March 1977, Volume 19 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Stem Tip Culture of Malus Mill. in Vitro
Author: Research Group of Differentiation, 6th Laboratory, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Investigation of Palaeogen in the Qingjiang Basin in Kiangsi Province II.
Author: He Yue-ming and Sun Xing-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
Abstract (Browse 1875)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Analysis of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of the Hybrid Rice
Author: Department of Chemistry, Hunan Agricultural College
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    In order to find out the physiological mechanism of hybrid rice, some phy- siological and biochemical functions of the hybrid strain, "Nan U-2" were studied comparatirely with the improved variety of ordinary late rice, "Kuang Yu-73". Preliminary results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The photosynthetic efficiency per unit leaf area "Nan U-2" was slightly lower than that of "Kuang Yu〞73§. The formers greater yield in grain output is due chiefly to its larger leaf area. 2. As compared with "Kuang Yu-73", "Nan U-2" showed lower respiration intensity while its photorespiration rate was still lower. 3. The activity of the root system of "Nan U-2" was found to be somewhat higher than that of "Kuang Yu-73". "Nan U-2" also showed a more developed and intensive root system. 4. Utilization of nutrients and rate of food material transport of "Nan U- 2" exceeded that of "Knang Yu-73". 5. On the basis mentioned above further physiological and biochemical analy- ses of "Nan U-2' as well as its three lines of parents were made. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Photosynthesis, respiration and root system activity of "Nan U-2" was influ- enced mainly from its male parent, whereas its lower photorespiration rate seems more likely to be an inheritance from its male sterile parent. 2) Photosynthetic maxim peak of "Nan U-2" at the anterier stage appeared earlier than that of its parents. The duration of high efficiency lasted longer. Respiration intensity throughout its whole life cycle, was lower than that of its parents. 3) Aeration of roots of "Nan U-2" was better than that of its parents. The activity of its root system at the early stage was lower, but it surpassed that of its parents with a sudden leap at the middle stage and maintained higher activity throughout its last stage. 4) The potassium absorbing capacity of "Nan U-2" is especially high. The requirement of potassium of "Nan U-2" greatly exceeds that of its parents.
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preparation of Chlorophyll d
Author: 6th Laboratory, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    Chlorophyll d preparation: Chlorophyll a dissoved in acetone was oxidized with aqueous potassium permanganate (3%). The course of the reaction was followed spectrophotometrically. When O.D650nm/O.D 687nm reached ca. 2.5, the reaction was terminated by the addition of 2每3 volumes of ether. After filtration, the filtrate was washed 7每8 times with distilled water. The ether solution was evaporated, the pigment was dissolved in petroleum ether (b.p. 60每90 ⊥)-etber-benzene (3:1:1). This solution was adsorbed on a column of powdered sugar, and washed with the same solvent mixture. Pure chlorophyll d was obtained by coloum chromatography. Absorption peaks of chlorophyll d (dissolved in ether) are locate at 687nm, 642 nm, 595 nm, 510 nm, 447 nm, and 390 nm. The obtained chlorophyll d was successfully used for Q-switching of ruby laser and holography.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Reexamination of Mitochondrial Complementation as a Test for Heterosis in Maize
Author: 2nd Group, Laboratory of Photosynthesis, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    Heterosis has been used with success in the production of maize and sorghum. In the search for combinations of parent lines giving marked beterosis, method for rapid screening without resorting to actual crossing is needed. McDaniel and Sarkissian claimed in 1966 that the 1:1 mixture of mitochondrial preparations from seedlings of parent lines gave higher oxidative phosphorylation rates compared with that of either parent line measured singly (on protein basis). Workers from many laboratories had repeated these experiments, but not all of them were able to confirm the claim. We have made similar experiments using 32P-ATP formation method on 6 well established combinations of maize known to show marked heterosis in yield. Only 2 out of 6 combinations was mitochondrial complementation observed. Since our prepatation's of mitochondria had a ADP/O ratio of 2, not far from that obtained by Mcdaniel and Sarkissian, they were of similar quality, though the loss of activity on standing occurred earlier with our preparations. As mitochondrial complementation was not consistently observed in heterotie combinations, the validity of its use in screening is to be regarded with reservation, at least in maize.
Abstract (Browse 1784)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tissue Culture of Medicinal Plants II. Chemical Control of Callus Growth and Synthesis of Hyoscyamine and Scopolamine by Scopolia aeutangula Callus
Author: Zheng Guang-zhi and Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    The callus was derived from stem of Scopolia acutangula C. Y. Wu et C. Chen in the year 1973. For callus growth and synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine by Scopolia acutangula callus in culture were studied. The concentrations of 2,4-D (above 1.0 mg/l) promotes growth but alkaloids (hyoseyamine and scopolamine) formation is ntarded. At the concentrations of 2,4-D below 1.0 mg/l growth is retarded, while alkaloid synthesis is promoted. Both growth and alkaloid synthesis arc distinctly promoted at NAA concentration of 2.0 mg/l. Callus growth and alkaloid synthesis are retarded by kinetin at various concentrations with maximum at 0.2mg/l. The callus first cultured on the medium in absence of kinetin for two or four weeks, then transfered to the medium containing 1.0 mg/l klnetin and subsequently cultured for a further two or four weeks. The alkaloid contentincreased significantly. The content of scopolamine may be increased to 0.495%. The lactalbumin hydrolysate at various concentrations (1.0-4.0 mg/l) stimulates growth and the two alkaloids synthesis in callus. When the medium was supplemented with 20mg/l of lactalbumin hydrolysate yield of 2.0mg dry weight/piece/day was obtained, and the maximum production of the two alkaloids were reached 0.554%. The phenylalanine of various concentrations (50每200 mg/l) not only stimulates callus growth but also promotes alkaloid synthesis. Growth and alkaloid synthesis were retarded by tyrosine, glutamic acid, iysine, valine, leucine and cysteine only stimulate growth and alkaloid synthesis in the callus tissues. Fumaric acid at a concentration of 2.5 mg/l strongly retards callus growth but alkaloid synthesis is markedly promoted. However, other organic acids in the Kreo's cycle, such as succinic acid, citric acid, malie acid and 汐-ketoglutarate acid, slightly stimulate callus growth, and slightly retard alkaloid synthesis in the callas. In these experiments, the maximum growth yield of Scopolia acutangula callus was 12.97 mg dry weight/piece/day and the maximum medicinal components was 55%.
Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
Total Amino Nitrogen Content in Rice Plant as a Diagnostic Index of Manuring
Author: Nutrition Diagnosis Research Group, Nanking Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    In this article, the total amino nitrogen content as a diagnostic index of nitrogen level in rice plant was studied. The selection and dose of buffer solution, the concentration and dose of developing agent, and the temperature and time for developing in the method of ninhydrin colorimetry of total amino nitrogen were tested under different conditions. The sensitive locations on rice plant were determined and the range of total amino-nitrogen content to indicate, the nitrogen nutritional status. of rice plant was identified by pot culture and field experiments in 1975每1976. The correlation between the amino-nitrogen and the total nitrogen content in the functional leaf of rice plant, and that between the amino nitrogen content of rice plant in the satge of spikelet differentiation-formation and its yield were also investigated in the field. Based on the results, a simple method of diagnosis for the nitrogen level in rice plant was suggested.
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Effects of Culture Factors in Vitro on the Production of Albino Pollen-Plantlets of Rice
Author: Wang Ching-chu, Sun Ching-san and Chu Chih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
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