January 1980, Volume 22 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Active Principles of Dan-Shen III Searching for Plant Resources Containing Tanshinone II-A
Author: Huang Xiu-lan Yang Bao-jin, Huang Hui-zhu, Xu Yin and Hu Zhi-bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Plantlets from the Hypocotyl of Olea europaea L.in Vitro
Author: Bao Zi-hua, Ma Yi-feng, Liu Jing-fu Wang kai-ji, Zhang Pi-fang, Ni De-xiang and Yang Wei-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
Abstract (Browse 1655)  |  Full Text PDF       
Shoot Tip Culture of Apple Adult Tree Golden Delicious in Vitro
Author: Chen Wei-lun, Yang Shan-ying, Wang Hong-xin and Cul Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
Abstract (Browse 1913)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of Flavonoids, in the Plant Kingdom, Theurapeutic Values and Potential New Drugs Therefrom
Author: Fu Feng-yong, Liu Yong-long, Shang Tian-min and Xiao Pei-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
Abstract (Browse 1699)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Feature of Fossil Plants from the Lower Cangfanggou Group of Upper Permian, Northern Xinjiang
Author: Hu Yu-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    This paper deals with the Fossil Plants from Upper Permian in Northern Xinjiang. These plants include 25 species of 15 Genus. Five new species is all described in this paper. These are: ?Supaia serrata sp. nov. Tychtopteris densinervis sp. nov., Ty. obesa sp. nov., Comia Cangfanggouensis sp. nov. and Lepeophyllum ovatum sp. nov. These are all new to science, found in the Lower Cangfanggou Group in Northern Xinjian, of Late Permian in age. Some fossils Lobatannularia multifolia Ken'no, Sphenopteris rotunda Sze and Alethopteris huiana Lee found in this group are known in the Cathaysian Flora. Others are common in the Angara Flora, such as Stellotheca sehtchurowskii (Schmal.) Surange et Prakash, Sphenopteris, adzvensis Zal., Tychtopteris cuneata (Schmal.) Zal. Noeggerathiopsis sp., ect. That indicates in the Lower Cangfanggou Group is a transitional zone between the Angara and the Cathaysian floras.
Abstract (Browse 1767)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cretaceous Floras of Lindian Xian, Heilongjiang Province
Author: Tao Jun-tong and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    The fossil plants, described in this paper were obtained from the district Lin- Dian Xian of Hei-Long-Jiang Province, which are Cladophlebis sp., Onychiopsis sp., Protophyllum unduIahtm sp. nov., Viburniphyllum serrulatum sp. nov., and Platanophyllum sp. The sporopollen assemblage, represented by 19 genera and 20 species, is characterized by absolute predominance of ferns. Others are some gymnosperm and few angiosperms. The age of this flora is assigned to Aptian-Albian which is compared with that of the Patapsco formation of Potomac group of eastern America and that of the Lower Cretaceous of Kolyma Basin of eastern Siberia. During that time the climate of this region was wet and warm.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Tenacigenin A
Author: Zhou Jun, Yang Chong-ren and Yang Ren-zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    Tenacigenin A was obtained from crude glucoside of Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Wight et Arn., a folk antitumor drug in Yunnan, by treatment with acid and base. This compound C21H32O5, mp 255每260⊥, belonging to C21-steroidal type, readily yielded a diacetate (k) and under forcing condition a triacetate (l). Two of the three hydroxyl groups were able to be oxidized to diketone (n), which were attached to the six-membered rings. The other two oxygenatoms existed as in the form of epoxy. Tenacigenin A afforded 3汕, 12汕, 14汕-triacetoxy-5汐-pregn-7(8), 9(11)-diene- 20-one (q), which was hydrogenized with Pt in AcOH to (r), by successive treatment with Ac2O and PTS at 100 ⊥ for 30hr. Accoring to the above chemical reactions (Fig. 3) and data of IR, UV, NMR (Fig. 1) and MS (Fig. 2), the structure of tenacigenin A has been suggested as (i).
