April 1979, Volume 21 Issue 4


          Research Articles
Some Recent Aspects in the Separation Methods of Phytochemical Constituents
Author: Fang Sheng-ding and He Xian-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1718)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Phytocoenological Features of Evergreen Broad-Leaf Forest in Guangxi
Author: Hu Shun-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The evergreen broad-leaf forest is a zonal vegetational type of humid subtropics. Analysis of its phytocoenological features realizes that, its physiognomy is characteri, Zed by the leathery simple-leaved mesophyllons and microphyllous type of phaneno. phytes. In the structure of community, there is more distinct stratification, synusia Structure is considerably complex, each layer has distinct dominant synusium. The floristie composition is dominated by endemic Chinese subtropical plant species and Eastasian elements, this condition indicates that it should be considered as special vegetational type of humid Chinese subtropics. From the viewpoint of succession, it is the relative stable community type suited with local enviroment. At present, the area of such forest is not large, it must strengthen the protection. Selective cutting system where only the mature individual tree, are harvested at different intervals better. Many economic plants in the forest are worth introduction and cultivation carrying out multistoried management.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental Researches on the Two Pathways of Pollen Development in Oryza sativa L.
Author: Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The present paper deals with the experimental researches on the gametophytic and sporophytic pathways of pollen development in Oryza sativa L. Subsp. Keng, Cultivar Jinghong No. 2. Three methods of culture were used: (1) The lemma, palea and pistil of excised spikelets were removed and the pedicel was inserted vertically into the medium with the intact stamens standing freely above the medium surface (vertical culture). (2) The spikelets were manipulated similarly but placed horizontally on the medium so that their anthers were directly contacted with the latter ('horizontal culture'). (3) The anthers were excised and inoculated separately (anther culture). In all cases the pollen stage at inoculation was in late uninucleate. N6 basic medium supplemented with or without MCPA (2 ppm) was used. After inoculation the samples were collected periodically for cytological observation. In all cases the pollen passed a short stage of gametophytic development, forming a vegetative and a generative cell, then various pathways commenced in different cultures. In vertical culture, most of the pollen went on .along. the gametophytic pathway up to normal 3-celled stage, but some showed anomalous divisions of vegetative or/and generative nuclei, indicating an initiation of sporophytic development. In horizontal culture, the sporophytic deve]opment went on further, producing some calluses, though the main pollen population remained as gametophyte. In anther culture, the gametophytic pathway to a mature 3-celled pollen was blocked, the unique pathway being sporophytic. In rice, the pollen developed along sporophytic path- way mainly via A route. These comparative investigations indicate that there are two chief factors concerning the switch of pollen development from one pathway to another: first, to be freed from the in vivo restrictions, which, as suggested by Sunderland and as sup- ported by the results of vertical culture in our experiments, is sufficient to trigger the first sporophytic division, and second, 'direct contact with the medium, which is necessary to support the successive growth of multicellular grains and calluses. As to the exogenous hormone, rather than functioning as an agent triggering sporophytic development, it plays an important role in increasing eventual induction frequency, growth rates and differentiating ability of calluses.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Quantitative Analysis of Subtropic Forests in Hwang-shan
Author: Zhou Ji-lun and Han Ye-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    1.The subtropic secondary forests of Mt. Hwangshan in the province Anhui, have been studied by both the "point-centred Quarter method" and a quantitative analysis which was based on the continuum concept of vegetation. 2. Each stand sampled was both by a 20 random points sampling and 16 m two ℅l6 m quardrat sampling. It seemed that the random points sampling method gave a more realistic representation of the stands as judged by the floristic data and the relative abundence and relative dominance data (table 1 and 2). 3. The Jaceard's "Coefficient of community", Sorenson's "Quotient of similarity", Whittaker's "Percentage of similarity" "X2 and" test of fit of goodless of fit" of Greig-Smith were was to measure the community similarity (or homogenity) in the same stand. Our modified "Percentage of similarity" with weighing by relative abundance of all the tree species seems better when compared with the other criteria (table 3). 4. An index called "Importance value similarity" (denoted as c), modified from the "Coefficient of community" of Curtis, had been designed for ordinating the stands. The ordination of the 18 stands of the present study with this index was shown in table 4. Ordination by another method, called the "Paper strips method", was shown in table 5. The phenomenon of vegetation continua was clearly shown in both kinds of ordination.
