June 1981, Volume 23 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Yellow Pigment of the Flavone glycosides in the Ray-Flower of Coreopsis lanceolata L.
Author: Li Hong-ying, Lu Chang-gen and Li Xiu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Heterosis and Isozyme in sorghum
Author: Zhang Wei-jiang, Zhang Chun-shen, Tang Xiu-zhi, Li Xin-qiao and Su Yi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1678)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron Microscopic Observasions on the two Pathways of Protoplasmic Withdrawal from the Declining Tissue in the Bract Scales of Air-Clove of Garlic
Author: Zhou Jin-peng and Cai Ke
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
Giemsa Banding in Meiotic Chromosomes of Paeonia lactiflora Pall
Author: Chen Ke-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1755)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Embryoid from the Unpollinated Ovary of Nicotiana tabacum Cultivated in Vitro
Author: Zhu Zhong-chun, Liu Zhen-yue, Wu Hai-shan and An Qing-hun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1730)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regenerated from Mesophyll Protoplasts of Nieotiana alata
Author: Zhang Jian-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1777)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Introduction to Azolla Nilotica
Author: Thomas A. Lumpkin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
Abstract (Browse 1737)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fimbriotheca tomentosa Zhu et Chen- a New Genus and Species from Permian of China and Its systematic position
Author: Zhu Jia-nan and Chen Gong-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    This paper has described a new genus and species on the basis of two pieces of fertile fern pinna specimens found from Tanshanwan Coal-bearing Formation in Dawangdian, Yangxin district of eastern Hubei Province. One of the specimens described here is an upper part of a pinna which is belt- shaped, entire, about 7 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth, acuminate, tomentose. Its midrib marked with an obvious ventral furrow, rather stout, approaching lmm in breadth. Lateral veins barely distinguishable, bifurcating once, about 12 veins per 1 cm margin of pinna. Spoangium finger-shaped, slightly curved, obtuse, without annulus, about 1.2 mm in length and 0.4 mm in diameter, rough. Synangium ovate or elliptic, 0.8 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, consists of 5每6 sporangia, bearing 5每6 longitudinal ridges and furrows similar to those of such genera as Acitheca, Asterotheca, Ptychocarpus etc., but not free on upper part. Synangia of this new genus insert in a placenta which was developed by the end of each lateral vein spreading beyond the pinna margin. Synangium slightly contiguous with each other. Judging by the nature of the synangium this new genus probably belongs to the order Marattiales, quite possibly an indirect progeny from the genus Ilfeldia which has a common ancester with the genus Scolecopteris in phylogeny. According to the feature of the fossil plant society, the authors regard the geological age of the Tanshanwan Coalbearing Formation, in which Fimbriotheca tomentosa was found, as Early Upper Permian.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Pliocene Sporo-Pollen Assemblage of Huang Hun in Hebei Plain and its Significance in Palaeobotany and Palaeogeography
Author: Li Wen-yi and Liang Yu-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    An Early Pliocene pollen assemblage from Huang-Hua is situated in the east part of Hebei Plain. The pollen assemblage which has been studied is a basis of considering the plant development of that period. The pollen assemblage shows an aspect of deciduous forest appearance and a concept of "warm-temperate" climate then. The flora is dominated by Ulmus, Quercus and Carya, and some temperate elements such as Abies, Picea, Pinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Juglans, Acer and Tilia are the obvious generally. Except Carya, the subtropical elements: Podocarpus, Keteleeria, Tsuga, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Hamamelis, Fothergilla and Xanthoxylum are the conspicuous elements in the assemblage, too. However herbs espicially Compositae become more abundant. It is clear that some tropical and subtropical elements such as Proteaceae, Nyssaceae Myrtaceae, Sympolocaceae etc. which were prevalent in early Tertiary are entirely lacking. Owing to the lack of Taxodiaceae instead by Pinaeeae and there are some genus of Composite and Tricoporite rugulates in the assemblage. It is more likely to be early Pliocene period. The assemblage expressed a transitional stage of plants from subtropical to tem- perate zones.
Abstract (Browse 1947)  |  Full Text PDF       
Types and Succession of Forest Bogs in Hingganling and Changbaishan
Author: Lang Hui-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    Climate and geomorphy arc the main factors of the formation of forest bogs in Hingganling and changbaishan. The bogs are both multiple in types and widespread in distribution. There exist not only the type of lower bog, but also that of middle bog and raised bog. They are chiefly distributed in the alluvial flat or valley and in the watershed. The succession process of forest bog is generalized into two kinds: (1) The formation of forest bogs as a result of the natural succession of forest vegetation under the influence of natural conditions. (2) The formation of forest bogs as a result of the bogginess in the vicinity of forestland.
Abstract (Browse 1941)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of the Xanthone Constituents from Swertia mussotii Franch
Author: Sun Hong-fa and Ding Jing-ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    Swertia mussotii Fraeh (Family Gentianaceae) is a herb used as medicine for liver diseases in Tibetan. Its principal antihepatitisic constituents, oleanolic acid and mangiferin, have been reported. The present paper reports eight xanthones obtained from this plant. Their structures have been identified as 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone i, 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone j, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone k, 8-hydroxy- 1,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone l, 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone m, 1,7,8-trihydroxy- 3-methoxyxanthone n, 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyxanthone o, and 1,3,8-trihydro- xy-5-methoxyxanthone p. Of them, 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4,8-trimethoxyxanthone is a new natural product.