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Symgenesis and Dynamic Changes of Coastal Solonchak Vegetation at Jiangsu
Author: Liu Fang-xun and Huang Zhi-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    This preliminary study attempts to make an approach to the symgenesis and dynamic changes of the hylophytic vegetation on coastal line, in general. By analysing the materials from various sources, and obtained by our own observations, the results are briefly summarized as follows: (1) The coastal solonchak vegetation along the shore line of Yellow Sea, bordering the east coast of Kiangsu province, within the warm temperate and the subtropical zones, is composed of many obligate halophtes, such as Salieornia europaea, Suaeda salsa, Suaeda glauca, etc. and some facultative hylophtes, such as Artemisia capillaris, Sonchus arvensis, Lepidium viginicum, etc., These species are naturally grouped in various plant communities frequently as belts, and responsible to differant salt concentrations and moisture. The distribution of a halophytic community generally appears to be limited by the salinity of soil. (2) Coastal solonehak phytocoenosim may be divided into following two main classes: 1. The primary seral communitis, which are generated and developed mainly on the primary bare area, contain 9 communities, such as Suaeda salsa community, Zoysis macrostachys community, etc. 2. The secondary seral communities, which are generated and developed mainly on the secondary bare area, contain 6 communities, such as Suaeda glauca community, Artemisia capillaris community, etc. (3) It is evident that the symgenesis and formation of coastal solonchak vegetation are in accordance with the course of the development of coastal solonchak. (4) Vegetational succession on coastal solonchak is caused by the decreasing salt content and increasing humus content of soil. In this paper, diagrams of successional dynamic changes have been prepared to show their close relationship between the hylophytic vegetation and the solonchak on coastal regions.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Methods for Preparing the Slides of Hevea brasiliensis
Author: Chao Hsiu-chien
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
Abstract (Browse 1556)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Biological Relationship of Gastrodia elata and Armillaria Melle
Author: Zhang Wei-iing and Li Bi-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    We have done a series of experiments on the biological relationship of G. elata and Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Quel on the basis of popular experience. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The whole ontogenetic pattern of G. elata may be generally divided into four stages: seedling formation, tuber formation, flowering and fruiting. Except for the flowering and fruiting stage, the activity of Amella determines the formation of G. clara seedlings, the renewal of its vegetative organs, and transformation of vegetative growth to reproductive growth. The germination of tile dormant buds and their development are also decided by the sites and the influence of infection of A mellea . In some cases, when the mixed bud of G. elara was injured, it could also form several tubers with the infection of A. mellea . 2. The infecting process of A. mellea on G. elata has been studied in detail. Some of our observations are not well fitted with Kusano's experimental results. We find that there are two modes of infection of A. mellea on G. clara: physiological infection and pathological infection. Under normal environmental conditions, A. mellea infects the tissues of cortical layer only, and may also lead to the enlargment and malformation of nuclei. On the other hand; the digestive cells possess both the functions of defense and infecting hyphae. The pathological infection often exists under unfavorable conditions. 3. The tuber of G. data is not the only organ to assimilate the A. mellea, the vegetative stem also has a function of assimilation. 4. The growihg tuber would not become an assimilating organ until winter was over.
Abstract (Browse 1985)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural and Functional Analysis of Chloroplast Membrane Using Trypsin and Chymotrypsin as Structural Modifiers
Author: Zhang Zheng-dong, Li Liang-bi, Tan Ke-bui, Zhia Xiao-jing and Zhou Pei-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    (1) Similar results were obtained after controlled digestion of spinach chloroplasts with trypsin and chymotrypsin, but the specificity of digestion of chymotrypsin differed from that of trypsin. Trypsin weakly uncoupled photosynthetic electron transport but chymotrypsin did not. (2) Both changes of DCIP and Fecy reduction activity and the recovery of CCCP inhibition by electron donors of PSj during proteolytic enzyme digestion showed that trypsin not only affected oxidizing side and reducing side of PSj, but also partially inactivated the reaction center of PSj. (3) The effects of CCCP on photosynthetic electron transport in chloroplasts digested with trypsin and chymotrypsin indicated the probable presence of "channel" in PSj. These results support the interpretation that there is a fine structure in PSj membrane. Modification of the protein components of PSj in the membrane might alter their function.
