April 1981, Volume 23 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Alkaloides of Amaryllidaceae VI. Identification of Galanthamine and Lycoramine by Thin Layer Chromatography and Paper Chromatography
Author: Hong Shan-hai, Li Jing-fang and Xu Ru-xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of the Oil and Kernels of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
Author: Wang Hong-dou, Wei Ye-cheng, Guo Yu and Li Xia-bing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Haploid Plants from the Female Gametophyte of Hordeum vulgare L.
Author: Wang Ching-ch邦 and Kuang Bai-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mathematical Models of Retrogression of Populations under Grazing Condition in the Stipa Steppe
Author: Chen Qing-cheng, Zhao Song-ling and Yang Feng-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    In the region of North-western China, there are about eight Stipa constructive species which form various communities of Stipa steppe. In this paper, the writers take Stipa breviflora + Agropyron cristatum + Artemisia frigida association as a typical example and make use of the method of mathematical analysis in an attempt to build up mathematical models which may explain the rules of succession of this type by means of mathematical language. Coverage is employed as an indication in representing the dominance of the population of species. In the moderate grazing stage, accompanying the increase in successive grazing, the dominance of the constructive species Stipa breviflora declines by degree and the curve of the population can be indicated by the equation P = 87e每0.74T. Agropyron cristatum, a subdominant in the original community, appears as a dominant species in the second stage, but after this, the 3ominance of its population drops down gradully and the curve can be expressed by the equation P=12T2.7e每0.3T2 Artemisia frigida, an accompanying species in the incipient community, gains the status as a dominant in the heavy grazing stage, and prior to this, its dominance exhibits a progressively raising curve which can be indicated by the equation P = 5.38e0.4T, yet when T > 3, the curve declines as P= 148.16每0.46e0.17T2. Convolvulus ammannii, an accidental in the first stage or an exotic species shows an slowly increase in its population before the excessive grazing stage and the equation in the section of the raising curve is expressed as P=0.745e0.45T, but as T >4, the population degrades abruptly and exhibits as the equation P = 12T2.7e每0.3T2. The community is now approaching to a secondary bare area. As a whole, the retrogressive succession of the Stipa steppe range shows a total characteristic curve of retrogression in its populations due to over grazing. The curve can be represented by the equation P = 132.9e每0.89. The incipient community entirely loses its general nature and it is said to be a heterogeneity community or disclimax. The critical straight line (curve) can be shown by the equation P = 1.1302T and under this critical situation, the total coverage of populations in the community is about 4.5%. At this point, we give the dominant (Convolvulus ammannii) of the community the name of "critical indicative species".
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Netural Tritetpenes Components on Trunk of Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang Native to China
Author: Ma Zhong-wu, He Guan-fu, Yin Wan-fen and Chen Meng-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    A prelimimary investigation on neutral triterpene components of Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang trunk is reported. Seven crystalline components had been isolated from trunk of C. argyrophylla, six of them had been identified as known serratene famlly components: Cathaya B (3汐-methoxy-21-keto serratene). Cathaya C [serratenediol monoaeetate (3汕-acetyl-21a-hydroxy-→14-serratene)], Cathaya D (serratenedio), Cathaya E (compound [D]), Cathaya F (3汕-hydroxy-21-keto-→14-serratene) and cathaya G (serratenedione). Cathaya H seems to be a new serratene family component. Its structure will be studied further.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Nitrogen Fixation and Photosynthesis in Azolla imbricata Roxb and Azolla fiticuloides Lam.
Author: Shi Ding-ji, Li Jia-ge, Zhong Ze-pu, Wang Fa-zhu, Zhu Li-ping and G.A.Peters
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    Azolla imbricata and Azolla filieuloides were studied in regard to the nitrogenase- catalyzed reactions of C2H2 reduction and H2 production, employing gas chromatography; and photosynthetic CO2 uptake as well as simultaneous determinations of C2H2 reduction, photosynthesis and respiration in a closed system. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake and respiratory C02 production were determined using an infrared gas analyzer. These studies have indicated the following 1. Nitrogenase-catalyzed C2H2 reduction is largely light dependent. About 10,000 lux were required for saturation in A imbricata. A concentration of 10% C2H2 in the gas phase is saturating for C2H2 reduction and 1% CO inhibits C2H2 reduction with concomitant H2 production. 2. A determination of C2H2 reduction activity as a function of leaf age established a develop mental gradient in both A. imbricata and A. fgliculaides. In both species activity is negligible in the apex, increases markedly in progressively older leaves, plateaus, and decreases as leaves senesce. The developmental gradient of activity is much steeper in A. imbricate than in A. filiculoieds due to differences in their gross morphology. 3. Nitrogenase-eatalyzed H2 production in A. imbricata was not detectable under Ar but was appreciable under Ar containing 15% C2H2 and 2% CO. H2 production was also determined under the latter gas phase as a function of leaf. These studies implicate the occurrence of an uptake hydrogenase. 4. The photosynthetic compensation points in air are approximately 30 ppm CO2 for A. imbricata and A. filiculoides. 5. Simultaneous measurements of photosynthesis, respiration and C2H2 reduction in A. imbricata demonstrated the immediate dependence of nitrogenase on photosynthetically captured radiation for energy but an indirect dependence on CO2 fixation.
