April 1980, Volume 22 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil from the Rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz
Author: Liu Guo-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1606)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of Chloroplast Membrane IV. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of Wheat Thylakoid Membrane
Author: Li Tong-zhu, Hao Nai-bin, Lou Shi-qing, Zhang Qi-de, Lin Shi-qing and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1607)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paper Chromatographic Determination of Optimum Methods for Extraction of Plant Constituents
Author: Chen Ying-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    A paper chromatographic method for the determination of suitable conditions for extraction of plant constituents is presented in this paper. The steps taken in the method are as follows: 1. Determining the optimum solvent systems from paper-chromatographic data. 2. Determination of separation method according to the separation factor 汕. 3. Determining the suitable volumes of solvents from the volume ratio R. 4. Calculating transfer number N for counter current distribution. It was used in determining the optimum procedure for the separation of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, esculetin, esculin and other natural compounds.
Abstract (Browse 1852)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Weight and Chemical-Modifications of the Gum from the Seeds of Sesbania cannabina (RETZ.) PERS
Author: Huang Qi-hua, Gao Wen-shu, Shi Wan-yang and Fan Ming-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    The water-soluble polysaccharide is isolated and purified from the seeds of Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers. Its physiochemical properties are investigated. The purified preparation seems to be homogeneous after ultra-centrifugation. The sedimentation coefficient of the gum obtained from alcoholic purification is 4.71 S, its intrinsic viscosity is 5.93 dl/g and its molecular weight is estimated to be 391,000. When it is obtained from copper alcoholic purification, however, its sedimentation coefficient is 2.82 S, its intrinsic viscosity 2.44 dl/g and its molecular weight 206,000. Several derivatives of the gum have been prepared, including carboxymethylated gum, hydroxyethylated gum and carboxymethylhydroxyethylated gum.
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Discovery of Microflora from the Maantang Formation in the North-West Sichuan Basin and Its Significance
Author: LU Meng-ning and Wang Ruo-Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    In this article a microflora discovered in the marine sediment of early Late Triassic at the North-West Sichuan Basin has been described. The samples studied were collected in 1974每1976 from Maantang Formation near Maantang Railway Station in Jiangyou Xian of Sichuan Sheng. Co existing with the microflora found abundant invertebrate fauna of Canic stage, such as Ammonites, matinc Bivalves, Foraminifera, Conodonts. This microflora is characterized by the peculiar zonate spores and numerous acritarchs, including 33 genera and 57 species, among which 4 genera and 20 species are new. The spores are characterized by the abundance of Dictyophyllidites, by the diminution of the zonate spores which are Corollisporites (gen. nov.), Bulbisporites (gen. nov.), Habrozonosporites (gen. nov.), and Compactisporites (gen. nov.), and by the presence of Marattisporites, Annulispora, Lycopodiaciditcs, Zebrasporitcs, Kraeuse- lisporites. The pollen grains are characterized by the abundance of Granosaccus, Verrusaccus Ricciisporites, Taeniaesporites, and by the presence of Ovalipollis, Luecki-sporitcs, Protohaploxypinus. The acritarchs are characterized by the abundance of Micrhystridium, by the diminution of Baltisphaeridium, Veryhachium, Lciopsopho-sphaera. Based on the assemblage feature shown in present microflora samples and associated occurrence of the marine invertebrate fauna (Protrachyceras sp., Buchites sp., Kumatrigonia sp., Halobia austriaca, H. rugosa, Aulotortus bronimanni, Trocholina acuta, Neogondolella polygnatiformis, etc.) the age of Maantang microflora may be considered as early Late Triassic.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Discussion on the Border Line of Vegetational Regions of Xinganling Mountain in China
Author: Xu Wen-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    The present paper described the border line of vegetation regions of Xinganling Mts. in China. The border line between the larch (Larix dahurica) forest region and pine (Pinus koraiensis) broalleaved mixed forest region determined according to the materials of survey of field work are Aihui-Naheko-Menluhe. The main reasons for the line are as follows: (1) pine broal-leaved mixed forest as the zonal vegetation of lesser Xinganling Mrs. is mainly covering in the south of the line, but Oak (Quereus mongolica)-larch forest in the north of the line; (2) Though Oak forest is widely distributed in both the south and the north of the line, there are well-marked differences in constitutions, structures, originations as well as growth between them; (3) differences in floristic compositions between the south and the north of the line; (4) different artificial vegetation between to regions. Such differences are caused by climatic, earth elevation and glacial activity, etc.
