March 1981, Volume 23 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Cytologial Studies on the Effects of Low Temperature on Microspore Formation and Development in Rice
Author: Li Rong-qian, Zeng Zi-shen and Liu Li-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
Abstract (Browse 1678)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations of Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Some Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistant and Susceptible Rice Varieties
Author: Wu Gong-zhen and Chen Su-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Bud Formation on Callus of Cathaya argyrophylla
Author: Chen Wei-lun and Gun Dong-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Plants of Lycium Obtained from Anther Culture
Author: Gu Shu-nong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Discovery of Palaeostachya from Lower Shihhotse Formation of Taiyuan in Shanxi
Author: Hu Yu-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    Ch. E. Weiss established the genus Palaeostachya in 1876, This genus represents the strobilus of Calamites. As a kind of reproductive organ, the Palaeostachya was first proposed to name Volkmannia by Sternberg but later had been renamed to Palaeostachya by Weiss (1876). In this paper two new species of Palaeostachya, Palaeostachya plagiobracteata sp. nov. and Palaeostachya densibrateata sp. nov., were collected from Lower Shihhotse formarion of Taiyuan in Shanxi Province, and they are described here. Palaeostachya plagiobracteata sp. nov. is a very interesting strobilus, of which both basal and upper parts are not preserved. The specimen of the strobilus is about 2.5 cm long and 1.2 cm in the greatest dismeter. Bracts which extend horizontally from the axis and then turn upward are well preserved. Two rows of them are rather conspicuously. Bract is about 4 mm. long, upper part is about 1 mm. Axis is about 2 mm in width. Four rows of sporangia are distinctly around the axis. The sporangia are sessile, rather large, oblong-ovate in shape, and attach directly to the basal part of bract in an axillary position. Horizon and Locality: Lower Shihhotse formation. Tungshan, Taiyuan, Shanxi. Palaeostachya densibracteata sp. nov. is an important strobilus, of which basal and tip parts are very well preserved. The basal part of sterigma of strobilus is preserved. There are many lepidosomes on the sterigma. Lepidosome is about 3 mm in width and its tip is well preserved. Strobilus is similar to ear of corn in shape about 3 cm long, 1.5 cm. in width. Bracts are well preserved. Six rows of them are more conspicuously in the specimen. The bracts extend horizontally from the axis and then turn upward nearly parallel with the axis. The tip part of each bract appears short triangle, but basal part is contiguous. Sporangia are not preserved in the specimen. Horizon and Locality: Lower Shihhotse formation; Tungshan, Taiyuan, Shanxi.
Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Sporo-Pollen Assemblage of the red Beds of Nandian in Lancang of Yunnan
Author: Lei Zuo-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The Red Beds of Nandian consists mainly of red mud stone, marlite, quartzitic sand- stanc, Sabulous psephyte and fine psephyte. Predecessor divided them into three formations referring to Upper Triassic-Jurassic. The marlite in Upper Formation of the Red Beds are rich in fossil Sporo-pollen. The fossil spores and pollen contain 17 genera and 15 species, including 3 new species and 2 new combinations. The Sporo-pollen assemblage is characterized by the absolut predominance of the pollen of gymnospcrms (84.8%) compared with the spores of pteridophyta (15.2%), The pollen are specially characterized by the abundance of Classeopollis Pfiug (75.3%) with a certain amount of Psophosphaera (4.5%), Monosulites (2.4%) and a minority of Pinuspollenites (0.6%). The spores grains are characterized by the abundance of Cyathidites (4.1%), and also by presence of Calamospora (2.1%), Reticulatisporitcs (2.4%), Indeterminable form (1.2%), and rare Schizaeisporites (0.3%). Based on the sporo-pollen assemblage of Upper Jurrassic of the Eurasia continent is characterized by the absolute abundance of Classpollis Pflug (>50% of the total number), the Upper Formation oi the Red Beds of Nandian may be referred to Upper Jurassic age. The climate of the Nandian region in the Late Jurassic period is supposed to be as arid as that of Africa at the present time. Bundary of the eastern termination of southern part of the Eurasia continent in- ferred by Vakhrameev (1970) should be complemented.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary study on the Vertical Belts of Vegetation of the Eastern Himalayas
