February 1980, Volume 22 Issue 2


          Research Articles
Analysis of Diosgenin by Gas-Liquid Chromatography
Author: Gu Shana-ming, Tang Shi-rong and Wang Xiang-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cold Storage of Potato Germplasm by Tissue Culture Method
Author: Tao Guo-qing, Chen Hui-ying, Lian Hun-ping and Cui Yu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
Abstract (Browse 2008)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stem Tip Culture of Teak in Vitro
Author: Wang Bao-sheng, Cao Yue-hua and Huang Liang-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Embryoid Formation in Endosperm Culture of Prunus perica
Author: Liu Shu-qiong and Liu Jia-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paleogene New Pollen Genera and Species of South China Sea
Author: Sun Xing-jun, Kong Zhao-chen and Li Ming-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    In Hal Nan Island, Lei Zhou Peninsula and some basins of Guang Dong Province Tertiary deposits are up to 5000 meters thick, contaning very rich pollen and spores. Palynological research has been going on since 1975. This paper is only dealing with some new pollen types and main palynofloristical characters. 4 new genera and 9 new species are described. They are: Trilobapollis gen. nov., Operculumpollis gen. nov., Utriculariapollis gen. nov. and Trilobapolliseptus gen. nov. et sp. nov., Trilobapollis ellipticus gen. nov. et sp. nov., Pilosipollis elegans gen. nov. et sp. nov., Oper culumpollis operculatus gen. nov. et sp. nov., Utriculariapollis tetratremites gen. nov. et sp. nov., Utriculariapollis tritremites gen. nov. et sp. nov., IlexpoUenites membranous sp. nov., Tricolpites tenuicolpus sp. nov., Vcrrutricolporites pachydermis.
Abstract (Browse 2070)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Spore-Pollen and Algal. Assemblages from the Surface Sediments of Yellow Sea
Author: Wang Kai-fa, Zhang Yu-lan, Jiang Hui, Xu Jia-sheng and Wang Youg-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Yellow Sea is a shelf sea situated between China and Korea Peninsula. The distribution of spore-pollen and algae of the surface sediments of Yellow Sea may be divided into 4 characteristic regions:1. Artemisia-Chenopodiaccae-Gramineae region. 2. Pinus-Quercus-herbaceous pollen-Hystrichosphaera region. 3. Pinus-Balti-sphaeridinm-Quercus-Pteridium-Pteris region. 4. Pinus-Quercus-Pteris-Baltisphaeridium region. Through the study of spore-pollen and algae, the problems under discussion are: 1. the relationship between the spore-pollen assemblages of surface sediments and vegetation of continental margin, 2. resedimentation of fossils of spore-pollen and sedimental provenance of the sea basin, 3. the relationship between the distribution of Hystrichosphaera and Baltisphaeridium and water depth, 4. the relationship between the distribution of diatom and depth and characteristics of water bodies and 5. the relationship between mangrove pollen and sea currents.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Morphology and Ecology of the Cushion Plants in Togme Region of Northern Xizang
Author: Qin Zhi-ye and Xie Wen-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    The cushion plant is an ecotype adapted to the environment of the alpine cold climate. There are over 15 species in Northern Xizang plateau, among them Thylaco- spermum caespitosum, Arenaria musciformis and Androsace tapete being common. The general morphology of such plants is expressed as a cushion-like body resulted from the shoots piled up together closely. They may be divided into two types, the close cushion plant and the sparse one, based upon the different degree of compactness of the shoot. The cushion plant is distributed from 4500 to 5300 meters. Different species have different environmental requirement and form the specific community of the alpine cushion vegetation. It has formed in course of the natural selection of the surrounding factors such as plateaus' intense solar radiation, cold weather, strong wind, etc. For a long time, they have sufficiently used the favorabe factors and avoided the unfavorable factors under severe conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Pines and Pine Forests of Xizang