Abstract (Browse 1665)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship between the Effects of Cytokinin on the Expension and Metabolism of Excised Cucumber Cotyledons and Water Stress
Author: Tong Zhe, Lian Han-ping, Song Yan-ru, TaG Guo-qing, Chen Hui-ying and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    Excised cucumber (Cucumis sativus, var. Jin-ian No. 4) cotyledons were incubated with 10 ppm of BA (benzyladenine) or water for 1 h, then thouroughly rinsed with water and grown in darkness on filter paper saturated with different concentrations of mannitol solution. Up to 24 h, the fresh weight, carotenoid, RNA, DNA and lipid contents of cotyledons were determined. Although mannitol solution reduced the effectiveness of BA treatment, in the same condition of osmotic potential, the increases of fresh weight, carotenoid, RNA and DNA contents, as well as the decrease of lipid per cotyledon were always much higher in BA treated tissues. BA enhanced the rate of water uptake by the cotyledons. The fresh weight of BA and 0.2 M mannitol treated cotyledons was equal to that of water control, but the increases of carotenoid and nucleic acid contents and the decrease of lipid were much higher in tho former than the latter. 0.3 M and 0.5 M mannitol solu- tions almost interrupted the water uptake of water and BA treated cotyledons respectively. However, the increases of carotenoid and nucleic acid contents as well as decrease of lipid were still occurred in these conditions. The different osmotic potential did nearly not affect the ratio of the increases of carotenoid and nucleic acid contents between BA treatment and control. It means the effectiveness of BA was almost the same under different osmotic potential It is evident that BA stimulated simultaneously the water uptake and metabolism of the cotyledons. They are probably different processes but closely related to each other.
Abstract (Browse 1790)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Different Ammonium Salts on Formation of Maize Pollen Embryoid
Author: Ming Shu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    There are more than 80% embryoids among the induced masses in anther culture; different ammonium salts produced different effects on the formation of embryoids, and the effect of NH4H2PO4 is better than the others, within the range of the concentrations used. When the combinations of KNO3 With NH4H2PO4 act as the nitrogen source the frequencies of formation of embryoids and calli increase with the increase of NO3每/NH4+ ratio, at NO3每/NH4+ = 6:1, the frequency is the highest, but at 8:1, it decreases. In the treatments of lower total nitrogen (22.5每37.5 mN/L), the induction frequency is higher (3%每12%) than those of higher total nitrogen (45每60 mN/L). It has also been discussed that the different materials responded to the same ammonium salt, that the same material responded to different NO3每/NH4+ ratio.
