February 1979, Volume 21 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
A Simple Method for the in Situ Nitrogen Fixation Measurement of Azolla imbricata
Author: Bai Ke-zhi, Yu Sai-ling and Shi Ding-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
Abstract (Browse 1707)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Tissue Culture of Rauwolfia yunnanensis Tsiang
Author: Zheng Guang-zhi and Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Organogenesis of Matus (Rootstock M. 9) Callus in Vitro
Author: Chen Wei-lun, Yang Shan-ying, Wang Hong-xin and Cui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
Abstract (Browse 1591)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Species of the Late Triassic Plants from Yanbian, Szechuan II.
Author: Chen Ye, Duan Shu ying and Zhang Yu-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    This paper is a continuation of the paper "New species of the late Triassic Plants from Yanbian, Szechuan ". Ten more new species described herein include: Nilssonia hongniensis, Ctenis lobata, C. regularis, Pterophyllum variabilum, Anomozamites multinervis, Taeniopteris cavata, T. crispata, T. hongniensis, T. minuscula, T. pachyloma.
Abstract (Browse 1657)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Triterpenoid in Panax ginseng
Author: Li Xiang-gao and Teng Fen-ting
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    Pure saponins were extrated from the roots of Panax ginseng. By means of thin-layer chromatography, twelve kinds of single saponins in ginsenosides were de- termined. According to S. Shibata's nomenclature, they are named Ginsenoside -Ro, -Ra, -Rb1, -Rb2, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rf, -Rg1, -Rg2, and -Rh respectively. Sapogenin was obtained from the hydrolysis of ginsenoside. And three kinds of artificial single saponins were separated from sapogenin through Silica gel .G. According to the results of thin-layer chromatographic analysis, determination of melting point and identification of IR and NMR, the separated these three artificial single sapogenins are referred to as panaxadiol, panaxatriol and oleanolic acid respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Banding Pattern of the Rye (Secale cereale) Chromosomes and Its Application
Author: Chen Rui-yang, Song Wen-qin and Xu Yue-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    The Giemsa C-banding technique has been used in this paper for analysis of chromosome banding pattern, and the changes of the chromosome structures of irradiated rye and wheat-rye were identified preliminarily. Heterochromatin polymorphism of rye was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Quantitative Analysis and Identification of Steroidal Sapogenins of the Dioscorea Plant
Author: Tang Shi-rong, Zhang Han-qing, Dong Yun-fa, Li Hong-ying and Ding Zhi-zun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    The results for the quantitative analysis and identification of steroidal sapo-genins of 16 species of Dioscorea rhizomes are given in Table 1. The amount of steroidal sapogenin varies from 0.073%C5.93%, its highest content of diosgenin is 5.93% in D. zingiberensis C. H. Wright. 2. The results observed from paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography revealed that except the sapogenin of D. chingii Pr. and Br. is similar to tokorogenin, all other sapogenins after recrystallization yield a spot identical to diosgenin or yamogenin. Meanwhile, in most Dioscorea sample, a spot identical to 3, 5-diene-25D-spirostane was shown by using thin layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. (Table 2). 3. The results observed from infrared spectrum and gas-liquid chromatography revealed that the sapogenins of D. collettii, Hook. f; D. collettii. Hook, f. var. hypoglauca, Pei and Ting. and D. tokoro Makino. contained 25L-spirostane. (A900 A920 cm-1).
Abstract (Browse 1956)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ethylene Production, Peroxidase Activity and the Change of Peroxidase Isozyme during the Ripening of Tomato Fruits
Author: Liu Cun-de, Zhang Su-mei, Li Tong-zhu and Meng Xiao-xiong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    Climacteric rise, ethylene production, peroxidase activity and its isozyme and their interrelationships during the ripening of tomato fruits have been studied. It was found' that there was parallelism between ethylene production and climacteric rise. The climacteric rise of tomato fruits was hastened by ethylene applied at the mature green stage. The ethylene production was inhibited by low oxygen and high carbon dioxide partial pressure. The peroxidase activity in the tomato fruits appeared to be different at three stages, higher in the half red fruits and lower in both green mature and fully red fruits. This activity was increased by ethylene and decreased by lower partial pres- sure of oxygen. The peroxidase isozymes sppeared also different at different stages of ripening. There were 4 bands in young fruits, 3 in green mature fruits, 5 in half red fruits and 3 in fully red fruits. After the application of ethylene to the tomato fruits, there appear one new band of peroxidase isozyme.