Author: Chen Wei-lie, Zhang Jing-wei, Wang Jin-ting and Li Bo-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Six species of pines are distributed in Xizang. They are: Pinus griffithii McClell., P. armandi Franch. and P. gerardiana Wall. of haploxylon pines and P. densata Mast., P. yttnnanensis French. and P. roxburghii Sarg. of diploxylon pines. According to the relation of these pines with water-temperature conditions, 4 ecological types may be divided: the warm-temp erate and wet type (P. griffithii), the warm-temperate and dry type (P. yunnanensis, P. roxburghii), the temperate-cold and moist type (P. armandi) and the temperate-cold and dry type (P. densata). The composition and structure of every pine community reflect the ecological environments of the given pine in the region. The main pine comnmnity in Xizang are P. griffithii forest and P. densata forest. The P. griffithii forest is distributed on the southern side of Himalayas, while the P. densata forest on the northern side of Himalayas and the southern part of Hengtuan mountains. This indicates that the Himalaya range is a clear boundary and there is difference in water-temperature condition between southern and northern parts. They belong different vegetation regions. The different distribution of other several pine forests reflects the difference of environmental conditions within these two regions. These facts have significance in the investigation of the regularity of vegetation distribution and vegetation division in Xizang. Besides, the vertical distribution of pines cannot be used as a marker to divide the altitudinal belts due to the wide range of adaptation of pines, though there must be regularity of vertical distribution too.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Fundamental Characteristics of the Steppe Vegetation in Xizang Plateau
Author: Wang Jin-ting, Li Bo-sheng, Chen Wei-lie and Zhang Jing-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    The steppe vegetation of the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau is somewhat similar to the temperate steppe of our country, but it possesses its own characteristics: 1. The elements of the Qinghai-Xizang floral region or plant species taking the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau as their chief distribution center play a dominant part in tile constitution of the steppe communities. In these communities, the plants are usually sparse and dwarf, their growth period is shorter and the biological productivity is lower than the steppe in the temperate zone. They possess synusia consisting of herbaceous plants fit for cold climate, synusia consisting of kobresia and synusia consisting of cushion plants. 2. There are 4 types of steppe vegetation in the Xizang Plateau. And the tussock-grass steppe is the most typical. According to their different ecological characteristics, they may be divided into 3 types. Of these, the most widely distributed type is the cold temperate-weak semiarid steppe. And there are many characteristical steppe communities. 3. Distributionally, the steppe in the Xizang Plateau belongs to a special type of vertical distribution in the subtropical latitude zone, it is different from the gene- rally known montane vertical belt, and possesses a vertical-horizontal distributive nature, i.e. "zonation of plateau". Within the Plateau steppe region, steppe eommunities with different ecological characteristics have clearly marked areal differentiaton, and which has determined the nature of the vertical belts in these areas. According to different basal belts of the vertical belt spectrum, such belts may be divided into 3 types. There are no forests in the montane vertical belt spectra in the Plateau steppe region, and the upper distributional limit of the steppe vegetation reaches an altitude of about 5200 (5400) m., which is the highest distributional limit of steppe on the earth.
Abstract (Browse 3505)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Alkaloids of Cephalotaxus sinensis (Rehd et Will.)Li
Author: Alkaloids Group, Laboratory of Plant Chemistry, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Seven alkaloids were isolated from Cephalotaxus sinensis (Rehd. et Wils.) Li and were identified by elements analysis, melting point and spectral data. Six of them are known alkaloids: cephalotaxine (i), j-hydroxyeephalotaxine (j), drupaeine (k), demethylcephalotaxinone (l), c-3epi-witsonine (m) and wilsonine (n). Cephalo- taxine is the major alkaloid of this plant. (i每l) are alkaloid of Cephalotaxus type and another two (m每n) are alkaloid of homoerythrina type. (o) seems to be a new alkaloid. Its strueture will be studied further.
