April 1976, Volume 18 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Practice and Understanding of Selection and Breeding on Kaoliang-rice Hybrid (Type A)
Author: Research Group of Kaoliang-Rice Hybrid, Institute of Agricultural Science, Hupei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
Take Class Struggle as the Key Link and Persist in the Work on Distant Crossing
Author: Chang Sze-chou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    I am a peasant. In order to increase the yields of cotton and grain and breed new varieties, I began to work on distant crossing of cotton in 1957. The sexual hybridization was conducted by using the cotton and castor bean plants possesing the characters such as strong adaptability, short branches of fructification, better fructifying ability, resistence to insect pest and drought and cold injury. In 1962, I obtained the new variety "Mine-Nung No. 14" which had the characteristics of both cotton and castor bean plants. Later the petwheat was also obtained. Now the two new varieties of cotton and wheat have been put on production, and well received by the poor and lower-middle peasants. In the twenty years engaged in research on distant crossing, I was constantly opposed by class enemy and the bourgeoisie in the party. The bourgeois specialists and "authorities" also said "That I was a 'bumpkin', did not know science", "The castor-cotton was false" etc. But in accordance with the need of production, I did away with all fetishes and superstitutions, emancipated the mind, followed Chairman Mao's teaching of the primary standpoint of practice, upheld the philosophy of struggle, finally obtained certain results. I consider that all genuine knowledge originates in direct experience, and both the theory and practice of distant crossing have the wide prospect for future development.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of High Temperature on the Flowering and Fruiting of Early Rice and Its Control j.The Influence of High Temperature on the Flowering-Fruiting of Early Rice During the Flowering Stage
Author: Laboratory, of Phytotron Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    High temperature injures flowering-fruiting of early rice in the productive practice. This experiment was carried out in phytotron to study the influence of the different degrees of high temperature on the flowering-fruiting process of early rice during the flowering stage. It was found that with the increase in temperature the peak of daily flowering appeared earlier; the maximum rate of daily flowering, the rate of the total number of flowering, the rate of bursted anther and the number of filled grain decreased; the rates of unopened floret, night-opened floret and unfilled grain increased. The most sensitive stage of a floret to high temperature is just before flowering and its resistence to high temperature greatly strengthens at the time inmediately after flowering and pollination when the elongation of ovary becomes visible. The cause of high temperature injury is due to the destruction of fertilization process resulting in the formation of empty grains.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Respiratory Intensity and Sugar Content in Hami Melons During Ripening
Author: Sinkiang Institute of Biology, Pedology and Psammology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    The development of Hami melon fruits is related closely to its respiration. Hami melon fruits grow rapidly during the early stage of 'fruit development, its respiratory intensity is high and the sugar content low. The respiratory intensity decreases gradually with development of fruits and the sugar content increases. When the fruit reached maturity, the respiratory intensity increased again. The respiratory intensity decreased after harvest and storage materials underwent destructive metabolism. Among the Hami melon varieties, with regard to the entire course of development, the respira- tory intensity of the "Mizgan§ is lower than of "Hongsentry", hence the former is favoured for storage. The Hami melons supplied directly to the market for sale ought to be harvested after complete maturity, while those intended for storage and distant transportation should be harvested before complete maturity.
Abstract (Browse 2364)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Way to Gain High and Stable Yield of Cotton in Large Area
Author: Agricultural Bureau, Chi Dong County, Kiangsu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    Since 1964, our county carried out the movement "In agriculture, learn from Tachai", we have obtained high and stable yield of ginned cotton at the level of 130每140 jin per mu year after year. In 1975, though our county was hit by severe natural disaster, we overcame it, won a good harvest, obtained 161 fin of ginned cotton per mu. Our main experiences are summarized as follows: 1. Close planting. The planting density is about 6500 plants per mu. 2. Field management. The principle of fertilizer application is to promote seedlings, stabilize buds and gain more bolls. We applied fertilizer 25每30 jin per mu of which over 20 jin fertilizer per mu was applied at flowering and bolling period. 3. Grasp prevention of Tetranychus bimaculatus Harvey and Pectinophora gessypiella Saunders for high yield and good quality of cotton.
Abstract (Browse 1769)  |  Full Text PDF       
Managing Plant Development According to the Rule of the Yield Formation Factors in Wheat
Author: Research Group on ※High and Stable Yield and Low Cost§ of Wheat Production, Hy邦 Chang College of Agriculture, Honan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    On the basis of studying and generalizing the production experiences of the mass in the last two years, suggestion are made for the rational population structure on different cultivars, different levels of the yield and different stages of growth and development. According to the rule of the yield formation factors, principles for managing plants based on growth vigors and growth features were summarized as follows: 1. Based on the relation of co-extension between tillers and leaf blades of main stems; and based on the period of developing into two extreme directions of tillers, plants were managed, so that adequate tillers and stout seedlings were promoted, this insures a quite high rate of effective tillers that adequate number of ears can be obtained. 2. Based on growth vigors and growth features of the 9th, 10th, 11th leaf blades which emerged near the shooting period, management techniques for promotion and control of the seedlings were determined, so as to decrease floret degeneration and increase seed set. 3. Master the rules of dry matter accumulation in seed of plants with different growth vigors and increasingly manage plants in the latter stage, to prevent excessive vegetative growth and early ageing, so that grain weight can be increased.