Abstract (Browse 2082)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Coupling Factor of Oxidative Phosphorylation from the Mitochondria of Mung Bean
Author: Liang Zheng, Mao Chun-yun, Yan Long-fei and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    The coupling factor F1 from the mitochondria of the mung bean etiolated seedlings had been isolated and preliminarily purified. The results showed that the coupling factor F1 we obtained had ATPase activity. The activity in the preliminary purifying preparation was about 54 times as high as that of ATPase activity of the original mitochondria, and the activity to hydrolyze ATP had reached 2.14 米mole/min/mg protein. The optimum pH of the coupling factor F1 from mung bean seedlings was about 8.5, and the optimum temperature was 45 ⊥. The coupling factor F1 from mung bean mitochondria was cold labile. When the F1 was resolved from the mitoehondria inner-membrane and was in soluble form, it lost the sensitivety to DCCD. The coupling factor F1 of mung bean mitoehondria was Mg++-dependent, and it was activated by DNP, but the activation by Ca++, NaCl and KC1 were not observed. The molecular weight of the coupling factor F1 was about 380,000 as shown by gel electrophorsis.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oxygen Sensitive Nitrogen-Fixing Mutants of Anabaena
Author: Wang Ye-qin, He Jia-Wan, Daf Ling-fen and Li Shanh-hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    Two Anabaena mutants having heterocysts but incapable of fixing molecular nitrogen in air have been isolated by using ultraviolet radiation or NTG mutagenesis. Their vegetative cells differentiated into heterocysts at a higher frequency than that of the wild type. The phenotype of the mutants is stable and a low frequence of spontaneous reversion was observed. Under microaerobic condition the mutants cells can express the genetic information which encodes nitrogenase synthesis and were capable of utilizing nitrogen for growth with a low acetylene reductiop activity. The level of nitrogenase activity was correlated reciprocally with the content of cell phycocyanin and the light intensity. Both synthesis and activity of the mutant nitrogenase were very sensitive than wild type to the oxygen in vive. Introduction of 1% O2 (v/v) into the gas phase inhibited evidently acetylene reduction. Exposure of the mutant suspension to 20% O2 (v/v) resulted in total and irreversible denaturation of nitrogenase. Withdrawing of O2 in gas phase, the nitrogenase was synthesized de nero; The synthesis process was repressed by chloramphenical or ammonia. The nitrogenase activity of mutant cells increased significantly either by nitrogen- starvating to decrease the phycocyanin content or by lowering the light intensity. Specifically, during the anaerobic induction by treating the mutants filaments with diehloromethylurea which prevents photosynthetic oxygen production, the specific activity of mutant nitrogcnase was equivalent nearly to that of wild type. The ability to reduce 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium was lower in heterocysts and vegetative cells of mutants than in that of wild type. The results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogen fixation by heterocystous bluegreen algal mutants may be duc to the defect of some enzymic systems which might play a role in scavenging oxygen toxity, so that the process of nitrogen fixation is inhibited by the active oxygen produced by vegetative cells. The mechanism of protecting nitrogenase from oxygen damage in blue-green algae is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Clonal Propagation of Twelve Plants in Vitro
Author: Yang Nai-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    This article reports experiments in inducing organogenesis from tissue explants of twelve different plants, and their clonal propagation in vitro. These include bud formation of stem tip or stemsegment explants of Mentha spicata, Luffa cylindric Mesembryanthemum sp., Fuchsia hybride Voss, Ananas comosus, Fragaria chiloensis, Pisum satiuam, bud formation in cotyledon of Stevia rebaudiuna, in leaves of Ananias comosus, Fragaria chiloensis, in hypocotyls of Antirrhinum majus and bulblet formation from the bulb explant of Lilum longiflorum, Hyacinth orientailis, and Narcissus tazatta var. chinensis. Plantlets of the above-mentioned twelve species were obtained by transplanting the bud formed in 1/2 MS or MS medium; MS + l ppm NAA medium, in which root systems were regenerated from the base of the bud (See the table). Bud formation of stem tips or stem segments of Mentha spicata, Luffa cylindrica, and Mescmbryanthemum sp. and their propagate in vitro are reported for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 2271)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Xeromorphism of Some Important Xerophytes Growing in Tungeli Desert
Author: Zhao Cui-xian and Huang Zi-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    In the present paper, using photo-microscopic method, the xeromorphism of some important xerophytes growing in south-east edge of Tungeli desert were determined. The xerophytes appeared to be different from mesophytes at common characteristics, lower in ratio between superficial area and mesophyll tissue volume and higher in ratio between palisade tissue and parenehyma. The xerophytes may be divided into two major groups; selerophylous xerophytes are characterized by a lot of small stomata, a large number of epidermal hair and developed conducting tissue and succulent xerophytes are characterized by a few of big stomata, thickness cuticle and developed water storage tissue. The role of xeromorphism in drought-resistance was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2478)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in Mesophyll Selerids of Camellia sinensis L.