Abstract (Browse 1962)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of the Chemical Constituents in Hypericum attenuatum Chois
Author: Gu Li-zhen and Zhang Hong-bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Four crystalline components had been isolated from Hypericum attenuatum Chins., which is wild plant in Hulun Buir Meng of Nei Monggol Zizhiqu. On the basis of spectral analysis, hydrolyzed acid, the prepared derivatives, and the pysico-chemical constants crystalline i, j of components had been identified as hyperin (hyperoside) and quercetin respectively, crystalline k identified with chromatograph is chlorogenic acid with a few impurity. The component l is a flavonoid compound too, but it is not identified. The average of the contents of flavonoid in the whole herb is 1.67%, but the contents of flavonoids in the different organs as the flower, the fruit, the leaf and the stem are quite different. The content in the leaf is highest, that in the reproductive organs is secondary and that in the stem is lowest. The resources of Hypericum attenuatum Chois., are abundant in nature. The content of flavonoids in Hypericum attenuatum Chois. is higher. Its pharmacological function is extensive. Therefore, it is a kind of medicinal herb worthily for further study.
Abstract (Browse 2136)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isoenzyme Patterns of Root and Shoot in the Early Growth of Wheat
Author: Tong Zhe, Cui Yu-ying, Wang Jian-ju, Song Yan-ru and Li Xian-zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Isoenzyme patterns of peroxidase, catalase, glucose-6-phosephate, glutamate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, esterase, amylase and IAA oxidase in the embryos, endosperms, roots and shoots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. var. Nung-da 139) were determined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis respectively. The number of isoenzymes of peroxidasc and amylase was increased with the concomitant increase of days during germination. The isoenzyme bands of esterase, glutamate, glucose-6-phosphate and isocitrate dehydrogenases in the embryos were more in the begining of germination. The activities of pero- xidase, IAA oxidase and glutamate dehydrogenase in roots were higher than those in shoots. On the contrary, the activities of catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in shoots were higher than those in roots. However the activity of esterasc was slight higher in shoots. There was no difference in the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase between roots and shoots. The morphological difference of shoot and root is evidently related to isoenzyme patterns. This investigation indicates that different metabolic characters are existed in shoot and root during differentiation.
Abstract (Browse 2131)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation of Ethylene Production and Respiration with Maturation and Senescence of Melon during Postharvest-Storage
Author: Zhang Wei-yi Zhang Zhi-ling and Zhang You-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    There are three types of ethylene production and respiration during the postharvest storage of melon fruits: 1. with climacteric rise in both respiration and ethylene production; 2 with climacteric rise in ethylene production but respiration declined gradually; 3 with no appreciable change in both respiration and ethylene production. The last one has good storage quality.
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Photosynthesis and Translocation in Cotton Leaf
Author: Shen Yue-qing, Fang Bing-chu and Sheng Min-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Ethrel stimulates the translocation of assimilates, both preserved and those formed after treatment, into cotton bolls, particularly, into fibres. It seems that the improvement of quality and fullness of fibre by ethrel was achieved by altering the translocation and distribution of photosynthetic products and increasing their economic coefficient. But the allocation of photosynthetic products in the cotton seeds in somewhat decreased, which subsequently has certain influence on seed quality. In the shell, the allocation of photosynthetic products has little difference between the treated and the control. Within a week after treatment, the photosynthetic efficiency shows no remarkable change, but decreases significantly thereafter. Thus, if ethrel is applied too early, it may affect the fullness of maturing cotton bolls due to precedable senescence of cotton leaves. The respiratory intensity of cotton leaves is rapidly increased by ethrel but it tends to be lower than control 6 days later.
Abstract (Browse 1913)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Plant Hormone on Callus Formation and Regeneration of Plant in Cucumis melo L. var. Outvmnesles fil
Author: Tang Ding-tai, Zhang Jing-lan, Xu Gui-fang, Niu Yu-xian and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    The calli could be induced from the cotyledon in Miller medium supplemented with high concentration of kinetin (5每10 ppm) or with 2 ppm NAA plus 0.5 ppm kinetin. The callus induced by NAA plus kinetin was much different from that by kinetin alone. The former was loose and soft, while the later was tight and firm. About half a month after inoculation the later formed globe-like tissues and then new buds initiated and developed. The roots initiated from the buds when it was transplanted into Miller medium with low concentration of kinetin. The plantlets were thus obtained. However, the plantlet could not be gotten in white medium or Miller medium when hypocotyl explants were used. Therefore, it is concluded that regulation of callus formation and differentiation of the calli by exogenous hormone is closely related to some endogenous factors and external condition.
