January 1954, Volume 3 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Flowering Habit and Fruit Setting in Litchi Chinensis
Author: Chen Wen-Shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Influence of 2, 4-D on the Setting of Fruits in Litchi Chinensis
Author: Chen Wen-Shun & Li Lai-Yung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
      
    Fruit setting in Litchi chinensis has always been a problem in Southeast China. During the Spring of 1953, the authors conducted a series of experiments by applying different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at several stages of flowering, to the litchi trees growing on the grounds of Fukien Agricultural College, Foochow. The results are summaried as follows: 1. Four different concentrations, 25, 50, 100, and 200 p.p.m, of 2,4-D solution were applied in sprays at separate periods: first, on April 27 when the stigma was receptive; secondly, on May 16 when the trees were already setting fruits, and thirdly, on May 9.1 and June 4 when small fruits were at the sizes of finger tip and broad' bean. It was found that 2,4-D applied at the concentration of 200 p.p.m, on the above mentioned occasions showed significant results in promoting fruit-setting in Litchis. Slight effect in checking the development of fruit had likewise been observed. The most proper time and the best concentration of 2,4-D to apply for the best results remain to be investigated. Concentration at 25, 50, and 100 p.p.m, were found ineffective in inducting fruit-setting in Litchis. 2.. Treatment with 200 p.p.m, cencentrations of 2,4-D produced a rapid development of fruits at the beginning. However, during the latter stages, the development of the sprayed fruits was not as rapid as that of the controls. 3. Ripening of the sprayed fruits was advanced five to six days in the various experiments carried out at different times during 1953. 4. Litchi trees was found tolerant to 2,4-D solutions even at 700 p.p.m. concentration which checked fruit development seriously without injuring the fruits.
Abstract (Browse 2190)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship of the Distribution of Zinc and Auxin to the Growth of Tomato Plants
Author: Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
Abstract (Browse 1776)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Some Growth Stimulative Substances on the Blossom Drop and Fruit Setting of Tomato
Author: Lee Shu-Hsien & Sheo Cheo-Hsioh
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
Abstract (Browse 1807)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Sex Expression of Hemp Plants
Author: L.H Zou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
      
    Field experiments were carried out in 1951 to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the sex expression of hemp plants on the alluvial soil of Hongchow, Chekiang. Ammonium sulfate was used as the nitrogen fertilizer in the following quantities: 0 kgs., 50 kgs., 125 kgs., and 250 kgs. per Mou. It, one series of experiment, compost was added to each of the treatments mentioned above. The amount of compost used was 1500 kgs. per Mou. The chief morphological characters, total nitrogen contents and the percentages of female and male plants were studied and the results are summarized as follows: 1. The height and diameter of stem, leaf area and the number of branches in both female and male plants were increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer, but the response of female plants was more significant. The length/width ratio of leaves of the male plants was greater than that of the female. 2.The percentage of female plants was increased by the addition of nitrogen fertilizer and the increase was proportional to the amount of fertilizer used. However, the percentage of male plants was decreased by the same treatment. The results are given in the following table: 3.The amount of total nitrogen in the leaves was different in male and female plants. Before the flowering stage, the female plants contained more nitrogen than the male plants; while at the stage of fruiting, the result was just the reverse. This is probably due to the transference of nitrogen from the leaves to the reproductive organ. The amount of total nitrogen in the leaves was increased with the growth and development of both male and female plants, how ever, the maximum was reached at the stage before blossoming and then decreased with the maturation of the plants.
Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Basic Silvical Principles Underlying Successful Cinchona Production
Author: R. C. Ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
      
    1. At the outset, the paper after calling attention to the Cinchona experimental work which has been under way with a certain degree of success in the Province of Yunnan for a long period of time, points out the prevailing misconceptions regarding the botany and cultural requirements of Cinchona trees as a source of anti-malarial drug for the working people of the nation. 2. A brief review is given of the historical development and tile present world situation of Cinchona production by the imperialistic nations with Indonesia leading the production of this important drug and monopolizing its world market. 3. Among the requirements for a successful Cinchona plantation, the paper emphasizes, among other things such as soil and technical operations, the utmost importance of climatic factors including latitudinal and altitudinal differences, rainfall, temperature, humidity and light, and also their combined effect upon the morphological and physiological development of Chinchona trees, especially their influence upon the effective content of the bark, which is the final aim of Cinchona plantations. 4. Finally, the author believes with certainty in the great potentialities of future development in Yunnan in particular of Cinchona production and outlines the necessary steps to be taken in connection with bringing the work to a final success in China. The precise technical procedure for each of these steps will be dealt with in a separate paper.
Abstract (Browse 1912)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Marine Algae of Tsingtao I .
Author: C. K. Tseng & P.L. Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
      
