March 1980, Volume 22 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Induction of Callus and Regeneration of Plantlets in Stem Segment of Stevia rebaudiana in Vitro
Author: Zang Shu-ying, Zhang Zhi-min and Fan Ying-han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1690)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Capacity of Drought Resistance of Sophora Moocroftiana (Wall.)Benth Ex Baker
Author: Wang Wei-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1677)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Late Cretaceous Pollen Genera and Species in the Jiang Hun Basin of Hubei (Cont.)
Author: Wang De-ning and Zhao Ying-niang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1571)  |  Full Text PDF       
Petroleum Sporo-Pollen Assemblages and Oil Source Rock of Yumen Oil bearing Region in Gansu
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Twenty-six species (or forms) of fossil pollen and spores referred to 24 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Yumen oil-bearing region in West Gansu are observed and the definition of the petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage is given by the authors. On the basis of palynological investigation, the oil source rock of this oil-bearing region is tentatively discussed in this paper. The fossil pollen and spores found from the Tertiary petroleum in this region may be divided into two groups, because they are extremely different in fossilized state. The group of spores and pollen with higher fossilized state is mainly consisted of Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus, Gibotiumspora paradoxa, Monosulcites minimus and Bennettiteaepollenites sp. The other group comprises Pinus, Picea, Ephedra, Potamogeton, Lilium, Ulmus, Chenopodium, Nymphaea, Eutrema, Lens, Nitraria, Tamarix, Achillea, Artemisia, Solidago, Bidens, Graminidites, Cypheraceaepollis, etc. The above mentioned petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage of the tertiary oil reservoir rock is a gathering of fossil pollen and spores brought from the Lower Cretaceous deposits and the tertiary deposits respectively. The appearance of the Early Cretaceous pollen and spores bearing in the black shales of the Lower Xinminbu Formation in the tertiary petroleum may be considered to be a result of petroleum migration. And it reflects that the oil source rock might belong to Early Cretaceous Series. The fossil pollen and spores extracted from the Early Cretaceous petroleum in this region contain merely Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus, Monosulcites minimus, Bennettiteaepollenites sp., Psophosphaera, etc. The tertiary pollen and spores are completely absent there. So it indicates that both the oil source rock and the oil reservoir rock should belong to the fossil-bearing Lower Xinminbu Formation. In addition, there are some pollen of Monosulcites and Psophosphaera in the petroleum reserved in the fissures of the Silurian metamorphic rock. They are also probably brought from the Lower Xinminbu Formation by oil and gas in the process of their migration. In any case, judging from the pollen and spores found from the crude oil, the oil source rock of this oil-bearing region is deduced to be the black shales of the Lower Xinminbu Formation referred to as Early Cretaceous Epoch.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Eco-Geographical Rule of Stipeta Steppe on the Sungliao Plain
Author: Li Bo, Yong Shi-peng, Liu Zhung-ling, Sun Hong-liang and Zeng Si-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Acoording to the field investigation data, five species of Stipa in Sungliao Plain have been confirmed in this article, namely Stipa baicalensis, S. grandis, S. Krylovii, S. bungeana and S. breviflora. Except the last one all belong to the older section leiostipa. The five species of Stipa may all be deficated in Sungliao Plain, they form respectively the communities, with definite distribution limits. The former four formations bear clearly the zone significance. In this article the species composition, the ecological qualities and geographical distribution of communities have been comared and analyzed; and according to the difference of water and heat reflected by the different formation, the problem of the division of the vegetation region has been discussed. The facts have proved that, on the basis of Stipeta steppe distribution and the division of the vegetation region is consistent with the division of the natural complex. Thus, the difference of the vegetation and the land resources of Sungliao Plain are ascertained, and the theoretical basis is provided for the division of the natural region and the division of agricultural, forestal and animal husbandry region.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Acute Injury and Relative Resistance to Sulfur Dioxide of Trees and Shrubs for Greening
Author: Liu Yu-qin, Wu Gen-qian, Tan Chang and Yu Shu-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    In order to select trees and shrubs resistant to SO2 and to provide information concerning acute injury, fumigation experiments were carried out on 71 species common to the region of Shanghai at three seasons in the phytotron. Two identical dynamic fumigation cabinets were used. The branches detached from plants were fumigated for 6 hours at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The patterns of acute leaf injury and the seasonal variabilities of resistance to SO2 were observed and are described. Based on the estimated threshold value of leaf injury, the relative resistance to SO2 of the tested trees and shrubs can be grouped into 5 categories. The order of resistance is in the main in accordance with the field experience.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Identification of Alkaloids from Alangium salviifolium (Linn. F) Wangerin
