February 1977, Volume 19 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Determination of Photorespiration
Author: Laboratory of Crop Ecological and Genetics, Agronomy Department, Kwangtung College of Agriculture and Forestry
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
Abstract (Browse 1709)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of Ethrel to Promote the Ripening of Seaisland Cotton
Author: Agricultural Experimental Station, ¡°Wu Si¡± National Farm, Shanghai and Ethylene Research Group, Laboratory of Phytohormone, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
Abstract (Browse 1628)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Formation and Organ Regeneration in the Tissue Culture of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.
Author: Sun Ching-san, Chu Chih-ching and Wang Ching-ch¨¹
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Further Discussion on the Relation between Tillering Capacity and Cumulative Temperature and Its Application in Wheat Culture ¡ªDiscussion with Comrade Wang Shi-gi
Author: Deng Gen-yun and Zheng Da-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    This paper attempts to discuss the problem of wheat tillering function in wheat from the viewpoint of materialist dialectics, and indicats that the tillering function should include the relation between the. number of tillers and leaf-age of wheat under various conditions, so that it should include paramneter reflecting objective conditions. Such function may be derived from the basic law of tillering process,that is, the tillering rate is in direct proportion to number of tillers. This paper also indicate that the tillering function expressed by Fibonaecis series is unreasonable, and discuss the applicable significance of the relation between number of tillers and cumulative temperature.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Problems in the Study of Vegetation Succession
Author: Hun She and Ghi Bei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    The studies of vegetation succession are of great importance both in theory and in practice. Different viewpoints exist as to what theories to be adopted for studying vegetation successions. The influence of idealism and metephysics in certain cases are still very serious. The present paper attempts to analyse and discuss the following three problems. 1. On driving forces of vegetation succession: Two standpoints are analysed and criticized, one is that the external environment's decisive role has been emphasized, and the other is to split connections between internal changes of community and external environmenal factors. The writers hold that, the fundamental cause of vegetation succession is the contradiction' within community, that is to say the contradictions exist between plant's populations, plants and other organisms, organic part and inorganic part, i.e. plant environment of the community. Although external environment is the necessary condition in vegetation succession it becomes operative only through internal contradiction within community. 2. On the "equilibrium" and "stability" in vegetation succession: Analysing and criticizing the viewpoints, which are stated by the theories of monoclimax, polyclimax and cyclic succession, that the climax community is no longer in development barring a change of external environmental condition, and the cyclic succession takes place in a regularly repeated order and repeating itself as the same kind of community only. For both community and environment are changing succesively, the final stable and unchangeable climax never exists in nature. However it is impossible to deny the phenomenon of relative, equilibrium and relative stability in' developmental processes of vegetation. The processes of whole succession are processes of building equilibium and breaking it continuously. 3. On the "continuity" and "discontinuity" of vegetation: Analysing the evidences from which the two opposing viewpoints are based upon. The writers hold that, both sides of controversy are only to look at the thing's one aspect but neglect the other and without understanding of the dialectic relations between continuity and interruption. On one hand, we must realize the continuous development of community and on the other, there, are many stages in developmental processes. In that of time former and latter are both in connection and in that of space both in continuity and in interruption.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Alpine Plants in Mapamyum Co District and On the South Slope of Pengzhe Fens of Gengdise Shan
Author: Pan Jin-tang, Chang He-zeng and Liu Shang-wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    Mapamyum Co and the south slope of pengzhe feng of gengdise shan are situated about 4505 to 6124 meters in altitude. Their ecological conditions are unfavourable and climate is severe. There are thin air, stroung constant wind, low rainfall, excessive evaporation and low temperature, although the diurnal range of temperature is great. In addition, the sunshine is abundant and the solar radiation is intensive. The growth period of plants is very short. The seed plants colleted from the districts comprise 111 species belonging to 76 genera of 27 families. Among them, two species are new to science. The flora of the districts belongs to Chinese Himalayan floristie subregion. Adapting to the unfavourable habitat, a great mant alpine plants are pulvinate, resular, repent, or densely clothed with matted wool. The vegetative reproduction exceeds the sexual reproduction. The essential plant communities of the districts are as follows: 1. Deciduous undershrub of Caragana versicolor Benth. and Artemisia mattfeldii Pamp. var. etomentosa Hand.-Mazz. distributes on the slope between 4700 and 4880 m above sea leval. 2. Cushion vegetation of Caragana versicolor Benth., Potentilla arbuscula D. Don var. pumila (Hk. f.) Hand.-Mazz. and Thylacospermum caespitosum (Camb.) Schi- sch. distributes on the slope between 4880 and 5110 m. 3. Cushion vegetation of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Camb.) Schisch and Arenaria musciformis Wall. distributes on the slope between 5110 and 5450 m. 4. True steppe of Stipa gloreosa P. Smirn. and S. purpurea Griseb. distributes on the well drained plain between 4530 and 4600 m. 5. Undershrub steppe of Stipa gloreosa P. Smirn. S. purpurea Griseb. and Caragama versicolor Benth. distributes on the foothill between 4600 and 4700 m. 6. Swam meadow of Blysmus compressus (L.) Panz. and Potentilla anserina L. distributes in the lake district between 4505 and 4530 m. In the districts, many superior herbage may be encountreed, as Polygonum viviparum L., Orinus thoroldii (Stapf) Bor, Stipa gloreosa P. Smirn., S. purpurea Griseb., Blysmus compressus (L.) Panz. and Kobresia stenocarpa (Karet et Kir.) Steud and so forth, otherwise, there are many valuable medical plants, as Arenaria musci- formis Wall., Hypecoum leptocarpum Hk. f. et Thoms., Rhodiola himalensis (D. Don) Fu. Oxytropis microphylla DC., Saussurea tridactyla Sch.-Bip. and others.
Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cultivation of Sturdy Rice Seedling by Using Nitrogen Fixing Blue-Green Algae
Author: Research Group of Blue-green Algae Application, 5th Laboratory, Hupeh Institute of Hydrobiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    In-troduction of nitrogen fixing blue-green algae in rice seedling beds may result in sturdy rice seedlings. After transplantation, the recovering period was earlierised for 1¨C2 days and the time of effective tillering was prolonged for 1¨C3 days. As a result, the number of ears, ear length and average grains of each ear all increased. The average yield per mu in the experimental plots of early and late rice were increased by 7.68% and 9.3% respectively. So it is considered that nitrogen fixing blue-green algae as a fertilizer source will be of developmental prospeet.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of High Temperature on Flowering and Fruiting of Early Rice and its Control III. The Sensitivity of Flowering and Fruiting of Early Rice to High Temperature Injury
Author: The Phytotron, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    This experiment is about the sensitivity of the flowering and fruiting of early rice to high temperature (35 ¡æ) injury. It was carried out in the phytotron. There is a stage of most sensitive to high temperature injury during the flowering and fruiting period in early rice. In other words, there is a stage when the injury caused by high temperature is most serious. But the sensitive stages to injury of empty grain, unfilled grain and kilograin weight are. different. The high temperature injury mainly results in the increase of the percentage of empty grain during the flowering of early rice. The stage most sensitive to high temperature, for the spikelet, is one day before the flowering; for the panicle, or the stand in the paddy field, one day before full bloom. It is possible to take measures for prevention of high temperature injury in time, if we know the stage most sensitive to high temperature, the clates of high temperature and the developmental stage of rice in paddy field.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Some Externally Morphological Characteristics at the Initiation of Differentiation of the Shoot Apex in
Author: Hsie Bao-kui, Liu Tzu-hsian, Liu Ching-mei and Chang Hsian-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    Through the preliminary observation of some external characteristics of three lines (Ehl-jioou-narn, Ehl-jioou-aai, Taih-yiin No. 1) of rice (Oryza sativa L.), we know that when the differentiation of the shoot apex takes place, the distance between two adjacent pulvini of the last 3,4 leaves of the plant becomes prominently elongating. Rice and some other graminae such as wheat, millet, etc. are characterized by this morphological feature. The differentiation of the shoot apex of rice initiates at a definite "double ¦¯leaf" period, passes through the first, second and third "elongating periods of distance between pulvini" successively and then emerges. There is no great externally morphological difference during the differentiation of the shoot apex among the early maturing or the late maturing varieties of rice. In growing plant, any central young leaf ("¦¯ leaf) will make a chance to coincide with "¦¯leaf", forming "double ¦¯ leaf". During the stage of vegetative growth, the "double ¦¯ leaf" plant has two central young leaves, denoted by "-1 leaf" and "-2 leaf", the blades of which are more slender; while during differentiation of the shoot apex the "double ¦¯leaf" plant has only one central young leaf with comparatively broad blade so that it is possible to make a distinction from that of vegetative stage. According to this characteristic, the floresence of any variety of rice may be estimited.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Early Cretaceous Plants from Lhasa, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China
Author: Tuan Shu-yin, Chen Yeh and Keng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    This paper deals with some fossil plants collected from Lasa, Tibetan Autonomous Region. These plants are Weichselia reticulata, Cladophlebis browniana, Zamiophyllum buchianum, Elatides curvifolia, Scleropteris tibetica sp. nov. Taeniopteris, alternata sp. nov. and 'some species of Onychiopsis, Sphenopteris Ptilophyllum and Podoza- mites. The age of this flora is assigned to Early Cretaceous, as in general aspect it closely resembles the wealden flora of Western Europe.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigations on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation of Non-Leguminous Plants I. Nitrogen-fixing Activities of Some Non-leguminous Plants in China
Author: Research Group of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation, Laboratory of Nitrogen Fixation, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    The exploitation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of nin-leguminous has great potentiality in agricultural productive practice. Studies on the various types of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and their characteristics may provide some insight in extending the scope of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The acetylene reducing aetivities of root nodules or leaf nodules of following plants, collected in' southern part of China, were detected by gaschromatography: 5 species of Elaeagnus, 6 spp. of Podoearpus, 2 spp. of Cycas, 1 sp. of Casuarina, 2 spp. of Pavetta and 4 spp. of Ardisid the results indicate that 5 species of Elaeagnus, 2 spp. of Cycas and 1 sp. of Casuarina have significant nitrogen fixing ability, among them the root nodulation and their acetylene reducing activities of Vietnam elaeagnus (Elaeagnus sp.) and Cycas siamensis Miq, so far have not been reported. High acetylene reducing activities are found in the root nodules of Elaeaguns. e. g. the activities of root nodules of Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. may reach as high as 0.19 n mole C2 H2 reduced/mg, f. w/min, comparable to that of the leguminous.
