March 1978, Volume 20 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Preliminary Report on Tissue Culture of Dioscorea zingiberensis
Author: Research Group of Somatic Cells 1st Laboratory, Sichuan Sheng Institute of Biology
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
Abstract (Browse 1719)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Bioassay for Glyphosate
Author: Research Group of Weed Control, Laboratory of Phytohormene, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
Abstract (Browse 1729)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Measure of Nitrogen Fixation Activity of Azolla imbricata by Acetylene Reduction
Author: Wen Yong-huang and Tang Jian-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Screening Medium by Means of Balanced Incomplete Blocks (B. I. B)Design in Raising the Efficiency of Anther Culture of Rice
Author: Laboratory of Genetics, South China Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Department of Mathematics, Normal College of South China
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The result of balanced incomplete blocks (B. I. B.) design for screening medium of anther culture of rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Shien) indicated that the efficiency of anther culture of rice (Shien) was markedly raised when both the media "He5" and "XM2" were used as induced medium and regenerated medium respectively. The mean frequency of callus from the anther and green pollen plantlet from the callus reached 5.4% and 24.6% respectively. The result of analysis of variance proved that the donor plant materials had greater variance than the variance of medium as for inducing callus from anther and that the medium had greater variance than the variance of plant materials for differentiation of green plantlets. In the Shien rice the constituents of "induced medium" had a greater effect on the callus induction as well as to the green plantlet regeneration. When "He5" and "XM2" media were used as induced medium and differentiated medium respectively for the anther culture oil Shien rice showing broad adaptapility. It is concluded that both media, the "He5" and the "XM2", are comparatively suitable for anther culture of Shien rice. The test indicated that the orthogonal experiment combined with B. I. B. design is an effective method for screening medium of anther culture. The constituents of the two media are as follows: 1. "He5" an induced medium (mg/l) (NH4)2SO4 231; KNO3 3181.5, KH2PO4 600, MgSO4,7H2O 35; CaCl2,2H20 166; Na2 EDTA 74.5; FeSO4,7H20 55.7; MnSO4,4H2O 4.4; ZnSO4,7H2O 1.5; H3BO3 1.6; KI 0.8; thiamine HCl (B1) 0.6; pyridoxin HCl (B6) 0.6; nicotinic acid (pp) 3.0; glycine 2; casein hydrolysate 300; yeast extract 1360; 2,4-D2; NAA 2; kinetin 3; sucrose 60000 (6%) agar 9000; pH 5.8C6. 2. "XM2 (Xian Miao 2)" a regenerated medium (mg/l) KNO3 1900; NH4NO3 4950; KH2PO4 510; CaCl2,2H2O 440; MgSO4.7H2O 370; Na2, EDTA 74.5; FeSO4, 7H2O 55.7; MnSO4, 4H2 O 22.3; ZnSO4,7H2O 8.6; CuSO4.5HO2O 0.025; H3BO3 6.2; KI 0.83; Na2MoO4,2H2O 0.25; CoC1,6H2O 0.025; myoinositol 100; glycine 20; thiamine HC1 1.0; pyridoxin HCl 5.0; nicotinic acid 5.0; NAA 1.0; kinetin 2.0; sucrose 30000 (3%); agar 9000; pH 5.8-60.
Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Ecology of the Flax (Linum perenne L. var. sibiricum Planch)-the Biological Characters and the Prospect for Acclimatization and Utilization
Author: Xiao Yun-feng, Xie Wen-zhong and Li Bing-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The present paper deals with the biological characters of photoaesth esia, oxygenphile, suction force, growth and development of seeds of the wild flax. In this study the biological bases for its cultivation in the plateau and acclimatization to the high- cold and arid region are discussed. Its resistance to cold, aridity, covering with sand and barren land, is the ecological its adaptability to the growing environmental conditions. These biological characters are the ecological base for higher productivity under cultivated conditions. On the height of plant, number of branches, length and diameter for textile crafts, productivity and quality of its seeds and fibers, the cultivited perennial flax is better than the wild plant growing in nature conditions. The result of this study shows that the flax (Linum perenne L. var. Sibiricum Planch) will be of some value for cultivation and prospects for useing its oil as well as fibers.