Abstract (Browse 1654)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Fructose-l,6-Diphosphatase (FDP-ASE) in Chloroplasts II. Activation of Chloroplast FDPase in Vitro
Author: Li Xi-jing, Yuan Xiao-hua and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    The purified chloroplast FDPase was activated by preiaeubation with DTT or NADH, which was then removed by Sephadex G-25 column and the activated enzyme was obtained by elution. The effect of the pH value of preincubating medium and some reducing or oxdizing agents on FDPase activation as well as the time course of activation during preincubation were investigated. It was found that strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT), NADH or Na2S2O4 could all activate chloroplast FDPase, whereas oxidizing agents such as cystine, NAD+, FMN (oxidized form) and Vitamin Ks could all inhibit the activity of the activated FDPase almost completely. However, the degree of activation was strictly dependent on pH of the preincubation medium, the activety at pH 7.8 was 4.7 times higher than that at pH 5.5. The course of activation was rather quick, after only 30 s preincubation with DTT, the activity of FDPase was up to one half of its maximum value. On gel electrophoresis, the absorbance profile of strips of the activated enzyme was different from that of non-activated one. As a result, the two strips of the latter seemed to be combined into a sharp strip in the activated one. This phenomenon might be the cause of the activation of this enzyme. The present study has demonstrated that chloroplast FDPase can directly be regulated by certain physiological redox effectors. This will perhaps contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of light activation and dark inactivation of FDPase within chloroplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1671)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Anatomical Structure of Culms of Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H. de Lehaie
Author: Hsiung Wen-yue, Qiao Shi-yi and Li You-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    A culm consists of the rind, basic and vascular systems. The rind system is composed of epidermis, hypodermis and cortex which are of small, thick-walled and well packed cells and mainly functions as an outer wall to protect the culm tissues. The basic system is made up of ground tissue and pith-ring. Pith-ring is the inner wall of the culm consisting of several layers of densely arranged, highly lignified cells. Between the rind system and pith-ring is the ground tissue in which collateral vascular bundles are well embedded. Vascular bund]es are well developed with four fibre caps, two lateral on either side of vessels and two polar, one outside the phloem and the other around the intercellular space. All of them function effectively in fixing the conductive elements in position and strengthening the ground tissue around within the culm wall. Vessels and sieve tubes are of vital importance to bamboo life, but partially blocked and eventually lose their conductivity due to deposition of tylosis that may cause death of the aged culms. All cells are strictly axially arranged within the internodes of culm, but become highly modified in the nodes. During intercalary growth of bamboo shoot the vascular bundles of a sheath are connected with those of the culm periphery and become abscissed off to form a sheath scar around the node after cessation of the growth. Inside the periphery, vascular bundles are variably crooked, branched or reunited in the node which becomes causatively swollen, especially in the joint of side branches. Some nodal bundles bend radially inward to pass into the diaphragm where they are irregularly interwoven within the ground tissue, play an important role in transverse conduction and provide mechanical support of the culm.
Abstract (Browse 2165)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes in Leaf Cells of Wheat Varieties with Different Cold Resistance after Freezingthawing of the Plants
Author: Dong He-zhu, Sun Long-hun and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    After the plants of three wheat varieties with different cold resistance were frozen for two days at 每9 ⊥ and then thawed at room temperature, the freezing injury and recovery expression of shoots and ultrastluctural changes of their leaf cells were compared. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The fine structure in leaf cells of hardy variety Nongke No. 1 did not produce visible ohanges, and the plants recovered to normal morphology immediately after thawing. The cell ultrastructure of mediate-hardy variety Zhengzhou No. 741 showed significant changes which were reversible. The chloroplasts became round by different degrees, parallel arrangement of the lamellae in chloroplast was altered, and the thylakoid produced some vesicles, but the chloroplast envelope was still intact. The tonoplast exhibited infolded and engulfed structure. Nuclear ehromatin was coagulated to form bigger mass. The fine structure in leaf cells of non-hardy variety Jinghong No. 8 was severely destroyed. The chloroplasts were disintegrated. A lot of vesicles were formed in cytoplasm and nuclei. Mitochondria cristae were also disrupted. These changes are irreversible and lead to death of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1728)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetational and Climatic Changes in the Past 30,000-10,000 Years in Beijing