Author: Zheng Du and Chen Wei-lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The horizontal differentiation of vegetation is very conspicuous, on both the south and the north slopes of the Himalayas. The Eastern Himalayas are the most humid part of the mountain system, being mainly covered by forests. The tropieal forest stretches the south slope of the mountain as far north as 29˚ N, mueh beyond the ordinary boundary of tropieal forest in other parts of the world. On the north slope, the vegetation shows a transition from forest to steppe. In general, 4 vertical spectra of vegetation zones may be recognized in tile Eastern Himalayas with two on either slope. On the south the basic belts of the spectra are respeetively (1) tropical evergreen rainforest plus semievergreen rainforest (humid) and (2) tropical rainforest plus monsoon deciduous forest (subhumid). On the north, the respective basic belts are (3) montane needle and broad-leaf mixed forest (subhumid) and (4) montane shrubby steppe (semiarid). The 4 altogether indicate the regional differentiation of vegetation in the Eastern Himalayas, according to different climatic conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan and Li Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The flowers of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic have curative effect in the treatment of chronic bronchitis patients and toothache. Five flavonoid compounds have been isolated from the flower of this plant and identified as quercetin-3-robinobioside, quercctin- 3-glucosidc, hyperin, quercetin and myricetln respectively, according to spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, NMR), preparation of derivatives, acid hydrolysis and determination of physico-chemical constants. The quercetin-3-robinobioside and the qucrcctin-3-glucoside are not isolated so far from Abelmoschus.
Abstract (Browse 2381)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloids of Cyclea hainanensis Merr
Author: Zhang Xian-xing, Tang Zong-jian, Gao Yao-liang, Chen Rong, Lan Al-ha and Wang Chang-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    Seven alkaloids have been isolated from the over ground parts of Cyclea hainanensis Merr (Menispermaceae) grown in Hainan is]and. Six of them are identified to be (-) curine (), (+)-4"-O-methylcurine (), hayatine (), d-isochondodendrine (), -cyclanoline (), and a new quaternary alkaloid named -hainanine () respectively. Alkaloid () is being identified. Dimethiodide and Dimethochloride derivatives of alkaloids ()() show neuromuscular blocking activity, but disochondodendrine hydrochloride possesses distinct analgesia.
Abstract (Browse 2694)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oils of the Flowers of Aglaia odorata Lour
Author: Lin Zheng-hui, Hun Ying-fang and Gu Yu-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    This paper shows the chemical constituents of the essential oils from the flowers of Aglaia odorata Lour. By applying gas-liquid chromatography, TLC, IR, UV, MS and NMR, the following 21 components have been separated and identified: hendecane, linalool, decyladehyde, copaene, -caryophyllend, -humulene, -elemene, -selinene, humuladienone, humulene epoxide , tridecanic acid methyl ester, -humulene-7-ol, -humu- lene-7-ol acetate, juniper camphor, heptadecane, khusol acetate, oetadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, heneicosane and docosane, among which -humnlene-7-ol is expressive of a graceful odor of Aglaia odorata. In addition, the content of the various chemical components of the said oils produced in Zhangzhou, Fushou and Chongqing has been determined.