    1. A historical survey of the hiterto published records of the marine algae of Tsingtao is made. The first records totalling at 'ten species were contributed Reinhold in 1919. Since then, Howe has added 14 species in 1934; Tseng and Li 43 species in 1935; Tseng 1 species in 1936, 3 species in 1937, and 3 species in 1938; and Tseng and Chang 7 species in 1952. Thus the number of species of the marine algae of Tsingtao, as reported, stands at 81. Undoubtedly, the validity of some of the records is subject to doubt. For instance, among Reinblod's records, we are quite sure that No. 8, "Polysiphonia ferulacea Suhr?" is not correct, and is quite certainly based on specimens of Polysiphona japonica Harv. The "Gelidium corneum (Huds) Lamour. Var." of Howe's list must be discarded since in accordance with our carrent classification of the genus Gelidium, true G. corneum (Huds) Lmx. does not occur inthe Pacific. Having deleted these two records from the above mentioned lists, we have thus a total of only 79 species, undoubtedly a very low number for such a region as Tsingtao. It is therefore our aim to report in this series of articles, hitherto unrecorded marine algae from Tsingtao and its vicinity. 2. In the first instalment of this series, 13 species have been added, among which the following 8 species are also additions to the marine flora of China: 1. Phormidium corium Gom. 2. Sorocarpus uvaeformis (Lyngb.) Pringsh. 3. Ralfsia verrucosa (Aresch.) J. Agardh 4. Halothrix lumbricalis (Kuetz.) Reinke 5. Colpomenia bullosa (Saunders) Tseng et 'Cheng 6. Eudesme virescens (Carm.) J. Agardh 7. Asparagopsis hamifera (Hariot) Okam. 8. Trailliolla intricata (J. Agardh) Batters 3. Although these species are nothing but miscellaneous assortments from the materials we have on hand, an analysis Of these plants from the point of view of geographic distribution will help to show something of the floristic nature of this region. We may group these species into the following categories: (a). Species widely distributed in the temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere: Phormidium corium Gom. Eudesme virescens (Carm.) J. Agardh Gelidium pusillum (Stackh.) Le. Jol. Hildenbrandia prototypus Nardo. (b). Species widely distributed on both coasts of the Northern Altantic Ocean and on the Western coast of the Northern Pacific Ocean, but not so far recorded from the Western coast of North America: Sorocarpus uvaeformis (Lyngb.) Prinsh. Ralfsia verrucosa (Aresch.) J. Agardh. Halothrix lumbricales (Kuetz.) Reinke Asparagopsis hamifera (Hariot) Okam. Gelidium crinale (Turn.) Lamx. Trailliella intricata (J. Agardh) Batters Polyaiphonia urceolata (Lightf.) Grey. (c). One species, Colpomenia bullosa (Saunders) Tseng et Cheng, is distributed on both coasts of the Northern Pacific. (d). One species, Phycodrys radicosa (Okam.) Yam. et Inagaki, is found only on the Japanese and Chinese coasts. 4. The systematic position of Scytosiphon bullosus Sunders has long remained a problem since it was first described from Pacific Grove, California by Saunders in 1898. Setchell and Gardner (1903) contended that it is nothing but a form of the cosmopolitan Colpomenia sinuosa, since "every stage can be found, sometimes even in the same bunch of plants, from typical C. sinuosa, as Saunders regards it to typical Scytosiphon bullosus as Saunders has figured, and distributed it." Yendo and Okamura followed Setchell and Gardner in the disposition of this problem. But more recently, Smith (1944) selected Saunder's name because "The fact that several erect shoots grow from a common crustose base shows that the alga is a Scytosiphon and not a Colpomenia." The discovery of this plant on the Chinese coast is indeed very interesting, from the distributional point of view. In May, 1950, we found to our surprise, this plant in some quantities, in a place where we have frequented for our seaweed collecting many times at the Same season in previous years. At about the same place, and at the same time, we also found what appeared to be typical Colpomenia sinuosa. Since then we have never failed to find the same plant at the same place and at the same time of the year. Although our studies of these specimens are purely morphological, no experimental studies having been made so far, we are fully convinced that they are specifically different from Colpomenia sinuosa. The gregarious, elongated saclike structures arising from the same crustose base constitute a good enough characteristic differentiating this species from the various forms of the Colpomenia sinuosa complex. Forms, as we understand them, are ecological variants of the species. When plants belonging to the so-called forms and those to the typical species are found aturally in identical environmental conditions, and when there are sufficiently good characteristics to separate them from each other, we have no valied reasons to regard them as belonging to the same species. On the other hand, we cannot agree with Saunders and Smith in that this plant belongs to the genus Scytosiphon. Although Colpomenia bullosa has tubular fronds and is gregarious in habit, it lacks a solid stipe typical of Scytosiphon; furthermore, its erect shoots arise from a broad crustose base, while shoots of Scytosiphon arise from a small but distinctly discoid holdfast. It is therefore our conclusion that this plant is a Colpomenia, hence the new combination, Colpomenia bullosa.
Abstract (Browse 2368)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on
Author: Fu Ka-Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1954 3(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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