March 1977, Volume 19 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Stem Tip Culture of Malus Mill. in Vitro
Author: Research Group of Differentiation, 6th Laboratory, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Investigation of Palaeogen in the Qingjiang Basin in Kiangsi Province II.
Author: He Yue-ming and Sun Xing-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Analysis of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of the Hybrid Rice
Author: Department of Chemistry, Hunan Agricultural College
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    In order to find out the physiological mechanism of hybrid rice, some phy- siological and biochemical functions of the hybrid strain, "Nan U-2" were studied comparatirely with the improved variety of ordinary late rice, "Kuang Yu-73". Preliminary results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The photosynthetic efficiency per unit leaf area "Nan U-2" was slightly lower than that of "Kuang Yu〞73§. The formers greater yield in grain output is due chiefly to its larger leaf area. 2. As compared with "Kuang Yu-73", "Nan U-2" showed lower respiration intensity while its photorespiration rate was still lower. 3. The activity of the root system of "Nan U-2" was found to be somewhat higher than that of "Kuang Yu-73". "Nan U-2" also showed a more developed and intensive root system. 4. Utilization of nutrients and rate of food material transport of "Nan U- 2" exceeded that of "Knang Yu-73". 5. On the basis mentioned above further physiological and biochemical analy- ses of "Nan U-2' as well as its three lines of parents were made. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Photosynthesis, respiration and root system activity of "Nan U-2" was influ- enced mainly from its male parent, whereas its lower photorespiration rate seems more likely to be an inheritance from its male sterile parent. 2) Photosynthetic maxim peak of "Nan U-2" at the anterier stage appeared earlier than that of its parents. The duration of high efficiency lasted longer. Respiration intensity throughout its whole life cycle, was lower than that of its parents. 3) Aeration of roots of "Nan U-2" was better than that of its parents. The activity of its root system at the early stage was lower, but it surpassed that of its parents with a sudden leap at the middle stage and maintained higher activity throughout its last stage. 4) The potassium absorbing capacity of "Nan U-2" is especially high. The requirement of potassium of "Nan U-2" greatly exceeds that of its parents.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preparation of Chlorophyll d
Author: 6th Laboratory, Peking Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    Chlorophyll d preparation: Chlorophyll a dissoved in acetone was oxidized with aqueous potassium permanganate (3%). The course of the reaction was followed spectrophotometrically. When O.D650nm/O.D 687nm reached ca. 2.5, the reaction was terminated by the addition of 2每3 volumes of ether. After filtration, the filtrate was washed 7每8 times with distilled water. The ether solution was evaporated, the pigment was dissolved in petroleum ether (b.p. 60每90 ⊥)-etber-benzene (3:1:1). This solution was adsorbed on a column of powdered sugar, and washed with the same solvent mixture. Pure chlorophyll d was obtained by coloum chromatography. Absorption peaks of chlorophyll d (dissolved in ether) are locate at 687nm, 642 nm, 595 nm, 510 nm, 447 nm, and 390 nm. The obtained chlorophyll d was successfully used for Q-switching of ruby laser and holography.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Reexamination of Mitochondrial Complementation as a Test for Heterosis in Maize
Author: 2nd Group, Laboratory of Photosynthesis, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    Heterosis has been used with success in the production of maize and sorghum. In the search for combinations of parent lines giving marked beterosis, method for rapid screening without resorting to actual crossing is needed. McDaniel and Sarkissian claimed in 1966 that the 1:1 mixture of mitochondrial preparations from seedlings of parent lines gave higher oxidative phosphorylation rates compared with that of either parent line measured singly (on protein basis). Workers from many laboratories had repeated these experiments, but not all of them were able to confirm the claim. We have made similar experiments using 32P-ATP formation method on 6 well established combinations of maize known to show marked heterosis in yield. Only 2 out of 6 combinations was mitochondrial complementation observed. Since our prepatation's of mitochondria had a ADP/O ratio of 2, not far from that obtained by Mcdaniel and Sarkissian, they were of similar quality, though the loss of activity on standing occurred earlier with our preparations. As mitochondrial complementation was not consistently observed in heterotie combinations, the validity of its use in screening is to be regarded with reservation, at least in maize.