Abstract (Browse 1680)  |  Full Text PDF       
Research on the Cultivation of High Yield Peanuts
Author: Laboratory of Cultivation, Shantung Institute of Peanut
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    We have carried out experiments to produce high yield of peanuts in the way combining with the mass movement for four years, We established one hundred and twenty plots of high yield about 600每800 jin per mu. Number of plants per mu, number of pods per plant and number of pods per jin are factors constituting high yield. The index of each factor constituting high yield is different in different varieties. The most important among these three factors is the number of pods per fin. For the purpose of stabilizing the number of pods per jin, it is necessary to bring 2-seeded pods up to 60%每90% and full pods up to 50%每80%. The main techniques are to enhance the development of the first and second pairs of lateral branches of peanuts to the greatest extent and to hasten the earlier emergence of the secondary branches in order to increase the percentages of fruit setting and of full fruits. The main measures of high yield culture are as follows: lossen the soil through deep cultivation and soil improvement; regulate the ratio of nutrients in soil by phosphorus dressing; regulate the contradiction of light competition between individual plant and plant population by rational close planting and balance the contradiction between the vegetative growth and reproductive growth by proper cultural measures including stunting, promoting and regulating the growth of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Photorespiration in Several Different Varieties of Wheat by Biochemical Methods
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    Photorespiration in photosynthetic cells proceeds through the glycolate pathway. We assumed that the accumulation of glycolate, the glycolate oxidase activity and the net photosynthetic rate may be used as criteria of photorespiration activity for different crop varieties. Simple method for quantitative determination of glycolate and estimation of glycolate oxidase activity in the functional leaves of wheat were described in this report. The preliminary resultes showed that differences do exist in the amount of glycolate accumulated, the activity of glycolate oxidase and the net photosynthetic rate in different varieties of wheat, especially during the milk stage. These differences seemed to be correlated with the high yield behaviour of different wheat varieties. These simple methods described in this paper may be of some value in the selection of high photosynthetically efficient varieties in crop plants.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Attempt at Unravelling the Secret of the Oleoresin Formation in the Wood of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg.
Author: Kwangtung Institute of Botany
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    In normally growing trees of Aquilaria neither oleoresin nor secretory tissues are found in their wood. Starch grains are stored in cells of wood parenchyma, wood ray and included phloem. The oleoresin will form and be deposited in those cells when the trees are forced to oleoresin formation by the traditional method of our drug peasants. The method is to cut some niches or notches on the trunk of the standing tree. Beneath and also above the surface of the notch cut, mycelia spread downward or upward to some extent. Within this area, the stored starch grains begin to dissociate and convert into some other substances which can not be detected on unstained sections, but give a strong or moderately strong positive reaction with PAS, "Nadi", and later, with Schiff's reagent respectively. As time passes, a yellow coloured inclusion can be observed in these cells. At first, it reacts with PAS as well as Schiff's or Millon's reagent, and finally only with Sudan k. Based upon the observation mentioned above we conclude that the formation of the oleoresin in this plant is not hereditary but a result of abnormal metabolism of the stored starch grains caused by the parasitic fungus. Polysaccharides other than the starch grain, the carbonyl and phenolic compounds should be the intermediate products in the pathway of this abnormal metabolism.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Persist in Applying Materialist Dialectics of Marxism to Guide Scientific Research
Author: Hobei Institute of Cereal Crops
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    During the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, we organized scientific research workers to put the study of Marxism, Leninism and Mao Tsetung thought into the first place in their work, directed them to apply materialist dialectics to critisize the viewpoints of idealism and metaphysics in scientific research and guiding scientific experiment. Through the good examples, we have further promoted the study of Marxism, Leninism and Mao Tsetung thought in our institute. In recent years, scientific research workers studied and applied materialist dialectics more consciously on the road of integrating themselves with workers and peasants and obtained significant achivements in breeding new varieties, cultivation management, and reform of experimental methods in wheat, millet and sesame.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tomato Storage I. The Effect of Controlled Atmosphere Storage on Some Physiological Processes of Stored Fruits
Author: Three-in-one Combination Experimental Group of Peking Chong Wen Vegetable Station and Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
      
    Tomatoes were stored in the large bag of polyethylene film under controlled atmosphere. When the O2 content was kept 2%每4%, CO2 below 5% and Cl2 was maintained at 1500 ppm by injecting the appropriate quantity of chlorine into each bag at one day interval, tomato fruits could be stored up to 45-days with normal colour, quality, flavour and percentage of good fruits attened 84%每88% at 11每13 ⊥. Because of lower temperature and oxygen partial pressure, the rate of respiration was decreased and climateric peak was obviously delayed. Therefore, senescence and ripening of tomato fruits were also deferred. In this paper, the relation between the rate of respiration and different oxygen partial pressure, the contents of pigments, reduce sugar, total acidity, total soluble solid and temperature of storage were also investigated.
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
How to Overcome the Incompatibility of Distant Crossing
Author: Ke Ga-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
Abstract (Browse 1692)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Practice of Hybridization Between the Millet and Kaoliang
Author: Tsang Chow Regional Institute of Agricultural Science, Hopei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1976 18(4)
Abstract (Browse 1972)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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