Abstract (Browse 1981)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histochemical Localization of Several Enzymes in Early Young Embryo of Pinus tabulaeformis
Author: Mu Xi-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Histochemical localization of adenosine triphosphatase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase in young embryo of Pinus tabulaeformis has been studied. All cells of the embryo proper showed very intense lead phosphate disposite with ATP in the Wachs- tein Meisel medium and with B-glyceropbosphate in Gomori medium. In the suspensor 1每3 suspensor cells closed to embryo proper appear blackening with both the ATP and the B-glycerophosphate, and other cells of the suspensor showed less adenosine triphosphatase and B-glyeerophosphatase. In the young embryo the peroxidase distribution may vary with the developmental stages of the young embryo, for instance cone-shaped embryo proper showed dark blue, and which peroxidase occupies only 1每2 suspensor cells closed to embryo proper. When the young embryo developed further into columnus-shape, the peroxidase was mainly distributed in regions of both the posterior part of embryo proper and just derived suspensor cells. However the anterior part of embryo proper showed slight peroxidase. The experimental results indicate that all of these enzymes mentioned above are mainly present in both the embryo proper and the connecting end of the suspensor, and that these regions show great matabolic activity. From the above mentioned observation, the possible relationship between the young embryo and near surrounding tissue during the development of embryo is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Kinetic Changes of Nucleic Acids and Protein During Embryogenesis of Wheat (Triticun vulgaris L.)
Author: Zhu Zhi-ping, Shen Rui-juan and Tang Xi-hua (Tang Si-hua)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Per embryonic total nucleic acid, RNA content and per cell RNA content increased during embryogenesis, reached maximun at 21 day after anthersis. The per embryo and per cell protein content also increased concomitantly. But the protein content continued to increase up to 24 days after anthersis. On the basis of dry weight, RNA content decreased in the early stage of embryogenesis, but then increased over the period of later developmental stage. The protein content on the basis of dry weight also changed in similar way. It was likely the protein and RNA content changes concomitantly during the developmental process of wheat embryo. As to per embryo DNA content, it increased in early developmental stage, but then remained in a similar level during the later stage. The relationship between the changes of RNA content and protein synthesis, embryonie develope is also discussed in present paper.
Abstract (Browse 1924)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Dimorphism and Its Relation to the Formation of Pollen Embryos in Anther Culture of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Author: Zhou Jun-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    The anomalous pollen grains in vivo at the frequencies of 2.61% and 6.81% respectively were found in anthers of two hybrid materials of wheat from which we had obtained the higher frequencies of induction of pollen embryos in anther culture in the past few years. This indicated that the pollen dimorphism also presented itself in the anthers on wheat plants. A comparative cytological study of development of anomalous pollen grains in vivo and of the early stages of the formation of pollen embryos in vitro was carried out and the results suggest that in cytological details there is an obvious similarity between them. This reveals the possibility that the pollen embryos night derive itself from the anomalous pollen grains in wheat as in the other plants. Therefore, it was considered that the appearance and frequency of the anomalous pollen grains could show the senibility of the development of microspores to the changes of various internal and external factors. The significance of the sensibility for the formation of pollen embryos in anther culture of wheat is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2101)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Chromosome Banding with Giemsa in Vicia faba and Allium cepa