Abstract (Browse 2064)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Microsporogenesis and Megasporogenesis of Soybean
Author: He Meng-yuan, Zhou Ya-yan, Xu Zong-rao and Zhang Jia-shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    This article deals with the morphological aspects of the process of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis in soybean. The tempos of microsporogenesis in different anthers of the same flowers were compared, and it has been found that at the leptone- ma, zygonema, pachynema and diplonema of the first meiotic division there appeared a certain degree of synchrony, while at the uninuclear stage of the microspore a perfect synchrony was observed. The development of different pollen mother cells within the same anther was in most cases highly synchronized. The anther in which the PMCs were found to be in the'near stages of the meiotic divisions accounts for 7% only. The megasporocyte develops later than the mierosporoeyte. It enters into the leptotene stage or diplotene stage of the first meiotic division while the mierosporocyte has already finished the process of the meiotic division. Explantation of plates 1. A section of a partieal mierosporangium, mierospore mother cells and the cells of the anther wall. 600 2. Mierospore mother cells in zygotene stage (bouquet stage). 600 3. Pa- chytene stage of first meiotic division. 530 4. Diakinesis of meiosis , the tapetal cells begin- ning to degenerate. 900 5. Metaphase . 630 6. Anaphase . 630 7. Anaphase . 370 8 Interphase, two-nucleated dyad condition with no intervening cell walls formed. 630 9. Me- taphase . 630 10. Beginning of telophase 370 11, Telophase , four microspore nuclei contained within the original microspore mother cell wall. 630 12. Uninuclear microspore, 630
Abstract (Browse 2643)  |  Full Text PDF       
Discussions on the Palaeogeography and Palaeoclimatology of the Late Eocene Epoch and Oligocene Epoch North Jiangsu
Author: Wang Xian-zeng, Zhou Shan-fu and Xu Shu-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    In the present paper, using the spore-pollen analysis, we try to explain the general law of the evolution of the palaeogeography and palaeoclimatology of the fifth member of Funing group in the late Eocene Epoch, and of Dainan formation and Sanduo formation in the Oligocene Epoch, in the region of North Jiangsu. In the period of Funing group No. 5 member, this region was occupied with shallow lakes and mountains and of Central North-Subtropical climate. At then time, the topography of Dainan group was characterized by the richness of rivers, lakes, low mountains and hills. The climate of Dainan formation may be classified into the Northern North-Subtropical climate. The topography Sanduo formation was ranged from low mountain and hills to plains, and its climate was belonged to the Northern North-Subtropical climate. Two plates and two figures are presented in the paper.
Abstract (Browse 1758)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Growth-Inhibiting Substances from Young Cotton Bolls on Phosphorylation
Author: Zhang Cheng-lie and Lu Zhong-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    The effects of growth-inhibiting substances from young cotton bolls on phosphorylation in both intact cotton plant and tissue slices of young cotton bolls were determined using 32P as a tracer. The results showed that the incorporation of 32P into the various organic phosphates including high-energy phosphate compounds, were decreased in abscissing bolls to about 1/2 as that of developing bolls. Infiltration of the growth-inhibiting substances into normal boll tissue caused a marked increase in respiration intensity, the synthesis of high-energy phosphate compouds was, however, decreased to 39% of that of the control tissue. When 10 ppm NAA was applied tvabscissing young cotton bolls, the incorporation of 32P into various fractions of organic phosphates increased, although never to the level of developing bolls. The above results suggested that uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation might be one of the important effects of the growth-inhibiting substances in inducing the abscission of cotton bolls.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Morphological-Ecological Characteristics of Eight Species of Genus Kobresia in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Author: Zhou Xing-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    This paper deals with morphological and ecological characteristics of eight species of genus Kobresia. The adaptive ways and means of plants to the severe cold climate of plateau are discussed. The genus Kobresia exhibits the characteristics of cold-resistant, xeromorphism, and mesophism. The cold-resistant is common to all species and the xeromorphic character is a reflection of physiological drought. In view of the environment in which the genus Kobresia grows, this genus would fall into the cold-resistant and mesophilous category.