Abstract (Browse 1769)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tissue Culture of Medicinal Plants II. Chemical Control of Callus Growth and Synthesis of Hyoscyamine and Scopolamine by Scopolia aeutangula Callus
Author: Zheng Guang-zhi and Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    The callus was derived from stem of Scopolia acutangula C. Y. Wu et C. Chen in the year 1973. For callus growth and synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine by Scopolia acutangula callus in culture were studied. The concentrations of 2,4-D (above 1.0 mg/l) promotes growth but alkaloids (hyoseyamine and scopolamine) formation is ntarded. At the concentrations of 2,4-D below 1.0 mg/l growth is retarded, while alkaloid synthesis is promoted. Both growth and alkaloid synthesis arc distinctly promoted at NAA concentration of 2.0 mg/l. Callus growth and alkaloid synthesis are retarded by kinetin at various concentrations with maximum at 0.2mg/l. The callus first cultured on the medium in absence of kinetin for two or four weeks, then transfered to the medium containing 1.0 mg/l klnetin and subsequently cultured for a further two or four weeks. The alkaloid contentincreased significantly. The content of scopolamine may be increased to 0.495%. The lactalbumin hydrolysate at various concentrations (1.0-4.0 mg/l) stimulates growth and the two alkaloids synthesis in callus. When the medium was supplemented with 20mg/l of lactalbumin hydrolysate yield of 2.0mg dry weight/piece/day was obtained, and the maximum production of the two alkaloids were reached 0.554%. The phenylalanine of various concentrations (50每200 mg/l) not only stimulates callus growth but also promotes alkaloid synthesis. Growth and alkaloid synthesis were retarded by tyrosine, glutamic acid, iysine, valine, leucine and cysteine only stimulate growth and alkaloid synthesis in the callus tissues. Fumaric acid at a concentration of 2.5 mg/l strongly retards callus growth but alkaloid synthesis is markedly promoted. However, other organic acids in the Kreo's cycle, such as succinic acid, citric acid, malie acid and 汐-ketoglutarate acid, slightly stimulate callus growth, and slightly retard alkaloid synthesis in the callas. In these experiments, the maximum growth yield of Scopolia acutangula callus was 12.97 mg dry weight/piece/day and the maximum medicinal components was 55%.
Abstract (Browse 2025)  |  Full Text PDF       
Total Amino Nitrogen Content in Rice Plant as a Diagnostic Index of Manuring
Author: Nutrition Diagnosis Research Group, Nanking Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    In this article, the total amino nitrogen content as a diagnostic index of nitrogen level in rice plant was studied. The selection and dose of buffer solution, the concentration and dose of developing agent, and the temperature and time for developing in the method of ninhydrin colorimetry of total amino nitrogen were tested under different conditions. The sensitive locations on rice plant were determined and the range of total amino-nitrogen content to indicate, the nitrogen nutritional status. of rice plant was identified by pot culture and field experiments in 1975每1976. The correlation between the amino-nitrogen and the total nitrogen content in the functional leaf of rice plant, and that between the amino nitrogen content of rice plant in the satge of spikelet differentiation-formation and its yield were also investigated in the field. Based on the results, a simple method of diagnosis for the nitrogen level in rice plant was suggested.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Effects of Culture Factors in Vitro on the Production of Albino Pollen-Plantlets of Rice
Author: Wang Ching-chu, Sun Ching-san and Chu Chih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    The effects of some factors of the culture conditions on the production of albino pollen-plantlets of rice were studied. During the Sustained subcultures, a few calluses, derived from somatic cells or pollensmight differentiated into green plantlets and a few as well Most of the calluses, however, gave rise to plantlets with relatively consistent colour differentiation. It was found that there was no regular correlation between the frequency of the albino pollen-plantlets production and the culture factors. 2,4-D at high concentration (20 mg/l) was the only constituent of the culture medium which apparently could promote the production of albino plantlets. It was found that the temperature for culture appeared in close correlation with the production frequency of albino pollen-plantlets, such as within certain range, the higher temperature was raised, the more the albino plantlets were produced. There was no correlation, however, between the intensity of illumination and the production of albino plantlets. The origin of albino plantlets was discussed. Before the origin of albino plantlets bas been understood completely, to control the temperature strictly may be decrease the frequency of albino plantlet formation.