Author: Kong Zhao-chen amd Du Nai-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    This paper is based on the informations of the sporopollen assemblages of 52 samples obtained from the Fenzhuang field outcrop and its drilling core near Zhoukoudian in the vicinity of Beijing. About 30,000 years ago of the Dali glacial period, spruce-fir forests became predominant in the low land and the plain in Beijing. At that time the annual mean temperature was about 7 ⊥ lower than that of the present. Based on the characteristics of Fenzbuang sporo-pollen assemblages four zones may be subdivided in ascending order as follows: 1. In the first zone (Fi), the herbaceous plants, such as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae, etc., were predominant. The climate was rather dry and cold. 2. In the second zone (Fj), the vegetation during the past 22000每13000 years was dominate of a subalpine conifer forest, consisting of Picea, Abics, Larix, etc., Water plants Myriophyllum, Typha, Sparganium and some members of Cyperaeeae and Green algae, Mougeotia, Zygnema apparently increased. Annual mean temperature was lower than that of the present. The climate was wet with an annual precipitation about 800每1000 mm and cool. 3. In the third zone (Fk), the vegetation was represented by a warm temperate forest, predominant of Pinus, Tilia, Selaginella sinensis and Typha. The climate of Beijing was rather wet, with an annual mean precipitation more than that of the present, and warm. The Lakes and bogs were better developed. According to the temperature increasing at this zone, we think the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary should be maked at about 12000 B.P. 4. In the Zone l (Fl), Tilia was still flourishing and the water plants were better developed at his initial stage but afterwards they were obviously reduced, since 10000 years ago.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Pollen Morphology and Its Systematic Position in the Order Piperales
Author: Xi Yi-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    The pollen morphology of 25 species and 10 genera of Piperales (Chloranthaceae, Piperaceae and Saururaceae) has been examined under light microscope, of which 7 species were observed under scanning electron microscope and 1 species, Hedyosmum orentale Merr. & Chun transmision electron microseope. Three principal types of pollen were found: anasulcate (mostly) (sometime trichotomosulcate), inaperturate (partly) and multicolpoidate (partly). The present article has discussed the palynological data mainly in relation to the classification and the systematic position of Cbloranthaceae and also deals with the systematic position of the order Piperales. The present author agrees to put the family Chloranthaceae into the order Piperales. Because this family differs from Piperaceae and Saururaceae in pollen morphology, therefore, Chloranthaceae should raise to the level of suborder. Among three families of the order Piperales, the present author considers Chloranthaceae to be the most primitive family, on account of the following reasons: 1. The family Chloranthaceae shows the characteristics of primitive entomophilous plants in the sculpture of exine, while in the other two families, Piperaceae and Saururaceae, their exine is almost smooth and represents wind-pollenated plants; 2. Pollen of the family Chloranthaceae are larger than those of Piperaceae and Saururaceae; 3. The fossil pollen Clavatipollenites has been proved to be one of the most primitive angiosperms on the earth, that it is known, it occurred in the early Cretaceous, and at that time ferns and gymnosperms were predominant, while the Chloran- thaceae has already existed at that time; 4. Sarcandra of Chloranthaceae possesses the characters of a vesselless secondary xylem and a delayed development of embryo. Thus, Chloranthaceae would be considered as the most primitive family in the order Piperales. The systematic position of the order Piperales is also discussed. Itutehinson makes a point that order Ranales is more primitive than Piperales, and his system is arranged in the following order: Ranales ↙ Piperales ↙ to climax family Chloranthaceae. This view-point, however, is net supported by the palynological data. Pollen morphology shows that Piperales is more primitive than Ranales, because the pollen in Piperales possess the ancient aperture type of Pteridospermes, i.e., the type of anasulcate aperture is prevailing in Piperales, moreover, pollen grains of Ranales are mainly tricolpate type, and tricolpate pollen is a characteristic of typical angiosperms. In addition, the Piperales possesses a series of characters that are common among monocots, but rare among dicots. As the divergence between dicer and monocot took place in the early Cretaceous, their ancestor possesses common chararcters both of dicots and monocots while the extant Piperales still possess many characters of monocots that indicate it is much nearer to the point of divergence, and it explains that the Piperales is closely related to the ancestor of monocots and dicers Piperales, therefore, is more primitive than Ranales.
Abstract (Browse 2102)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Induction of Pollen Sporophyte of Coix lacryma Jobic L.