Abstract (Browse 2572)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comprehensive Utilization of Berberis poiretiiv!The Therapeutical Value of Berbamine and its Content in 22 Species of Berberis
Author: Liu Guo-sheng, Chen Bi-zhu, Song Wan-zhi and Xiao Pei-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The present paper deals with the comprehensive utilization of the medicinal plant resource of Berberis poiretii based on their botanical, phytochemieal, pharmacological and clinical aspects. A major alkaloid was isolated from the waste residue of berberine isolation and identified by IR, NMR and MS as berbamine, which was demonstrated to be an effective agent to increase leucocyte in the treatment of 167 leukopenia patients. The result of qualitative and quantitative analysis of 22 species of medicinal Berberis was also provided.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Bolting and Flowering Regulation of Sugar Beets for Seed Production
Author: Research Group of Flowering Physiology, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Academia Sinica and Miloo River State Farm, Hunan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    It has been proved by practice in the last few years that sugarbeets can grow well in the South of our country. Nevertheless, the overwintered sugarbeet plants grown in that area rarely flower so that the seed production of the crop is in difficulties, and consequently disadvantageous to the agricultural extension work. According to the results of two years research work we have done in Miloo River State Farm of ttunan, it has been found that the major reason why the plant fail to produce flower in that area is the insufficient daily photoperiod during the key period in the spring season. Accordingly with a light extension or night-break treatment the percentage of flowering plant can be raised remarkably. Moreover, it is of interest to note that application of GA accompanied by the supplimentary illumination can significantly increase the percentage further, although the promotive effects of GA treatment alone on flowering of this crop is by no means noticeable. It is reasonable to suppose that such a promotive effect of GA on flowering of sugarbeets should be helpful to the seed production industry in Hunan as well as some other areas, and also it is a possible approach in researching the mode of action of GA on flowering.
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Sporo-pollen Assemblage of Shezhe Formation of Yipinglang Coal Series in Luquan of Yunnan and its Stratigraphical Significance
Author: Lei Zuo-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The Shezhi Formation of Yipinglang coal series consists mainly of arenaceous shale and carbonaceous shales with medium-grained sandstones in the basal part. The total thickness of the formation amounts to 203.9 metres. The shales are rich in fossil Sporo-pollen and plants. The fossil spores and pollen contain 55 genera and 74 species, including 19 new species. The Sporo-pollen assemblage of the Shezhi Formation is characterized by the absolute predominance of the spores of pterdophyta (54.5%) and the pollen of gymno-sperms (45.5%). The spores are characterized by the abundance of Dictyophyllidites, Cyathidites, Concavisporites, by the diminution of Leiotriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites and Cibotiumspora. The pollen grains are characterized by the abundance of Ricciisporites, Ovalipollis, Cycadopites and Psophosphara, and by the presence of Quadraculina, Podocarpidites, Rhaetipollis and ancient striate conifers. Based on the characters of the Sporo-pollen assemblage and associated occurrence of plant fossils (Dictyophyllum nathoreti, Clathropteris meniscioides, 'Pterophyllum sinese, etc.), the Shezhi Formation may be referred to Norian-Rhaetian stage of Upper Triassic age. According to the flora reflected by the present Sporopollen assemblage and plant fossils, it may be supposed that the climate of the Yunnan Basin in the Late Triassic period was certainly rather warm and wet. It may be referred to tropical- subtropical type similar to that of South-eastern Asia at the present time.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of the Chinese Drugs of Umbelliferae I. on the Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Angelica apaensis Shah et Yuan, Heracleum rapula Fr., and Heracleum scabridurn Fr.
Author: Sun Han-dong, Lin Zhong-wen and Niu Fang-ti
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The ether extract of the root of Angelica apaensis Shan et Yuan growing in the Tongtchouan, Yunnan, afforded six kinds of linear furocoumarins: oxypeucedanin, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedahin hydrate, byakangelicol, byakangelicin and a compound, mp. 138C142 ≧, C16H14O5, which was presumed from UV, IR spectra as linear furocou- marin derivative having C5-substituent in molecule. The exctract also yieled β-sitosterol, γ-sitosterol, lignoceric acid, essential oil (0.24%) and two white crystalline substances, mp. 272C275 ≧ and mp. 72C75 ≧ respectively. Ether extract of the root of Heracleum rapula Fr. growing wild in the Kunming, Yunnan, afforded five kinds of coumarins: osthol, imperatorin, isopimpinellin, (+) marmesin and heraclenol. In addition, the essential oil (0.36%) was also Obtained. Dried roots of Heracleum scabridum Fr. growing in Kunming were extracted with ether, afforded four kinds of coumarins: isobergapten, pimpinellin, isopimpinellin and sphondin. In addition, imperatorin and marmesin were detected by thin-layer chromatography.