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Artificial Vegetation on Soil Conservation of Littoral Hilly Slopes
Author: Xiaoliang Experimental and Extension Station of Soil Conservation of Dianbai County, Kwangtung and Laboratory of Geobotany, Kwangtung Institute of Botany
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    A tropical monsoon climate with high temperature, abundant rainfall and strong typhoon prevails in the littoral hilly slopes in Dianbai county, Kwangtung. Thus the top soil is seriously eroded to leave the slopes bare and plate-like. Since the liberation, some preliminary results have been achieved after: the establishment of the artificial vegetations for more than 10 years. 1. The annual quantity of washed-off soil by water decreases from 15000 to. 2,945〞4,400 M3/KM2. 2. The water table of the mixed forestof Pinus-Eucalyptus and the pure forest of Pinus are both lifted up distinctly. The annual difference of water level in the forested lands varies within 1 M, and that of the bare ground is 2.37 M. 3. The micro-climate also changes: the variation' range of the daily atmosphere. temperature decreases, the soil temperature decreases even more and the relative humidity of the atmosphere increases significantly. 4. The effect of soil improvement differs with the type of vegetation. So far as the soil fertility is concerned, the mixed forests are more effective than the pure forests. 5. A 466-hectare area of artificial vegetation in our county has effectively conserved the soil from erosion, thus ensured a high and stable yield of crops.
Abstract (Browse 1999)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation between Phylogeny, Chemical Constituents and Pharmaceutical Aspects of Plants and Applications in Drug Research (Part. I)
Author: Laboratory of Medicinal Plants, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    This paper deals with the correlation between phylogeny, chemical constituents and pharmaceutical aspects of plants based on our own works related to its practical applications. 1. Application in the search of domestic resources for the imported drugs: A series of imported drugs have been successfully replaced by the domestic sources of closely allied plants as supported by the laboratory and even clinical investigations. Several plants belonging to the genus Artemisia Sect. Seriphidium fere found to be rich in santonin and are currently used as the raw materials for its commercial production. 2. Application in exploring new sources of some important medicinal herbs: The total tanshinone and cryptotanshinone, isolated from Salvia multiorrhiza, have been demonstrated to be antimicrobial active substances, thus 14 species of Salvia were examined, as the result it has been shown that S. przewalskii and several other Salvia plants with red-coloured roots had a much superior activity. Eight species of Schizandra have been investigated for their possible occurence of the active principles (k-n etc.) along with their SGPT-lowering observations, while all of them exhibited the pharmacological effect except S. micrantha. Our study has proved high incidence of distribution of diosgenin in genus Dioscorea Sect. Stenophora. 3. Application in drug control and evaluation: While the Chinese traditional drug "Mudanpi" and "Shaoyao" are both derived from the genus Paeonia, with the former mainly from Sect. Moutan and the latter from Sect. Paeonia. their chemical criteria can be distinctly established. Preliminary investigation has been done on another wellknown Chinese traditional drug "Rhubarb", it is now evident that all the officinal Rhubarbs were that obtained from the Sect. Palmata of the genus Rheum, while some of the inferior Rhubarbs were that chiefly derived from the Sect. Rhapontica. Judged from the total fiavonoid contents of 6 species of Chinese Pueraria, it has been revealed that the traditionally used P. lobata still should be ranked as the best qualified one among them.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron-Microscope Observations on the Microsporogenesis in Male-Sterile and its Maintainer-Lines of Wheat
Author: Hu Shih-yi, Wang Mushan and Hsu Li-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1977 19(3)
      
    1. The process of microsporogenesis could be divided into three:successive stages: the "shrinking" stage, the "small vacuole" stage and the "large vacuole" stage. 2,. The abort iveness of the microspores of the male sterile line occurred mainly in the "large vacuole" stage, when all Kinds of the cell-organelles became degenerated and disorganized. Some of the microspores, however, aborted earlier, i.e. in the "small vacuole" stage. 3. In the "Small vacuole" stage, while the cell-organelles (mitochondria, plas- rids, etc.) of both the male sterile and its maintainer lines appeared essentially alike, the vacuolar system differed quite sigiffificantly. In the male sterile line, the micros- pore had fewer vacuoles as compared with those in the maintainer line, and the limiting membrane of some of the vacuoles was not sharply defined and seemed to be on the way of dissolution. The concentric membranous bodies formed by fragments of the endoplasmic reticulum, which were considered homologous to the lysosomes, were usually not sharply demarcated from the ground cytoplasm.: It seemed that the lysing process caused by these membranous bodies played a role in the abortion of the microspores. 4. It is suggested that the changes of the vacuome in the "small vacuole" stage may possibly be the earliest sign of microspore abortion. 5. Before the abortion, the tapetal cells of the two lines did not show any notable differences. However, in the later stage, vacuoles containing concentric membranous bodies were seen only in the tapetal cells of the maintainer line.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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