Author: Yan Xue-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    The morphology of mesophyll sclerids for twenty-two varieties of tea is dealt with in this article. A thorough study of both serial sections and macerations revealed that the morphological characters of their sclereids are divided into two types, namely, type i (trichosclereids) and type II (polymorphic sclereids). Type i has rather uniform sclereids encountering in the diaehyma. The fusiform sclereid or osteosclerids of type j (polymorphic sclereids) are forked and this type of dendroid sclereids has elongated main body with less branches, as seen in Camellia sinensis CV. fangfungensis and most of wild varieties of tea. The stellate sclereids having profuse branches occur in C. sinensis CV. Yunnanensis, Assam tea, Taiwan tea, Burma tea and Viet-Nam tea. The fusiform and osteosclereids are found in C. sinensis CV. hananensis, C. sinensis CV. xiaoye, C. sinensis CV. laschangensis and one of the wild variety of tea growing in Sichuan and Guanghxi province.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
Late Embryogeny of Fokienia
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    The young embryo of Fokienia became massive and columnar in the middle of July in Chekiang, China. The polarity of the embryo has already been evident at this time. The cell in the free apex of the columnar embryo are smaller, while in the opposite end the cells continuous to the suspensor are larger in size and irregular in arrangement. Then a group of root initials appears at the middle part of the arc formed by the arrangement of the cells about 10 cells deep from the free apex. All kinds of tissues and organs of the embryo were differentiated in the first week of August. And the root initials become evident. Finally the root initials give rise to the procambium and the embryonic cortex upward and the root cap downward. There are about 20 layers of cells of the procambium in width and only about 10 layers of cells in cotyledonal procambium strand in the mature embryo. The cells of the embryonic cortex are continuous to those of the pericolumn of the root cap. The embryonic epidermis is absent in root cap. The embryo became fundamentally mature about the end of September. The hypocoty and cotyledons are well developed and each constitutes about 40% of the total length of the mature embryo. The root cap is rather weak, only about 10% of the total length. And the rest is the degenerated suspensors. The pith and secretory cells are absent in the mature embryo. The cotyledonal number of the embryo is 2. In mature ovule, there are 15 layers of nucellar cells in width in micropylar part but only 4〞5 layers around the rest of the female gametophyte. The megaspore membrane is about 3.6米in thickness. When the young embryo is in the columnar stage, the nuclei of the female gametophytic cells are dividing and forming polynucleate cells. Thus, each cell usually has 2〞4 nuclei. In this case, the cells of female gametophyte are large and isodiametric and about 60〞120 米 in diameter. But the cells in the outer layer of the female gametophyte are rather small and they are usually uninuclear, rarely binuclear. The present article also deals with the starch distribution during the late embryogeny.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Induction of Endosperm Plantlets and Their Ploidy of Barley in Vitro
Author: Sun Ching-san and Chu Chih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    The endosperm callus has been induced from immature endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on the MS medium supplemented with auxin. When the callus was transferred to the medium supplemented with lower concentration of auxin, the differentiation of shoots began to occur. The regenerated plantlets can be green, albino and whitegreen stripe. The chromosome number in the cells from same root tip of endosperm plantlet is very unstable. They can be euploid (2n=7, 14, 21, 28) or aneuploid (2n = 8, 9, 10, 13).
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Cotyledon Cells of Tomato and Its Changes during Chilling Stress
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Dong He-zhu and Sun Long-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(4)
      
    The ultrastructural localization of adenosine tripkosphatase (ATPase) activity in cotyledon cells of tomato was carried out by use of the cytochemical method of lead phosphate precipitation, and the changes in ATPase activity during chilling stress of the tomato seedlings were studied. The following experimental results have been obtained: 1. The ATPase activity in the cotyledon cells of tomato seedlings germinated and grown at 28 ⊥. was located at plasmolemma, plasmodesmata, nucleoli and nuclear chromatin chloroplast lamellae, many sites of cell wall, and the surface of cell wall bordering the intercellular spaces and their inclusions. 2. When the tomato seedlings were subjected to chilling treatment for 4 h. at 5 ⊥., the ATPase activity in cotyledon cells was indifferent from that of non-chilling treated seedlings. After chilling treatment for 12 h. at 5 ⊥., the reaction of ATPase activity at plasmolemma, and in cell wall and intercellular spaces was markedly reduced. though the high activity reaction of ATPase in nuclei and at chloroplast lamellae was still maintained. When the tomato seedlings were subjected to chilling stress for 24 h. at 5⊥., the ATPase activity at plasmolemma and in cell wall was almost inactivated, while the ATPase activity in nuclei and at chloroplast lamellae was only slightly lowered. These results indicated that the chilling injury may influence firstly on the ATPase activity of cell surface (plasmolemma and cell wall). 3. The role of intercellular spaces used as the passage of materials and the process and mechanism of chilling injury are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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