Author: Wang Jing-ju, Chu Zhi-ging and Sun Jing-san
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    The developmental pathways of pollen sporophyte in anther culture of Coix were observed. The types of androgenesis are different, and are relative to the degree of the differentiation in pollen cells. Pollen-inductors develop via multicellular mass into embryoids or calli. Both of them can develop into plantlets, but the frequency of the regeneration of the plantlets in calli is higher than that of in embryoids, because there are a lot of aberrant embryoids in the latter, which cannot develop further. It was found that the induction frequency of the polleninductors can be increased apparently by the pretreatment in a short time with a hypertonic sucrose solution. The chromosomes of the somatic cells in l0 plantlets were examined. It was found that all the plantlets derived from the embryoids are haploids, while there are haploid, diploid and mixoploid in the plantlets from the calli. The effects of anther wall cells and the stability of haploid cells were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Organogenesis of Leaf Explant of Populus davidiana(bolleana Loucne Hybrid and Effect of Growth Regulators on Organogenesis
Author: Chen Wei-lun, Guo Dong-hong, Yang Shan-ying and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    This report describe the organogenesis of Populus davidiana ℅ P. bolleana Loucne hybrid leaf explant from plantlet in vitro and the effects of different factors on its organogenesis. It was found that shoot induction of lower leaf segments with petiole was easier than those of the middle and top segments. When leaf explants were in- cubated on a MS midium with eytokinin (zeatin l℅l0-6 M每2℅10-6 M or benzyladenine 2 ℅ 10-6 M) and auxin (IAA 4 ℅ 10-8 M每1 ℅ 10-6 M or NAA, NAAoxy 4 ℅ 10-8 M每4 ℅ 10-7 M), the frequeney of shoot differentiation would be 70%每100%. Kinetin had no activity on shoot formation and 2, 4-D showed serious inhibition. ABA, GA3, and Ethrel all prevented shoot production. Since higher frequency of shoot differentiation could be obtained, a lot of shoots were produced cneach leaf explant and shoots could be proliferated by axillary buds, so this system could be used for rapid propagation.
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of 60Co Gamma Irradiation on the Storage of Chinese Chestnut Fruits
Author: Zhu Guo-xin, Dai Qiong-ling, Xu Yao-chang and Luo Si-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Storage Leaf of Allium sativum L.
Author: Zhou Yun-luo, Qian Ying-qian, Cai qi-gui and Wu Su-xuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Studytion Vegetation Regionalism in Loess Plateau of the North Shanxi Sheng
Author: Zou Hou-yuan, Liang Yi-min and Sun Gian-ting
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Ultrastructure of Chloroplast for Different Varieties of Tea
Author: Yan Xiue-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1611)  |  Full Text PDF       
To Repeat the Effects of Hormones on the Early Microspore Developments of Wheat in Vitro in Anther Culture
Author: Pan Jing-li and Gao Gong-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1980 22(4)
      
    1. The normal development of pollen cells can be transformed by the exoision itself of anther culture: The second mitotic division of pollen grains has been prevented; The frequency of anomalous division of pollen grains was higher than that present in anthers in vive; The generative nuclei after the first mitosis were more or less globular in form and in their subsequent developments most of them do not become spindly-shape which is particular to the generative cells in vive. In the meantime, they show a weak staining reaction with Feulgen reagent. 2. The higher concentrations of hormones were found to enhance the frequency of abnormal division obviously. Of anthers cultured on the four N6 media added with various concentration ratios of IAA to Kinetin 2:10, 10:2, 2:12, and 12:2 mg/l. The mean percentages of abnormal pollen grains were 34.02%, 35.28%, 34.27% and 36.65% respectively. 3. The higher hormone level may promote the formation of multicellular pollen grains obviously. When the IAA concentration was raised up to 12 mg/l, the mean multieellular pollen grain yields per anther increased to 13.3 unit, while the control without hormone was only 4 unit.
Abstract (Browse 1688)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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