Abstract (Browse 2025)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction Of Callus and Regeneration of Plantlets in Stem Segment Culture of Chinese Gooseberry
Author: Gui Yao-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The stem segments of male and female plants of Actinidia chihensis Planch. var. chinensis C. F. Liang and A. chihensis Planch. var. hispida C. F. Liang were cultured in vitro. Callus and plantlets were obtained on MS basic medium supplemented with BAP (0.5, 2 ppm) + IAA (0.05 ppm) or zeatin (0.1每10 ppm). Best results were obtained on medium added with 1 ppm zeatin. It was possible to induce callus in both species but the frequency of callus redifferentiating into plantlet in A. chinensis Planch. var. hispida was far higher than that in A. chinensis Planch. var. chinensis and the frequency of plantlets derived from the female plant was higher than those from the male plant. The stem of plantlet was cut off when it reached 1 cm in height, then soaked in the solution with IBA 50 ppm for 2 hr. or with IBA 2 ppm for 24 hr. and the excised stem was transferred onto medium with 1/2 MS+ 1% sucrose +0.5% active carbon for rooting. It is possible that this technique of obtaining whole plants by stem segment culture provides a method for thes multiplication of female plants and the good individual plants of chinese gooseberry.
Abstract (Browse 1897)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of Chloroplast Membrane III. The Effects of Mg++ and K+ Ions Toward the Ultrastructure of Two Kinds of Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Li Shi-yi, Wang Ren-ru, Kuang Ting-yun and Tuan Hsu-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    Based upon our previous work on the relationship between structure and function of chloroplast of wheat in connection with PSj reaction, we studied the effects of MgCl2 and KC1 toward two kinds of thylakoid membranes. After exposing etiolated wheat seedlings to intermittent light (cycle of 2 min. light, 118 min. dark) for 24 hr, we obtain ed an incompletely developed chleroplast membrane. Completely developed chloroplast membrane was obtained from wheat seedlings grown under normal light-dark regime. Thylakoid membranes of plants grown under intermittent light failed to form grana stacks they remained as single lamellae in the suspension containing Mg++ or K+ of high concentration although simple stackings not more than two thylakoids c.ould be found. However, thylakoids grown under normal light-dark regime showed well developed grand stacks. Isolated chloroplast samples from two kinds of seedlings were suspended in 5 mM MgCl2 and 100 mM KC1 solutions for a definite time, portions of each samples were processed for electron microscopic observations and their photosynthetic activities were measured at the same time (It will be dealt with in another article). When these two kinds of isolated plastids were suspended either in MgCl2 (5 mM) or KC1 (100), the normally developed grana thylakoids stacked closely but the incompletely developed thylakoid- membranes did not stack. The incompletely developed chloroplast thylakoid membranes,, in either Mg++ or K+ ions could not induce stacking of the scattered thylakoid membranes to form grana. Therefore, we presume that light- harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex is on internal factor to induce thylakoid- membranes stacking and a definite concentration of caionions is an important factor in maintaining the stacking of thylakoid membranes. These results further prove the close association between structure and function in our previous studies on the mesophyll cell of the winter wheat.
Abstract (Browse 1926)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Transducing System of Azotobeeter chroococcum
Author: Du Qian-you, Chen Ke-yong and Fan Cheng-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1790)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Report on Tissue Culture of Corm of Crocus sativus L.
Author: Ding Bao-zu, Bai Shu-hua, Wu Yi and Wang Bao-kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Fertilization of Wheat Ovaries with Rye Pollen
Author: Zhu Cheng, Hu Shi-yi and Li Xiu-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
An improved Simple Method of Cultured Plant Callus and Cells for Scanning Electron Microscopy
Author: Kuo Chi-fang, Ye He-chun,Wei Yu-ning and Duan Jing-xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1711)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Biological Character of Sophora alopecuroides L.
Author: Zhou Li-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plantlet Formation in Brassica Pekinensis Rupr. on the Anther Culture
Author: Yang Cheng, Pan Nai-sue and Liu Chun-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
Abstract (Browse 1763)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Late Cretaceous Pollen Genera and Species in the Jiaag Han Basin of Hubei
Author: Wang Da-ning and Zhao Ying-niang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    In this paper, five new pollen genera and twenty new pollen species of angiospermae from the Late Cretaceous of a certain basin in central China are described. Four new organ genera and their species include: Morinoipollenites normalis gen. et sp. nov., Morinoipollenites minor gen. et sp. nov., Morinoipollenites polyprojectus gen. et sp. nov., Morinoipollenites rhombiformis gen. et sp. nov., Jianghanpollis ringens gen. et sp. nov., Jianghanpollis, mikros gen. et sp. nov., Jianghanpollis radiatus gen. et sp. nov., Jianghanpollis sayangensis gen. et sp. nov., Jianghanpollis arciformis gen. et sp. nov., Myoporumpollonites variabilis gen. et sp. nov., Myoporumpollenites striatus gen. et sp. nov., Lythraites giganteus Yu, Guo et Mao gen. et sp. nov. Lythraites clavatus sp. nov., Lythraites dilutus sp. nov., Lythraites magnus sp. nov., Lythraites varrustriatus sp. nov., Lythraites pachyrrhachis sp. nov.; the new-form genus and its species are: Crassimarginpollenites reticulatus gen. et sp. nov., Crassimerginpollenites mirus gen. et sp. nov., Crassimarginpollenites psilatus gen. et sp. nov. The new pollen genera and their species described herein have been compared in some details with recent pollens and considered their affinity with such recent families as Dipsacaceae, Myoporaceae, Apocynaceae and Lythraceae. According to the age of the pollen-bearing strata, a preliminary discussion is made regarding to the taxonomy of the recent plants families with which our new described pollens are related. Hence, this study may provide some mieropalaeobotanical information for deciphering 'the phylogeny of these plants.