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytohistological Studies on the Tissue Culture of Olea europaea L. I. Development of Callus in Vitro
Author: Wang Kai-ji, Zhang Pi-fang, Ni De-xiang, Zhu Xiu-zhu, Yang Wei-qin and Bao Zi-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    The development of callus in vitro was investigated using the isolated explants from the autumn twig of Olea europaea. The callus developed on the cut surface of the stem-segment originate, d from the living cells of different tissues. Two distinct morphological types of the calli were observed. The highly friable callus was generally obtained while a non-friable form might develop occasionally. The change from one form to another was achieved by changing the level of NAA in the culture medium. These results obtainecl from above may be used to explain the possible role of the auxin playing a part in the form of callus. However, another distinct type of the callus in addition was also obtained in the same culture medium. This type of the callus developed in the form of a knob. It originated from cortical parenchyma cells distal from the cut surface of the stem The divisions of the cortex cells induced only were restricted to the inner layers near by the pericyele. The present observation suggests that the interpretation for the variations of the callus forms may be elaborated further when the roles of callus of the different sources will have been explored. There were three stages in the course of callus development from the cut sur- face of stem-segments, namely, activation, division and formation. These three dovelopmental stages were characterized by changes in cell morphology of the population as well as in the cell division, grawth and the relative RNA accomulation in the callus tissue. The results are shown in table 1. The formation stage proposed in this paper differs with the differentiation phase (Yeoman, 1970, 1973) on the differen- tiation of the tissues and it is suggested that appearance of wound-cambinm and differentiation of the parenchyma in this stage may be considered as the characteristics of callus development. The general conceptions of activation, dedifferentiation and differentiation are also briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Variations of the Starch in Pinus tabulaeformis during Embryogenesis
Author: Mu Xi-jin, Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    The presence or absence and the distribution of the starch during embryogenesis of Pinus tabulaeformis have been investigated by using the usual histochemical methods. The embryogenesis of the pine may be divided into six stages. In the course of embryo development the accumulation of starch has been observed in the nueellus, the megaspore mother cell and the megaspore, in the female gametophyte, in the pollen grain and in the embryo itself. The larger starch region, however, is only seen in the free apex of the ovule, the female gametophyte and the root cap-suspensor region of the embryo. During embryogenesis the starch region in the free apex of the nucellus appears before the pollination and persists until the late stage of the development of the young embryo. In the female gametophytc the starch region appears about the time of fertilization or at the early stage of proembryogenesis. It is always surrounding the developing young embryo, moves progressively toward the chalazal end of the female gametophyte after the development of the young embryo and then disappears when the embryo is approaching maturity. The starch region in the embryo itself appears in the basal region of the young embryo before the differentiation of the root initials and then develops into the root cap suspensor starch region and finally disappears until the complete development of the embryo and the seed maturity. The starch region, therefore, is the main site for supplying the carbonhydrate for the developing pine embryo. Many young embryos are distributed in the narrow and long embryonal cavity of the female gametophyte during the stage of cleavage polyembryony. But usually only one of them which can obtain the sufficient saeeharide material becomes the dorminant embryo. It is, therefore, considered that the carbonhydrates may be one of the important factors involving the embryo selection. In the mature seed, with the exception of a few residual starch grains scattered in the root cap-suspensor region, no starch grains are found in other organs or 9issues of the embryo. Hence, we may conclude that the starch grains participate actively in the carbonhydrate metabolism and finally they are almost entirely consumed off and they are, therefore, not the reserve material of the pine seed.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of Generative Cell and Vegetative Nucleus in Developing Male Gametophyte of Clivia nobilis etc. Cultured in Vitro II. Cytochemical Observations on Adenosine Triphosphatase Distribution
Author: Tang Pei-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    A cytochemical technique was used to determine whether gemerative cell and yegetative nucleus at various stages of the developing male gametophyte of Clivia nobilis and Amaryllis vittata have ATPase activity. All the studies were carried out in Wachstein-Meisel's medium (1957). The pH optimum for this reaction was pH 7.2. Comparing with the results obtained from the normal development %f male gametophytes, under the same measured conditions, the abortive pollen, the boiled and dried male gametophytes, in which protoplasmic streaming had stopped for more than 24 hours, showed negative reaction. The results obtained from the male gametophyies with normal development are briefly summarized as follows: 1. The presence of ATPase in the cultured male gametophyte: By cytochemical procedures for localizing ATPase activity: ATP-dependent reaction product in living samples or in the samples dehydrated by 80% aleohol in a short time as the pretreatment, is found to be confined to: (a) the growth region at the tip of the pollen tube and the dense region of protoplasmic stream, (b) generative cell (sperms) and (c) vegetative nucleus. Therefore, the Mg2+ and ATPase-dependent cytochemical reaction, and the specific localization of reaction product, have strongly suggested that the appearance of lead phosphate precipitate was due to the ATPase activity in the male gametophyte. 2. The range of ATPase relative activity at various stages of development of male gametophyte: the ATPase activity in generative cell at various stages of its development changes in the range from the 1st degree (light-brown) to the 5th degree (black), but in vegetative nucleus it changes only from the 2nd degree (brown) to the 3rd (dark-brown). 3. The relation between ATPase activity and cell action: from the results, it can be seen that the higher the ability of cell movement and cell activation is, the greater is its ATPase activity. So the relative ATPase activity is in close relation to the mechanical movement of generative cell and vegetative nucleus and their physiological state. 4. The vegetative nucleus is a physiologically active organelle, due to its own ATPase system. Many experimental facts revealed that the. vegetative nucleus might play an important role in mitosis of the generative cell and in formation of sperms.