Author: Chen Meng-jing, Hu Lin-lin and Zhu Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Four alkaloids have been isolated from branches of Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wanger. and identified as venoterpine, ankorine, cephaeline and psychotrine by m.p., elementary analysis and spectroscopic data. Among them, the monoterpenoid alkaloid venoterpine is not isolated so far from Alangiaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1984)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Essential Oils in the Leaves of Cinnamomum paucifiorum Nees
Author: Lin Zheng-kui and Hua Ying-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    This paper shows the chemical constituents of the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamoum pauciflorum Nees. By applying the techniques of fractional distillation, column chromatography, TlC, GC and IR, the following 13 components have been separated and identified: three monoterpenes每汐每pinene (1.28%), camphene (0.17%), and p-cymenc (0.14%); five oxygenated monoterpenes每1,8-cineole (0.85%), lina-lool (14.35%), 汐-terpineol (0.22%), safrole (69.70%) and eugenol (4.20%), two aldehyde compoundes每nonyladehyde (0.16%) and decytadehyde (0.40%); two sesquiter每pene每汕每caryophyllene (0.11%) and 汕每bisabolene (0.05%); one oxygenated sesquiter每pene-nerolidol (0.75%). In addition, the variations of the content of the major components of tile oils in various months have been determined.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of the Galactomannan Gums in 24 Seeds of Leguminosae
Author: Li Xin, Fan Ming-juan, Feng Lian-bin Shun Xue-qin amd Feng Yong-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1805)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Study of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch SEED coating polysaccharide and its sand-fixing test
Author: Wei Ming-shan and Tu Chuan zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1704)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of 2-Chloroethyl Trimetyl-Ammonium Chloride (CCC) on Water Status of Wheat under Different Water Regimes
Author: Wang Bao-min, Qin Xin and Lu Zhong-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
Abstract (Browse 1658)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Bovine Serum Albumin Incubation on Lettuce Chloroplasts Digested by Trypsin
Author: Zhou Pei-zhen, Li Liang-bi, Zhang Zheng-dong, Ma Gui-zhi, Li Shou-quan and Zhai Xiao-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    1. Bovine serum albumin stimulates the DCIP photoreduction activity of lettuce chloroplasts which has been treated with trypsin. When these chloroplast preparations were washed by tricine buffer such "reversible action" can still be obtained. It is possible that bovine serum albumin may be incorporated into trypsin destroyed site of the membrane. 2. Trypsin-induced CCCP inhibitory effect on DCIP photoreduction activity is reversed by bovine serum albumin. 3. Bovine serum albumin partially reverses the trypsin-induced unstacking of lettuce chloroplast membranes. 4. After trypsin digestion, there are absorbance decreases around 500每640 nm. Bovine serum albumin has no effect on these absorbance decreases. It is concluded that the membrane-bound proteins responsible for different functions of chloroplast are heterogeneous. The results also show that there are gate and channel near the position of PSj on chloroplast membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Activation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase by Thioredoxin
Author: Wu Guang-yao, Den Yue-fen and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    The activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) in the soluble part of ruptured chloroplasts was assayed spectrophotometrically by the oxidation of NADH, using ribose-5-phosphate as substrate. The reaction mixture used in this assay consisted of six enzymes, namely ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, rlbulose-5-phosphate Kinase, RuBPCase, 3-phosphoglyceric acid kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. By adding exogenous RuBPCaso into the reaction mixture, it was shown that the reaction catalyzed by RuBPCase was rate limiting during the course of assay. The activity of RuBPCase in the soluble part of ruptured chloroplasts was significantly enhanced by the addition of reduced thioredoxin (Td). Because the solution of reduced Td contained DTT which had been used as reductant, it was desirable to ascertain the degree of activation of RuBPCase brought about by DTT alone. Experiments showed Td to be far more effective than DTT in this respect. The results presented in this paper suggests a possible mechanism of the light-activation of RuBPCase, i.e. Td. is first reduced by light through photosystems in chloroplast lamellae, and then the reduced Td activates RuBPCase.
