%C5%, and the carbon dioxide partial pressure also at 2%C5% and using the 20:1 carrier of potassium permanganate to remove the ethylene from storage chamber cucumber fruits can be stored for 45 days almost no change in their appearance and flavour. These results indicate that the important effect of temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide etc. On the senescence of cucumber fruits is to reduce the strength of respiration and activity of cellulase.
Abstract (Browse 1990)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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