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation and Control of Multiple Pathways of Respiratory Metabolism in Relation to Other Physiological Functions in Higher Plants
Author: Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(2)
      
    This account presents the views of the author on the functional and regulatory aspects of respiratory metabolism in higher plants: Control of metabolism (by enzymes) and the interaction of respiration with the other physiological functions in the living plant (metabolic control). This concept, formulated in the early fifties (ref. 47), was presented in part in 1965 (ref. 2) based on experiments performed mostly by the author and his colleagues and by his co-workers in this country. After an interruption of a decade, during which his work was discontinued, a more complete formulation of his views are given here based on results reported by workers in this field in other countries during that period. The more complete view can now be 'summarized as follows: Respiratory metabolism is the process whereby a part of the material stored in the plant (organism) is converted into biological work (function) for maintaining its state of being alive, while the other part of the same material is converted into substances of higher degrees of orderliness (negative entropy) in the form of structure and organization. Within limits imposed by the genetic potential, these processes are controlled by enzymes which in turn are regulated by internal and external factors. The above statement is essentially a special expression of a general view on the functional aspects of living organisms given in the authors earlier book, Green Thral- dom (Alien & Unwin, London, 1949). If the above theme finds acceptance, it follows, as stated earlier (ref. 14), that: 1. Respiratory metabolic pathways must be multiple ("multilineal") and multi- directional; 2. They must be interacting, not only with themselves, but also with other functions in the plant, alternatingly in time and separately in space (compartmentation); 3. There must be mutual interactions among the pathways and func- tions regulated by enzymes which in turn are regulated through external and internal factors. This functional and regulatory concept of respiratory metabolism in higher plants are now summarized by the following expressions: 1. CH2O + O2>XlX2H2O + CO2 + E Y1 Y2 in which E = Energy, X1, X2 etc. represent intermediate products, and Y1, Y2 etc. represent anabolic products of different composition and different degrees of complexity. 2. Borrowing from the second law of thermodynamics, the free energy G deri- ved from process 1 is used for performance of physiological work (function) during which part of the energy is given off in the form of heat (H), and the other part is concerned with the change of materials of lower orderliness into form and structure with a decrease in entropy (S): G = H - TS in which T is temperature (in K). This equation may or may not be directly applicable without qualifications in our case. But the decrease in entropy with the change of degree of orderliness in the process of tissue and organ formation from formless materials holds true. 3. The third expression presents the fundamental aspects of our concept of control of metabolism by enzymes and metabolic control of physiological functions. This may be given as: Fuction Gene EnzymesMetabolism Structurc State Time cource (Solid arrows denote Control) .Experimental evidences selected from the numerous published experimental results, mostly from those of our own, in support of the above scheme at the substrate level oxidation in addition to those given in an earlier account (ref. 2) are presented here. Evidences based on experiments during the past decade on multiple pathways in NADH oxidation through the electron transport chain gathered in the literature (ref. 37) during the period when our work was interrupted completes the formula- tion of our concept on respiratory metabolism at both the substrate and terminal oxidation levels. The use of this generalized concept on the functional and regulatory aspects of respiratory metabolism in higher plants for guiding further research on plant respiration and on other physiological processes, as well as the application of this concept to practical physiological and biological problems are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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