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Approach to Physiological Functions of Ethrel in the Ripening of Cotton Boll
Author: Shen Yue-qing, Fang Bing-chu and Sheng Min-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Both leaf and boll of cotton can absorb ethrel and the acceptor releases ethylene rapidly. Ethrel absorbed by leaves can release ethylene in bolls, whereas that absorbed by bolls cannot release ethylene in leaves. Bolls treated with ethrel has two peaks in ethylene releasing. The first peak appears about two days after treatment, and the second appears before the splitting of boll. The control has only one peak in ethylene releasing which appears eight days later than the second peak of the bolls treated with ethrel. This coincides with the fact that ethrel enables bolls to split seven to ten days earlier. The releasing of ethylene by cotton bolls is closely related to temperature, and is accelerated with increasing temperature no matter cotton bolls are treated with ethrel or not.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of the Harmful Gases SO2 and HF on plant Leaf Structure
Author: Qin Hui-zhen, Wu Zhu-jun, Wang Jia-xi, Qian Da-fu and Li Zheng-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    As the injury induced by S02 appears progressively, the cells contracted and became deformed, the protoplasm and the chloroplasts turned yellow-brown or collapsed while no effects were seen in the vascular bundles generally. Howewr, as the injury induced by HF appears progressively, the cells were not deformed immediately, the protoplasm became red-brown, the mesophyll cells adjacent to stomata or vascular bundles became red-brown too, there were no effects on chloroplasts, which did not collapse until the tissue necrosis appeared, the cells of xylem and phloem turned red-brown. The process of the injury to leaf structure induced by SO2 is discussed. It is observed that destruction of chlorophyll and the interruption of photosynthesis by SO2 took place first in the palisade tissue, whereas the contraction and disintegration of the cells first in the spongy tissue. The effect of HF to the contractive collapse of chlorophyll and mesophyll occurred after the influence on protoplasm appeared.
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Conducting Phloem in Relation with the Expropriation of Latex in Hevea brasiliensis
Author: Hao Bing-zhong, Wu Ji-lin and Yun Cui-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    1. In the bark of tapped trees, the thickness of the conducting phloem is less than 1 mm. Hence the conducting sieve tubes do not necessarily be cut off at the usual cutting depth required. The suggestion of conserving the conducting phloem during tapping is desirable and practicable. 2. Although the sieve tubes are not cut off directly during tapping, the outer part of the sieve tube layer at/near the gapping cut will be collapsed as a result of the damaging effect from tapping. This has revealed the actual process of the destruction in the sieve tubes during tapping.
Abstract (Browse 1794)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in Fertilization of Fokienia
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Material of Fokienia hodginsii was collected in 1964 from Fengyangshan (alt. 1000每1400 M) in Lungchuan county, Chekiang province. This paper deals with the fertilization in Fokienia. It includs the structure of male and female gametes as wed1 as the process of fusion of their nuclei and cytoplasm respectively. The division of the spermatogenous cell of Fokienia occurred by the end of June (1964) and two sperms similar in shape and size were formed when pollen tube reached the top of archegonia. Two equalsperms look like two hemispherical bodies conjoined togather. The sperm possesses cell wall and is about 65 米 in diameter. Its nucleus is rather large and about 45每50 米 in diameter. There is a nucleolus in the nucleus. Outside the nucleus the dense cytoplasm forms the deep colored zone, some 10 米 in thickness. This zone is separated from the nucleus by a narrow perinuclear zone, and from the plasmalemma by a marginal zone. The perinuclear zone is about 2 米 thick, and the mariginal zone is from 3 to 4 米 thick. Both zones have transparent cytoplasm. When the archegonium is formed, the central cell has a small nucleus which is located below the neck ceils. At the middle of June (1964), the central cell divides to form the ventral nucleus and the egg nucleus. The egg nucleus sites primarily at the upper part of archegoninm and has only one nucleolus. Then the egg nucleus increases gradually in sim and moves to the central part of the archegoninm. In mature archegonium there are usually 4每5, rarely 6每7 nucleoli in the egg nucleus, each of them is about 15 米 in diameter. The egg cell in Fokienia hodginsii is about 500 in length. The female nucleus is larger than the male one. After egg cell matures, its cytoplasm increases gradually, while the central vacuole decreases gradually and almost disappears completely after fertilization. It is interesting to note that there are 1每2 dense cytoplasm masses at the upper or lower part of egg nucleus. The shape of the mass is similar to that of the egg nucleus but no membrane is formed. These cytoplasm masses are about 50每70 米 in diameter in some cases. The fertilization of Fokienia took place at the end of June when the growing tip of pollen tube had reached the top of the archegoninm. Then the neck cells become disorganized and degenerated. It is possible that all the cytoplasmic contents of pollen tubes are released into the archegoninm. Before fertilization, the cytoplasm around the sperms and sterile cell and tube nucleus are in front of these two sperms. Then the sperms separate from each other and come down into the cytoplasm of the egg. When the mede nucleus contacts with the egg nucleus, both become flattened along their contact surface. Then the nuclear membranes of both sperm and egg nuclei become ultimately disintegrated. Thus the fusion process is complete. However, it is nia, though the opposite is the case in an exceptional example. When the sperm nucleus passes into the cytoplasm of egg cell, its cytopasm is released inside the archegonium along with it. During the course of fusion of the male and female nuclei, tile