Abstract (Browse 2118)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Natural Growth Inhibitors in Potato Tuber on Respiration
Author: Liang Hou-kuo, Chen Hong-yi and Liao Ming-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    The effects of natural growth inhibitors in potato tuber periderm on respiration were studied. The following results are presented in this paper: 1. The respiratory rate of potato tuber slices increased by application of inhibitors at concentration suppressing the growth of wheat coleoptile sections. This fraction of respiration induced by inhibitors was insensitive to DNP. According to inhibiting ex- periments with iodoacetic acid, malonic acid and KCN, it seems that this induced respiration is mediated by the EMP-TCA pathway and the CN-sensitive electron transfer chain. 2. The effects of various growth regulators on respiration are different depending on whether they are used in single or in combination. When the endogenous inhibitors at Rf 0.4〞0.8 plus IAA or GA were studied, the inhibitors induced respiration rise was partially reduced by IAA, but completely depressed by GA. It seems reasonable to consider that the manner and the site of action of various growth zegulators on, respiration are not same.
Abstract (Browse 1777)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of Chloroplast Membrane V.Ultrastructural Biogenesis of Chloroplasts from Different Ploids of Wheat
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Li Shi-yi, Kuang Ting-yun and Duan Xu-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    Based upon our previous studies on the ultrastructure and constituents of chloroplast membrane in relation to the function of photosystem j, and the effects of intermittent light and cations toward the ultrastructurc and the absorption spectrum and function of photosystem j of wheat chloroplast membranes. Then we studied the ultrastructure of the chloroplast membrane in different ploids of wheat during their biogenesis. Seedlings of diploid wheat (Tr. monococcum), tetraploid wheat (Tr. durum Desf), hexaploid wheat, "Nongda 139" (Tr. aestivum) and octoploid wheat (Triticale Hungarian) were grown in dark for 7 days and exposed to light (1500 lux) for greening at a temperature about 26⊥. Samples were taken after exposing to light for 1hr, 3 hrs, 4 hrs, and 22 hrs for ultrastructural observation of the biogenesis of chloroplasts. We found that the chloroplastid membranes of different ploids of wheat appeared to have a similar stepwise biogenesis process. We also found that the development rate and degree of constitution and form of their membrances were distinctly different. Especially, it was remarkable and interesting that we found numerous "vesicles" in dfferent sizes and number within the stroma of the proplastid of the diploid, tetraploid and octoploid wheat after exposing 1 hr and 4 hrs of light. In so doing, gemmalike bodies appeared from the outer envelope membrane from the yellow proplastid of tetraploid and octoploid wheat. These bodies looked quite like the photosynthetic membranes of prokaryote. It is worth notice that this unusual ultrastructure has not been reported before. We wonder if the gemmalike bodies are probably another form of reproduction of chloroplast. How does this phenomenon be explained? Why do these bodies were found only in tetraploid and octoploid wheat? And what are the factors controlling? These processes are needed to study in the future.
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Components of the Absolute Oil from Jasminun sarnbac (L.) Aiton
Author: Wu Cheng-shun, Zhao De-xiu, Sun Shou-wei and Lu Sheng-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    This plant is widely cultivated in southeastern and southern China. The concrete and absolute got from their flower are used in perfumery industry. It is also used popularly as ornamental plant and sometimes as medicine. The main chemical components of the absolute have been determined by the methods of chromatography, GC-MS, IR and NMR. The quantitative determination of these components was carried out by GLC also. The result is as follows: 3-hexenyl acetate 1.09%, cis-3-hcxen-l-ol 1.40%, dipentene oxide 1.09%, linalool 14.33%, methyl benzoate 2.96%, benzyl acetate 11.04%, benzyl alcohol 10.12%, cadinene 4.67%, hexenylbenzoat 16.51%, methyl anthranilate 0.62%, octadecene 6.54%, methyl oleate 2.02%, methyl' octadeca-9-ynoate 0.62%. Three minor components have been determined also.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Report on the Establishment of Nitrogen Fixation System in the Crown Gall of Tomato Plant
Author: Du Qian-you and Fan Chen-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    We report here preliminary results of an attempt with a cell hybrid which when inoculated on the stem of the tomato plant, produced crown galls (tumors) possessing nitrogenase activity (by acetylene reduction test) under aerobic conditions. This is done by cell (protoplast) fusion between the parent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Penr, Ti) and Azotobacter chroococcum (Pens, Nif+). The crown galls caused by this hybrid on the tomato stem appear to possess N2 ase activity under aerobic conditions (0.05每0.2 atm O2). The tumors reduce 14n M of C2H2 per hr per gm fresh weight (table 3) in these preliminary experiments. Further experiments are still in progress. We gratefully acknowledge Prof. P. S. Tang for his instructive suggestions and encouragement in our work.