Abstract (Browse 3249)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation of Cold Tolerance at Different Growth Stages in Rice
Author: Li T. G., R. M. Visperas and B. S. Vergara
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    Cold injury which influence rice production in different rice growing countries occurs at various growth stages. The degree of cold injury depends on the air or water temperature, the cropping pattern, the growth stage of the rice and other factors. It is generally accepted that cold tolerance of rice at one stage is different from another stage. However, Okabe and Toriyama reported that varieties seem to respond similarly to cold temperature at different growth stages. Some varieties have been found to be tolerant at different growth stages. The purpose of this experiment is to find whether cold tolerance scores at different growth stages of different kinds of rice are correlated or not.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Experiments in the Translocation of Organic Substances in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
Author: Xu Dong-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    Translocation and accumulation of organic substance in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, an oil tree species widely distributed in North China, have been studied by ringing method and 32P tracer technique. It was found that the organic nutrients for the growth of new shoots, new leaves, flowers and fruitlets all came from the reserves in branches, trunk and root system in the previous year. Foods synthesized in the newly formed mature leaves were translocated partly to fruits and apical bud of the same branch and partly to other branch, trunk and root system. Translocation of foods synthesized in the leaves to the growing fruits stopped about half a month before fruit maturation, they were translocat to other branches, trunk, root system and buds instead. This was apparently necessary for the growth and differentiation of flowers and fruits next year.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
A study of Foliar Anatomy of Gnetum parvifolium
Author: Wu Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The present research was undertaken to examine the foliar anatomy of Gnetum parvifolium (Warb.) C. Y. Cheng ex Chun. It is hoped that the observations may contribute to provide additional evidence for identification on Chinese species of this genus. A special morphological features inside of epidermal anticlinal wall designated here as the globose cuticular sac, and is the special feature of this epidermis not yet reported in this genus. During the course of an investigation on sclereid type of leaf in this species I observed the striking type of these cells in cleared leaf preparations, viz. filiform sclereids (368C624 m long, 10 m broad), one not hitherto described for any other species in this genus.
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Micro-and Mega-Sporogenesis and the Formation of Male and Female Gametophytes in Gastrodiadata Blume
Author: Liang Han-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The present paper deals with the morphogenesis of the micromegaspore and the formation of male and female gametophytes in Gastrodia elata Blume. The embryo sac is originated from the chalazal megaspore of a triad. In the mature embryo sac, the egg apparatus and the single polar nucleus are derived from the four microphylar nuclei. These two chalazal once are disappered before the maturation of the embryo sac. It is a simplified form of the Polygonum type. The origin and the formation of the male gametophyte in Gastrodia elata are similar to that of the Orchidaceous in general. The tetrads of each anther are adhered and become into massulae. The extent range of the adherent are gcnerally from hundreds to more or less one thousand. A preliminary observation are revealed by the writer under the fluorescence microscope relating to the variation of the components of their cell walls during the different stage of the sporogenesis as well as the formation of the male gametophyte. In this papre, the signifieancc of the existence of pollinia substanee arounding the massulae as well as the temporal occurance callour of the generative cell have been disseussed.
Abstract (Browse 2075)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Observation of Assimilating Branches of Nine Xerophytes in Gansu
Author: Lee Cheng-lee and Li Rong-ao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    The nine xerophytes grown in Gansu, i.e. Haloxylon persicum Bge., H. ammodendron Bge., Calligonum junceum Litw., C. arborescens Litw., C. leucocladum Bge., C. mongolicum Turcz., C. caput-medusae Schrenk, Hedysarum scoparium Fisch. et Mey. and Limonium aureum Hill., all, especially Haloxylon persicum, possessed distinct structural features of xeromorphism. Generally their leaves were extremely degenerated or exist as basal leaves. Photosynthesis was carried out by the young green twigs. The epidermis of which had thickened cell walls and were overlaid with thick cuticle. Underneath the epidermis it was the hypodermis. Inner to the hypodermis, the well developed palisade layer was shown to have cells containing abundant chloroplasts. Water-storing tissues with large cells were seen central to the palisade tissue. In tran- sverse section, the ratio of the cortex width and stem diameter was greater than that of mesophytes. In contrast, the ratio of cortex width and root diameter was smaller. Crystal cells or mucilage cells probably of xeromorphic charateristics were generally present in these xerophyes.
Abstract (Browse 2244)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Embryogenesis in Unfertilized Embryo Sacs of Oryza sativa L.