Abstract (Browse 1684)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Eeo-Physiological Indices of Rubber Trees at Chilling Temperature
Author: Ho Jing, Lin Peng and Yang Han-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    Rubber trees (Hevea brasilieasis Muell-Arg.) like other tropical trees, are very sensitive to chilling temperature. It may cause metabolic disturb ances and make severe injuries to the tree. The ecophysiological indices introduced in this paper are transpiration rate, osmotic pressure, pretoplasmic viscosity, protoplasmic permeability and water content. These indices can be used to estimate relative cold resistance of different clones or individual rubber seedlings. The results our measurements are summarized in the following table.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Cytokinins on Unfolding of Cotyledons and Opening of Hypocotylar Hooks of Cucumber
Author: Tao Guo-qing, Song Yan-ru, Chen Hui-ying, Tong Zhe, Lian Han-ping, Li Shu-huan and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    Benzyladenine (BA), zeatin and kinetin caused the unfolding of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Var. Jing-ye No. 4) cotyledons. But the other plant hormones e.g. gibberellic acid (GA3), indoleacetic acid(IAA), ethylene (ethrel), abscisic acid (ABA) and other related compound e.g. KCl, adenine were not so. This response was caused by even lower concentration (0.01 ppm). Therefore, it could be used as a bioassay for cytokinins. KCl affaeted synergistically on cytokinin-induced unfolding. Basally applied BA (10 ppm) stimulated the opening of the intact hypocotylar hook. The light affacted synergistically on BA-induced opening. However, basally applied BA prevented the opening of decapitated hooks, especially in the light. The cotyledons were found to play a part of effects in maintaining the hook.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Iatercellular Migration of Protoplasm and Its Relation to the Development of Embryo Sac in Nucellus of Wheat
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei and Wu Su-hsuen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    During the development of the ovule before pollination, deterioration of successive layers of nucellar tissue, beginning from the nnermost, constantly takes place and consistently forms a zone of disorganization surrounding the periphery of the enlarging embryo sac. Nucellar tissue deteriorates much more profusely near the antipodal end of the sac. "Nuclear extrusion" taken as an indication of intercellular movement of the protoplasm which has undergone partial disassembly, can be seen among the nucellar tissues and between the nucellus and the embryo sac. The intruding nuclear fragments, some of which assume the form of nucleolus, can be found in the antipodal cells. The results interpreted according to our previous hypothesis, are as follows. The nucellar cell by means of intercellular movement of its own protoplasm in the state of partial disassembly, furnishes the embryo sac with composite units of various polymers and organelles. Consequently, the antipodal cells proliferate and flourish The interrelationship between nucellus and embryo sac has been discussed from the viewpoint of supply and utilization of nourishment, which is necessary for the rapid development of the embryo sac.
Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Anther Culture of Triticale
Author: Sun Jing-san, Zhu Zhi-qing, Wang Jing-ju and P. M. A. Tigerstedt
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    The present paper deals with the study of factors affecting the frequency of induction of Triticale pollen callus in anther culture. The following experimental results have been obtained: 1. The N6 medium and B5 medium were superior to MS medium in the production of pollen callus, and the difference between N6 medium and B5 medium was not obvious. 2. When 6 to 12 per cent of sucrose was added in medium, the induction frequency of pollen callus was higher, however, this higher frequency decreased with the concentration of sucrose down to 3 per cent. 3. It was found that there was no regultr correlation between the frequency of the formation of the pollen callus and concentrations of 2,4-D (0.5 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm) in medium. 4. Induction frequency of pollen callus increased apparently when active carbon (0.5 per cent) was added. 5. The liquid medium was capable of improving yields of the pollen callus. 6. It is not important for the formation of the pollen callus whether the cultures were kept in light or in dark. 7. Before inoculation the spikes were inserted into a bottle with N6 medium solution and pretreated at 3每5⊥ for 3 days, the frequency of callus formation may be efficiently increased in comparison with those treated in water. When N6 medium was supplemented with 2,4-D (2 ppm), NAA (2 ppm) and kinetin (0.5 ppm), either used singly or in combination, the frequency of callus formation was not obviously increased.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Annual Periodicity of Growth and Development of Friellaria Palldiclora Schrenk
Author: Zhu Si-yi, Hu Zheng-hai and Yu Wen-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    According to the observations under the climate at 1700 meters above sea level of mountainous district, the annual periodity of growth and development of fritillary (Fritillaria pallidifora Schrenk.) is briefly described as folldowing: The young shoot sprouts out of the bulb and emerges from the soil in April every year, and forms flowers and fruits in succession. During this period the nutrients of underground bulbs exhaust themselves and a new buld is thereby regenerated. In the middle of June, the aerial part dried up. The regeneration bud in the underground bulb differentiats itself under the condition of 8每22 ⊥ in surmruer and an axillary bud is simultaneously initiated. The bulb thus formed dormants in the winter. The growing period of fritillary is only 80每90 days above the ground and 270每280 days beneath the ground. Hence, the whole developmental process of a regeneration bud of fritillary has to pass through three successive growing seasons under the normal conditions in which the growth confined to the inside of bulb lengthens to 600 days approximately. With comparison of the other bulbous plants the characteristics of the development of fritillary may be defined as follows: 1. The regeneration bulb can be formed under the condition of short-day light on even under complete darkness. In contrast with fritillary, the formation of new bulb of onion and other bulbous plants occurs under the longdag light. 2. It is certainly known that a critical size of rhizome or bulb is required for flower formation of Iris and tulip. A similar phenomena has been observed for fritillary in the present experiment. The critical size of bulb for flower initiation of fritillary is taken by us as 1.8每2.7 girfresh weight and 1.2每2.2 cm in diameter. This has nothing to do with the age of the bulb. 3. Different optimum tempertures are neccessary for various developmental stages of fritillary respeetivtly. The normal development periodicity of fritillary may be modified by the onset of dormancy under the condition of low temperatures. Using this method, a secondary shoot will grow up in one growing season. This is in confirmation of the report on the experiment of an other fritillary.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stability of wheat Protoplasts during Freezing-Thawing in Relation to Cold Resistance of Its Varieties
Author: Jian Ling-cheng and Dong He-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    Freezing tolerance of isolated protoplasts of three wheat, varieties which differ from each other in cold resistance has been measured. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the survival percentage of wheat protoplasts after freezing treatment is indirect correlation with the cold resistance of its varieties. It is discussed that the change in plasmolemma plays a role in the mechanism of chilling injury and cold resistance of plants, and the results obtained may be used as an indicator for determining the cold resistance of the plants.