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Induction of Rooting and survival of transplantation of Tectona grandis L. f. in Vitro
Author: Cao Yue-hua and Wang Bao-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    This paper deals with the experimental results for raising induction of rooting and the survival rate of transplantation on tectona after the leafy shoots have been obtained under the culture of shoot-tips in vitro. These results show that the success of rooting is affected by several factors. The principal factors are auxin and its concentration. Three kinds of auxin (i.e. IAA, IBA and NAA) are used for induction of rooting, among them IBA is considered to be the best. The efficiency of rooting is apparently affected by the physical state of the medium. When the concentration of sucrose in MS medium is raised to 4%每6% the rooting rate can be increased and the root systems can grow rapid]y and profusely. However, when the temperature of culture is below 22 ⊥, the rate of inducing roots is inhibited. Rootings of shoots are sensitve to temperature. The period from the first to the eighth days after the induction of rooting is considered as a sensitive period. After cutting off 5 mm portions below the nodes from the lowen part of stems, the base of these cuttings is soaked in 500 ppm IBA solution for 9 hrs., then place the cuttings into the filter paper bridges standing in a liquid MS medium free from plant growth regulators which containing 4% sucrose, and incubated at 24每28⊥. After 2每3 weeks the root system is formed. The rooting rate obtained is 95%每100%. Before root induction, what is more important for raising the survival rate of transplantaticn for plantlets is to place rootless-plantlets under natural diffuse light (ca. 5000 Lux.) in vitro before root induction. After transplantation, if temperature is controlled below 27 ⊥, and the relative humidity above 85%, 90%每95% of rooting can be obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1971)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observation on Some Chinese Ferns
Author: Wang Zhong-ren and Zhang Zhi-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1981 23(6)
      
    The work of cytological investigation on Chinese ferns has just begun. The present paper deals with the cytological observation on some Chinese ferns. The materials examined were collected from Emei Shan (Mt. Omei), Sichuan province and Wuling Shah, Xiang Shah, Beijing. Most materials were fixed in field, but the materials for three species were from introduced plants grown in the garden of Botanical Institute. The young fertile fronds were fixed in 1:3 acetic acid-alcohol for 24〞48 hours, then they were transfered into 95% alcohol, at last into 70% alcohol. After having been brought to the laboratory, they were stored in the refrigeratory. The spore mother cells (SMCs) of the materials were examined byaceto-carmine squash method in one to two months. The chromosome counts of 12 species of ferns are summarized in table 1. Among them the chromosome numbers of nine species, namely, Adiantum edentulum n = 30, Athyriopsis erecta n = 40, Athyrium fallaciosum n = 40 (and "n" = 80?), Dryopteris julaodongensis "n" = 82 (and n = 41?), Dryopteris sparsa var. nitidula n = 41, Glaphyropteridopsis rufostraminea n = 36, Lunathyrium vegetius n = 80, Polystichum hecatopteron n = 41 and Pronephrium penangiana n = 36, are recorded for the first time. Our observation of the chromosome numbers of Mattcuccia struthiopteris has proved that the base number for this genus is 39. Cytologically, Dryopteris julaodongensis and Athyrium fallaciosum are quite inter. esting. In D. julaodongensis, both 8-SMC and 16-SMC and both 32-spore and 64-spore spo- rangia respectively were observed in the same individual plant, which suggests that it may be a facultative (Dopp-Manton type apomictic and normal sexual) diploid species. So far we have failed to find the clear image of the SMC with 41 bivalents, but n = 41 should be infered. In A. fallaciosum, 40 bivalents formed by relatively completely paired chromosomes can be seen at diakinesis in SMCs, but the Latter course of meiosis, from metaphase i to forming young spores, is highly irregular. A number of lagging chro- mosomes and a few of chromatid bridges are present at anaphase i and j, and more or less micronuclei of unequal size can be observed at telophase j or Young spores. A few SMCs at telophase or young spores contain only micronuclei of unequal size without the main nucleus, or otherwise a few of another young spores contain two large nuclei which result in the unequal trispore instead of the normal equal tetraspore. Finally, in a few sporangia, each sporangium gives 64 nearly regular spores, but in the better part of the sporangia, there are less than 64 spores highly irregular in size and shape. Besides in a few other sporangia of the same individual plant, there are 32 nearly regular spores. The above information shows that this plant should be diploid, but the highly irregular course of meiosis in its SMCs is very similar to that in the hybrid. After examining many herbarium specimens we saw that producing irregular aberrant spores in this species is not an accidental, but a common phenomenon (e.g. in material from Kansu province, see plate. j fig. 16). It seems that this species is a facultative (both sexual and apomictic). We wonder if it is actually segmental alloploid. Are those irregular phenomena resulted from the precocious desynapsis and segregation of some paired chromosomes, or from the delayed anaphase? And what is the actual breeding system of it ? These problems await futher investigation. The voucher specimens of all species recorded here are preserved in the Fern Herbarium of our Institute. We are indebted to Prof. R. C. Ching for idefitification of the materials used in the present study.
Abstract (Browse 2147)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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