Author: Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    Haploid rice plantlets were induced from cultured ovaries in our previously reported experiment. The present paper is an embryological study on this subject. Young flowers of two japonica cultivars were excised and cultured just in the same manner as before. Liquid medium used for float culture was N6+3% sucrose+0.125 ppm MCPA. The inoculated materials were checked to be at late uninuclcate pollen stage which corresponded mainly to the uuinuelcate embryo sac stage, but as well as some 2- or 4-nucleate embryo sacs. Samples were fixed at 23 days intervals in acetomethanol (1:3), stained in toto with diluted Ehrlich's hematoxylin and sectioned by paraffin method for microscopical observation. 4 days after inoculation most of the embryo sacs developed up to 8-nucleate stage with polarized differentiation of the egg apparatus, central cell and antipodals. From 7th day on, proembryos of various sizes and shapes appeared in the micropylar region of some embryo sacs; some consisted of meristcmatic ceils, others were highly vacuo]ated. One-celled as well as linear multicellular suspensors atypical of in vivo zygote proembryos were observed, ttowever, it was uncertain whether the proembryos originated from the egg cell, the synergids, or the differentiating egg apparatus as a whole. Another peculiar event occured during culture was the formation of endosperm-like free nuclei from the unfertilized polar nuclei in some embryo sacs. Sometimes the free nuclei were numerous and showed a tendency of cell formation in localized areas. 12C15 days after inoculation, the proembryos developed into mieroseopieal ealli with globular or pearlike shape, wbieh continued enlarging to visible size with naked eyes at about 18C24 th day. Further growth eventually led the ealli protruding out the ovary wall beyond 32C35 the day. These observations indicate that the embryo sue, similarly as the pollen, can be induced to embryogenesis in vitro. This may open a new way to study the mechanism controlling gametophytie and sporophytie developmental pathways of embryo sac and provide means for large-scale production of "embryo sac plants" in future.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intercellular Transport of Macro-Molecular Substances as a Means of Redistribution of Cellular Contents in Detatched Garlic Scape
Author: Zhang Wei-chen, Yan Wen-mei, Chen Zi-qing and Lou Chen-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(3)
    A detached garlic scape in long storage will eventually give rise to a whorl of freshy aerial cloves at its apex (Text fig. 2). This can only be brought about at the expense of the stalk proper, where withering starts from the lower end and extends gradually upward until the whole stalk is completely exhausted. The material transfer involved must be mainly concerned with the redistribution and reultilization of cellular contents from the senescing stalk to the growing cloves. The present systematic investigation on the whole process is primarily based upon serial microscopic and electronmicroscopic examination on conducting channels and withering parenchyma. Our previous investigations on garlic have shown that the exhaustive withdrawl of cellular contents from the senescing tissue is finally accomIished by intercellular movement of the partially disassembled protoplasm itself. The present result are essentially in agreement with such a general scheme. Light and electron-micrographs that show nuclear material and other macro-molecular substances tranversing through the plasmodesmata are rather common. The high resolving electronmicrographs have enabled us to detect the finer details in intercellular transport as given below: 1. Filamentous and fluffy material, somewhat similar in structure to P-protein in sieve tube, can be found in abundance in senescing parenchyma cells in which the demar- kations between protoplasmic components gradually become indistinct. The filamentous material is in transit through plasmodesmata between parenchyma cells and also between parenchyma and sieve tube (Plate , 16, 18). 2. Withdrawl of cellular contents from the deteriorating parenchyma may assume the form of vesicular transport through plasmodesmata (Plate 9, 10, 11). Some of the vesicles are simply filled with vacuolar sap; some fully packed with prefabricated material of maeromolecolar structure; and some actually loaded with disassembled protoplasmic fragments. 3. Fully packed vesicles as well as disassembled protoplasmie components (including disintegrated nucleus, degenerated mitoehondrion, etc.) may extrude into the intercellular spaces and may invade the vessel eavity (Plate , 12, 13, 20; Plate , 21, 22, 23, 24). The fine structure of the moving protoplasm in the vessel is quite distinct from that of the residual deposits which may cause plugging in the same cavity (Plate , 25, 26).
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
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