Abstract (Browse 1947)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomy of Cotton Leaf Infected with Verticilliurn
Author: Lee Cheng-lee and Li Rong-ao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    The Verticillium wilt is a vascular disease of cotton. The degree of infectivity varies in its location, i.e. base, middle and top of the midvein. In general, the percentage of the infected vessels increases aeropetally. Vessels filled with gummy substances and tyloses are also common. Two types of mycelia invading the vessels are visible, namely, the large mycelia of yellow-brown and the fine mycelia of dark brown in color. The disease may be classified into four grades according to the appearance of the diseased leaves. The degree of infectivity does not correlate well with the number of vessels infected at the base of the midvein However, some correlation does exist with the total number of infected vessels and those with gummy substances and tyloses.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Gametophytes in Fokienia Cupressaceae
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    The structure of the ovule and the development of the gametophytes in Fokienia, an endemic genus of Cupressaceae are described in some detail. Two wings, one small and one large, are developed along the micropylar end of the ovule and two resin canals are present in each of them. The material collected in the middle of April was already pollinated and the pollen began to germinate on the nucellus. The sterile cell, tube cell and spermatogenous cell have been formed in the tube in the first collection of April 17. At the end of June the division of the spermatogenous cell results in two sperms of Similar size and shape and the division plane is usually parallel to long axis of the pollen tube. Both sperms are effective in fertilization. 4096 free nuclei (actual counting, 3733〞4224 ones) are produced through 12 times of repeated divisions of the functional megaspore, then cell walls appear among the free nuclei and cellular female gametophyte is formed. The number of archegonia varies from 6 to 16, mostly 9每12. The archegonial complex is enclosed by 2每3 layers of jacket cells. The neck cells are usually 4 in number, arranged in 1每2 layers. The central cell divides and results in the formation of one ventral canal nucleus and one egg nucleus. Fertilization takes place in the middle of the archegonium. The development of the gametophytes of Fokienia is more or less similar to that of Sabina.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histo-Cytological Observations on Callus and Bud Formation in Cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L.
Author: Xu Zhi-hong and Liu Gui-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(1)
      
    Leaf explants of tobacco were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/ l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA for induction of callus formation, or supplemented with 2 mg/l BA for bud formation. Histocytological observations on callus and bud formation were carried out. Three days after cultivation, mesophyll cells enlarged, the nuclei became more apparent and dark stained, and starch accumulated in the cells. Cell divisions began in the mesophyll cells at the cut ends, in the palisade cells near the vascular bundles and in the vascular parenchyma. Mitotic activity then spreaded over tbc explants, and was most active at the edges of leaf explants. Regular rows of cells appeared as a result of series of transverse divisions in the palisade. The number of chloroplast in the mesophyll cells decreased and degenerated gradually. A number of meristemoids ware initiated in the cultured leaf explants after 7 days of cultivation. They were originated from two kinds of tissues, the mesophyll and vascular bundle, including the phloem parenchyma and vascular sheath. On the medium with NAA and BA, callus formation was induced with vigorous divisions, whereas bud primordia were differentiated from the meristomoids on the medimn with 2 mg/l BA. The buds were developed from both the superficial meristemoids and the meristematic regions deep within the callused leaf explants. The accumulated starch in the cells gradually disappeared as bud formation proceeded.
Abstract (Browse 2337)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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