fertilized nucleus is surrounded by both female and male cytoplasm. Thus the male cytoplasm along with the peripheral cytoplasm of the egg cell invests the two nuclei lying in contact and forms a dense neocytoplasm. When the zygote divides, the neoeytoplasm is full of the starch grains and a dense cytoplasm sheath is formed. After fertilization, the fused nucleus moves toward the base of the egg cell. It seems that the movement of the fused nucleus is not a simple mechanical movement but turned over repeatedly toward the base of the arehegonium. Sometimes the position of the sperm and egg nuclei makes a turn of 180. At the same time the track of the fertilized egg nucleus with vacuoles in the archegonium may be traced. After zygote moves into basal part of the archegonium, first intranuclear mitosis occurs. The nuclear envelop of zygote disappears gradually at the telophase of the first mitosis. Then division of the free nuclei of proembryo follows. From fertilization to the stage of proembryo formation, the second sperm may sometimes enter into the cytoplasm of the egg cell. Mitosis of the second sperm nucleus may take place in the upper part of the archegonium. In addition, there are often several supernmnerary nuclei (as many as 7每8 in number) in the same egg cell. These nuclei are also surrounded by dense cytoplasm. They may persist for some time and be recognizable at somewhat later stages of the proembryo or even after the elongated suspensors are formed. In some cases, there are some cell groups above the upper tier of proembryo. These cell groups are also surrounded by dense cytoplasm. Either the supernumerary nuclei or cells are surrounded by the dense cytoplasm. Probably they are derived from the mitosis or amitosis of the second sperm. Investigations on submicroscopic structures of sperm and egg in relation to the fertilization of Cupressaceae have been carried out extensively during the last decade. The fate of male cytoplasm has been debated for a long time and this problem attracted attention again in the nineteen seventies. At last the concept of neocytoplasm has been established soundly based upon the information from observation of electron microphotographs. The neocytoplasm is also visible under the light microscope though the components are not recognizable. The sperms of Fokienia are similar to those of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, Sabina virginiana, Tetraclinis articulata, Chamaecyparis pisifera as well as the genus Thujopsis and others. Two sperms are all effective in fertilization and this is the common phenomenon of the family Gupressaceae.
Abstract (Browse 2553)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation between Cytomixis and Variation of Chromosome Numbers in Pollen Mother ceils of Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Author: Cheng Kuo-chang, Nie Xiu-wan, Wang Yi-xiu and Yang Qing-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    Cytomixis is a spontaneous and normal process occurring through the formation of plasma channels between neighbouring pollen mother cells (PMCs). This phenomenon was observed in the PMCs of 2 variaties of Secale cereale which had been collected from Gausu and Shanxi Provinces. The process had led to the formation of up to 6.37% of PMCs with chromosome numbers deviating from the normal haploid number n=7. The abnormal PMCs contained chromosome numbers ranging from 5每9 in metaphase i. Abnormal PMCs with decreased and increased chromosome numbers could be the result of cytomixis. The cytological consequences and the evolutionary significance of cytomixis are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anther Culture and Androgenesis of Hordeum Vulgare L.
Author: Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    This paper reports our preliminary experimental results of barley anther culture. The results so far obtained suggested that N6 (or LS) medium supplemented with 12% sucrose, 1 ppm IAA, 1 ppm BAP and 0.5 ppm MCPA (or 2,4-D) is suitable for barley anther culture. Hormone-free culture allows callus and embryoid production. However, exogenous hormones have a significant beneficial effect. Anther of 54 cultivars were cultured and their induction frequency was compared. In most of cultivars the value was low, but several highly responsive cultivars were found out. In general, the more responsive cultivars belong to 2-rowed types and tho 4- or 6-rowed types are less responsive (Table 1). Microscopical observations made on 36 cultivars revealed that percentage of anthers containing multinucleate and/or multicellular grains are higher than the final induction frequency, indicating the potentiality of callus production in most of cultivars (Table 2). There are three pathways of pollen and rogenesis in barley, i.e. division of vegetative nucleus (Plate i, 2每8), division of Vegetative and generative nucleus (Plate i, 9每12) and equal division of the microspore (Plate i, 13每18). Each pathway involves free-nucleate and cellular types. There are two patterns in cellular types of development: (1) cells remain meristematic for a long time; (2) cells vacuolate, early. The free-nucleate type and the "vacuolate" cellular patterns, in comparison with the "meristematic" cellular pattern, generally fail in their further development. The developmental rate and the ploidy status in anther culture of barley were also mentioned. The problem of relatively low induction frequency in most of cultivars is discussed. Question is focussed on the cause of abortion of multinucleate and multicellular grains. It is believed that, the initial developmental pattern may play an important role in determing their future fate.
Abstract (Browse 1705)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Flavonoids of Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge
Author: Guo Sen-lin and Liu Yong-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(3)
    From EToAc extracts of over-ground parts of Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge, 2 flavonoide compounds, were isolated and identified as luteolin-7-O-汕-D-glucopyrano-side and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide by their chemical studies and spectral analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       


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