Abstract (Browse 2105)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship between Male Sterility of Rice and Activities of Some Enzymes and Rate of Respiration in Pollon
Author: Faculty of Botany and Plant Physiology, Department of Agronomy, Kiangsi Communist Labor University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    1.The present paper deals with the contents of starch and protein, and the activities of 4 enzymes in the pollen of male sterile and maintainer lines in rice at different development stages by means of histochemieal methods. Experimental results showed that in various development stages of pollen, espe- cially in binucleate stage. The activities of cytochrome oxidase, polyphend oxidase and ATP ase in male sterile line were lower than those in maintainer line. The activity of peroxidase of male sterile line was higher than that of the maintainer in uninucleate stage. After the bi nucleate stage, the enzyme activity of male sterile line was much lower than that in the maintainer. 2. At various development stages, the rate of respiration of anthers of male sterile line was lower than that of the maintainer. After heading, the rate of respiration of male sterile line was increased. 3. After the bi nucleate stage, especially in the trinucleate stage, hydrogen peroxide was accumulated in pollen of male sterile line, but in' the maintainer there is no accumulation of hydrogen peroxide at all development stages. 4. After the bi nucleate stage, the activities of these 4 enzymes and the con- tents of starch and protein may be used as indeces of pollen fertility. We used Hg-bromophenol blue method to detect the protein of sterile pollen which contains abundent starch. It is a simple and practical method for detecting pollen fertility.
Abstract (Browse 1959)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Raising Yield of Rice and Related Physiological Role under Gibberellin Treatment at Late Growth Period of Rice
Author: Scientific Research Group, Bei Cun Production Team, Da Liang Commune, Shun De County and Research Group of Phytohormone, Laboratory of Physiology and Biochemistry, Kwangtung Institute of Botany
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    Our "three in one" research group studied the effect of gibberellin on the yields of rice in many experimental plots for several times. We raised the yield of rice by 5%¨C10% by treatment with gibberellin at late growth period of rice. Amount of gibberellin applied was 20 ppm for early season rice and 30 ppm for late season rice. We studied the effect of gibberellin on the growth dynamic of stems, leaves and panicles, the change of photosynthesis and respiration rates, the rule of translocation, distribution and accumulation of materials in various above ground parts. We also studied the dynamic of grain filling, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation and the activities of the enzymes of starch synthesis and starch hydrolyze during grain filling period. Base upon the above mention ed results, we explained the high yield theory basis of gibberellin treatment.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Maize Anther Culture
Author: Institute of Maize Research, Kwangsi Chuang Autonomous Region, Experimental Station of Dong Bei Wang Commune, Hai-dian, Peking and Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(2)
      
    Callus has been induced from maize anther culture in 30 different materials and haploid seedlings have been differentiated in 15 of them. When the anther with the uninucleate pollen grains at the middle stage was inoculated, the induction' frequency of haploid callus (or embryoid) was the highest, reaching 3.25%, and this was 3.92 times of increase in comparison with the pollen grains at the stage of side-located uninucleus. The culture medium for inducing callus is N6 + K 2, 4-D 2 mg/l + 1 mg/l + CH 500 mg/l, and that for differentiation is N6 + K 1 mg/l + CH 500 mg/l.2-or 4-celled pollen' grains and multicellular masses have been observed in squashed anthers. Root tip squash revealed that the chromosome number being 10 and this proved that the haploid plantlet was derived from the pollen grain. The haploid plantiers have been transplanted in the soil and then treated with colchicine solution at the concentration of 0.025-0.05% for doubling the chromosome number and the plantlets grew normally. Now the first batch of transplanted plants is in heading and silking stage.
Abstract (Browse 2595)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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