Abstract (Browse 1952)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation, Culture and Callus Formation of lpomoea batatas Protoplasts
Author: Wu Yao-wu and Ma Cai-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    Numerous viable protoplasts from stem callus cells of Ipomoea batatas tissue culture have been isolated by enzyme treatment involving cellulase EA3 867 (2.0%), CaC12﹞2H2O (20 mM) and mineral constituent of medium A at pH5.4 in 0.8 M mannitol in 5 hours at 25㊣1⊥. The protoplasts were cultured at a density of 1-2 ℅ 105/ml in solid agar medium E supplemented with 2, 4-D (0.1mg/l) and kinetin (0.1 mg/l), or NAA (0.3 mg/l) and kinetin (0.1 mg/l) in petri dishes, and placed in a controlled growth cabinet maintained at 27 ⊥, and illuminated with floureseent light. They regenerated new cell wails after 7 days of culture. The first cell division was observed after 10 days. Ceil division continued thereafter, and after 40 days of culture small white calli (size about 0.2每0.3 mm) were visible in the petri dishes small calli were inoculated in the same nutrients as the protoplasts culture media, but without mannitol. They developed into large calli.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Drought on the Water Balance and Nitrogen Metabolism in Sand-fixing Plants
Author: Hwang Zi-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The changes in water balance and nitrogen metabolism of sandfixing plants under soil drought condition in desert area were studied. During sustained drought, the free water content was decreased and the bound water content was increased in all of the experimental plants. Nitrogen metabolism in the plants was converted by drought. The protein synthesis was inhibited, in the meantime the non-protein nitrogen was accumulated. It was found that a notable difference exists in various plants as far as accumulated non-protein nitrogen is concerned, amide nitrogen was accumulated mainly by xerophyte Hedysarium scoparium and nitrate nitrogen by mesophyte Robinia psudoacacia. The water balance of plants and the role of bound water in drought resistance are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Initiation of Apple Endosperm Callus and Variations of Chromosomal Ploidy on Callus Cells of Endosperm
Author: Mu Xi-jin and Liu Shu-qiong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The present paper deals with the initiation of endosperm callus of apple and the ploidy on callus cells through subcultures. According to our observations, the low capacity of differentiation has been discussed. The following conclusions are drawn: 1. The callus initiaed at 2每5 layer cells beneath epidermis. Some cells in this region changed into initials of endosperm callus and from initial masses then develop into cellular masses of endosperm callus protruding on the endosperm surface. The differentiation and growth of callus masses through subcultures may carry out in embryonal and transitional cellular masses in the peripheral zone and basal zone. 2. The ploidy in callus cells is very unstable. Through repeated subcultures the ploidy of the callus cells vary greatly. Most cells (about 80%) contain polyploid and a large number of aneuploid neuclei, while the triploid cells only constitute the minority (about 2.5%每3%). Hence the ploidy in callus cells produced by well developed endosperm vary greatly. 3. It is highly probable that the above mentioned variation of ploidy in callus cells of endosperm, particularly within the embryonal and transitional cellular masses is the cause of the low capacity of differentiation.
Abstract (Browse 1978)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in Embryology of Ephedra sinica
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Qian Nan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    Pollen of Ephedra sinica is shed at 5-celled stage and its male gametophyte is fundamentally similar to that of another conifer. Wall formation of the female gametophyte follows after 8 or 9 times of free nuclear divisions resulting in the produetion of some 256 or 512 free nuclei. Archegonia are generally 2每3 in number with 20-30 neck cells arranged in 4每5 rows. After division, the central cell forms the ventral canal nucleus and the egg. The latter is surrounded by a mass of dense cytoplasm. The development of the embryo is rather rapid. The two cotyledons of the mature embryo are well developed while its columnar tissue in root cap is weak. Pith is present in hypocotyl. The embryonic epidermis does not extend to the root cap and the junction between hypocotyl and pericolumn of the root cap is distinct.
Abstract (Browse 1883)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detection of Alien Protein in Seeds of Rice Treated with Soya mRNA
Author: M. C. Niu, Zhang Bao-ying, Ma Cheng, Lin Zhong-ping, and Zhang Yu-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1979 21(4)
    The tranfer of Soybean mRNA into rice ovary and mierospore cultured in vitro were achieved by the method of critical injection and the techniques of anther culture. Alien proteins (2S and 11S glubulin) were detected in seeds from the treated rice progeny (F1 and F2). These alien proteins were identical in immunological property to the proteins from soybean seeds; while no alien proteins was detected in the control.
Abstract (Browse 1680)  |  Full Text PDF       
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