Abstract (Browse 2025)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Ultrastructure and Function of Chloroplasts from the Winter Wheat Leaves at Differert Ranks of Attachment to the Main Stem
Author: Zuo Bao-yu and Duan Xu-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    This paper deals with the function of chloroplasts from the mesophyll cells of winter wheat Nongda 311 as a continuation of our previous studies on the leaf cells of the same species. Samples of leaves were taken for electron microscopy and photosynthetic determinations. It is found that the ultrastructures of chloroplasts from different ranks of leaves very in complexity in an ascending order. The stroma of chloroplasts from the upper-ranked cells are heavily stained as shown by their high content of ribosomes and high consistancy of the mobile phase. The grana lamellae in the flag leaf chloroplasts are thickly stacked against a few disks in the grana of 5 th leaf. The rate of Hill reaction and photophosphorylation of the flag leaf is higher than that of the 5th leaf. The mitochondria in the flag leaf cells are large and numerous as compared to these from the 5th leaf. The respiration of the flag leaf is nearly two fold higher than that of the 5th leaf. To sum up our data, we see that the close association between structure and function has gone through a series of changes from the simple to the complex. It is our task to reveal the changes in detail and take measures to regulate the changes, for it is of practical importance.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemically Induced Plant Senescence and Its Application in Accelerating Maturation of Cereals
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei and Wang Zai-mo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    In the present investigation several chemicals (Magnesium chlorate, Dalapon and Thiourea) were employed to accelerate maturation of some cereal plants (Triticum and Hordeum). Physiological and cytological changes occured in senescent period of functional leaf had been studied both in treated and untreated plants. According to the experimental results, spraying chemicals during maturity period effectively induced the senescence of vegetative organs and accelerated the maturation of grains (earlier than control by 4C7 days), but the grain weight was reduced slightly (lighter than control about 5%). Physiological and cytological studies showed that, senescence induced by chemicals is a physiological phenomenon very similar to that occur in naturally senescent tissue.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anther Culture and Androgenesis of Rye
Author: Sun Jing-san, Zhu Zhi-qing and Wang Jing-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The nucleus vegetative in nature derived from unequal or equal division of the uninucleate pollen in rye anthers cultured in vitro develops into pollen embryoids or calli. The green haploid plantlets are differentiated successfully. The frequency of callus and embryoid formation may be efficiently increased when the spikes are pretreated at 1C3 ≧ for 7 days before inoculation. According to the condition in which the multinucleate (free nuclei) and multi-cellular pollen grains become abortive, it is suggested that the formation of new walls between the dividing cells and the opportune rupture of the pollen exine are the two critical factors, which determine whether the embryoids and calli will be able to develop once the microspores are initiated.
Abstract (Browse 1955)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Induction of Pollen Plants and Androgenesis in Maize
Author: Guo Zhong-shen, Sun An-ci, Wang yu-ying, Gui Yao-lin, Gu Shu-rong and Miao Shu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The present paper deals with the main experimental results about the anther cul- ture in maize. Induction frequency varies with the different varieties and it is the highest when the excised anthers with the pollen grains at the middle-uninuclear stage are inoculated. Induction freguency of pollen embryoids or calli increases apparently when the medium is added with 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate, 0.5% active carbon and 15% sucrose. Four different pathways of androgenesis have been observed: Pathway of vegetative cell, pathway of generative cell, pathway of vegetative and generative cell in mixed development and pathway of equal division of the uninuclear pollen grain. All these pathway of development have been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Observation on Histogenesis and Organogenesis of the in vitro Development from Rice Microspores into Plantlets
Author: Zhang Xin-ying, Liu De-rain and Wang Ying-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1978 20(3)
      
    The histogenesis and organogenesis during the process of the development of rice anther cultured in vitro have been investigated. The culture medium used was N6. And microscopic observations both by squash preparations and paraffin sections were made. The results obtained were as follows: The process of the development of the microspore to the formation of pollen plant could be divided into 2 stages, i.e., stage of callus formation and stage of differentiation of the adventitious buds and roots. At first, the uninucleate microspore divided into two equal daughter cells, then by repeated divisions of these two cells the callus was formed. The adventitious roots emerged from the callus were endogenesis in origin. However, the buds were exogenesis originated from a part of the peripheral cells of the callus, which by means of dedif- ferentiation had become meristematic in character. At the very beginning, adventitious roots and buds originated independently, without any connection of vascular tissues between them. Superficially, the emergence of buds is prior to that of roots in the course of pollen plant development, but anatomically, the origination of adventitious roots seems to be earlier than that of buds.
Abstract (Browse 2111)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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