Author: Zhang Zi-li and Chen Gui-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Giemsa dye is a complex mixture containing methylene blue, its oxidation products-azure i, j, k, and their eosinate. The results of our experiments have demonstrated that staining with methylene blue alone can give a faint trace of banding as well as azure i, j. No bands are obtained with eosin. Nevertheless, good chromosome bandings can be often produced by staining with methylene blue-eosinate or azure j-eosinate. These data indicate that eosinate has an important effect for the formation of C-banding on plant chromosomes. In our experiments, the treatments of chromosomes with trypsin or papain have also resulted in good C-banding pattern when slides are stained with Giemsa. We found that the slides untreated with proteinase showed homogeneous intense chromosome staining and, on the contrary, the slides treated with proteinase led to palestaining chromosomes and presenting bandings. It has shown that proteinase, especially trypsin, not only can remove a large amount of chromosomal protein but also can remove DNA and results in C-bandings. Treated properly with trypsin and followed by the Feulgen staining, chromosomes can also produce the C-bandings, but chromosomes treated overtime with trypsin are stained more palely in Feulgen reaction or lead to colourlessness. The above results have further proved that trypsin technique removes large amounts of chromosome DNA and removes less from the C-band regions than from the non-band regions. In this paper we mainly discussed the effects of protein on mechanism of plant chromosome banding. We consider that the production of plant C-banding is probably due to the differential accessibility of nucleoprotein between euehromatin and heteroehromatin regions. It brings about selective removal of nucleoprotein from the chromosome arms. We have compared the effect of trypsin with papain and pepsin on producing bands. Good bands are produced by Giemsa staining chromosomes with trypsin, but no bands are obtained by staining chromosomes treated with pepsin. So the results have expressed that histones are possibly playing more important role in C-bandings.
Abstract (Browse 2278)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Organ Formation from Young Leaf of Wheat Triticum aestivum
Author: Chen Hui-min, Teng Shi-yun and Yu Jia-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    Callus was obtained on modified PRL-4 medium supplemented with 2, 4-D from the segments of the first leaf of wheat seedling which had been germinated for 4 days. Roots and shoots were initiated and complated plantlets thus regenerated. The frequency of callus formation and its growth rate depended upon the concentration of 2, 4-D and the locations of segments on the leaf. When the concentration was 4 ppm or less, the callus could be produced only within the region from the leaf base to about 1cra apart. Both KT and 6-BA were inhibitory to callus formation. Histological examination showed that callus originated from the cells located at the place of vascular bundle sheath. The roots were frequently induced from leaf callus. During the process of callus induction, after 10每14 days incubation, the roots began to appear in the medium containing 2, 4-D of 2 ppm or less. The lower the concentration, the nearer to the base of the leaf the root-forming place was. In contrast, the higher concentration induced rooting at the higher part of the leaf but inhibited at the lower place. After 3 weeks incubation, the highest frequency of root differentiation was about 60%. The callus failed to differntiate in short-period incubation in higher concentration of 2, 4-D, but when it was transferred to lower level, roots could be initiated. Shoot and plantlets were regenerated from callus cultured in several phytohormone combinations and under different conditions. But the frequency of shooting was very low, and some seedling were morphologically abnormal. The nature of shooting is not yet clear and further studies should be carried on. In this paper, causes of failure in the protoplas culture of mesophyll tissue of wheat leaf were also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructural Analysis on the Relationship between Rhizobia and Host Cells
Author: Tang Pei-hua, Zhang Bao-tian and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
    By means of electron microscopy, the ultra-thin sections of the effective nodules of Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Sesbania cannabia were investigated. In this paper the multiple forms of the infection thread, the various structual changes in capsule and cell wall of rhizobia before and after their releasing into the cytoplasm of the host cell, the rhizobia entering into the vacuoles of the host cells and the bacteriod formation in the vacuoles were observed. Accordingly, the possibility of two different ways of the enclosing membrane formation of rhizobia was observed. The relationship between the structure and function of the rhizobia and host cells during nodulation is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on Phytozcdysone of Murdannia triquetra Wall Briickn
Author: Hou Song-sheng, Wang Guo-liang and Xia Ke-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(2)
Abstract (Browse 1926)  |  Full Text PDF       
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