January 1982, Volume 24 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Two Examples on the Identification of Phytochemical Ingredients by Thin-Layer Chromatography Densitometry Method
Author: Wang Chang-gen, He Xian-guo, Xu Yin and Huang Xiu-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
Abstract (Browse 1760)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study of Flavonoid Components in Trunk of Cathaya argyrophylla Chun et Kuang Native in China
Author: Ma Zhoug-wu, He Guan-fu and Yin Wan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Cotton Gossypium hirsutum Karyotype
Author: Chen Rui-Yang, Song Wen-qin, An Zhu-ping and Li Xiu-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
Abstract (Browse 1933)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Fossil Proteaceous Pollen in China
Author: Wang Da-ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    In this paper, some results of the study on the Proteaceous pollen collected recently in China are reported. On the basis of their different evolutionary features in geological history, their evolution is subdivided four stages in the Late Cretaceous〞Early Tertiary, namely Cenomanian-Turonian, Senonian-Danian, Paleocene-Eocene and Oligocene. Each of the stages is typified by its own representative elements of Pro- teaceous and a certain domain of their predominance. According to the geographical distribution of Proteaceous pollen in China, four predominant districts are recognized, i.e. Northeast district of Late Cretaceous, Northwest-North-Inner Mongolia district of Early Tertiary, Centrial district of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary and South district of Early Tertiary. In addition, the problems concerning the stratigraphical, palaeoecological and pa- laeoelimatic significances of the Proteaceous pollen, and its origin are discussed in this paper too. Three new species are discribed here and they are: Proteacidites partitus sp. nov., P. tenellus sp. nov., P. bullatus sp. nov.
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Population Variability of Aster tripolium L. of Zhoushan Islands as Related to Habitat
Author: Xu Bing-sheng, Qiu Lian-qin and Lu Rui-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    In the identification of the specimens collected from Zhoushan (Chushan) Islands of Zhejiang (Chekiang) Province, the authors have found that the species Aster tripolium L. (Tripolium vulgate Nees) of coastal salt marshes has a rather high amplitude of morphological variation. We, then, made a field investigation in Zhoushan Islands in October of 1980. A mass collection of five different populations of the same species of different ecological sites was carried out. Quantitative measurements of totally eight morphological characters, namely, the height of individual plants, the length and breadth of leaves and ligulate flowers, the number of lower branches, the degree of promineney of tap-roots, and the color of the base of stems, were made. The resulting data of these measurements and calculations were then compared by using methods of E. Anderson's pietorialized scatter diagram and standard deviation in order to bring to light the differentiation pattern of that species occurred in response to different habitats. Samples of soil of different population sites were also collected; their pH values and contents of NaCl were examined. According to the variation pattern of phenotypes as shown in these diagrams and figures, the populations of Aster tripolium of Zhoushan Islands could be roughly divided into the following two types: (1) the tall and long-leaved type of lower marshes with a soil salinity of 0.54%每0.56% of NaCl, including populations Nos. 1 and 2, with plants 49每51 cm. high (mean value), very few or no lower branches, usually dark purplish at the base of stems, and often without prominent tap-roots; (2) the low and short-leaved type of higher marshes and saline seepage areas above the limits of tidal submergence, with a soil salinity of 0.06%每0.17% of NaC1, including populations Nos. 3 and 4, with plants 19每26 cm. high (mean value), a few to manylower branches, and usually greyish white or slightly purplish at the base of stems. It is worth of note that these two different types of phenotypic variation of populations are on the whole corresponding to the two habitat types, which differ from each other chiefly in soil salinity resulted from the different levels of the sites, particularly the distance between the population sites and the salterns, and in the density of plants as well, which could probably be related to the intensity of competition. It is also interesting to note that owing to the site of population No. 5 being subjected to trampling, grazing and moving, the plants are usually mechanically stripped of their terminal buds. This is probably why the members of that population often show a peculiar pseudo- prostrate habit with their lower branches sometimes spreading at right angles to the main stem. However, the pattern of the population differinces obtained is often predetermined by the pattern of sampling. The real pattern of population differentiation of Aster tripolium is more likely clinal instead of abrupt. Without comparative experimental cultivation, it is difficult to decide whether the phenotypic variations mentioned above are genetically fixed or simply environmental modifications. Nevertheless, A. J, Gray et al. (1979) has shown that the large differences exist between populations of Aster tripolium at the different levels on the British salt marshes appear in uniform cultivation and may have a large genetic component. So, it might be expected that both of the factors-genetical and environmental, are likely to play their parts in the population differentiation of the said species. According to the classification of population systems given by V. Grant (1963), the two different types of populations of Aster tripolium of Zhoushan Islands may be considered as two ecological races.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification of 5S RNA from Plant Leaves
Author: Zhao Kun, Wei Xi-ping, Cheng Chen-chi and Li Nan-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    A simple and rapid method for large scale preparation of 5S RNA from plant leaves is described. To begin, all nucleic acids were extracted from the leaves with a mixture of phenol-chloroform-n-butyl alcohol and extracting buffer. After precipitation of the high-molecular-weight nucleic acids from the crude extract with 2 M LiCl, the low, molecular-weight RNA in the supernatant (containing about 6% 5S RNA) could be separated by eleetrophoresis on denatured polyaerylamide gels. The band of 5S RNA was excised from the preparatory slab gel under UV light and then purified by eleetrophoretie elution. In our experiments, several mg pure 5S RNA was obtained from 100 g leaves in a single run which takes about 4 days. The purified final produet was pure as showing a single hand on denatured polyaerylamide gel and a typical UV absorption peak of nucleic acid. The sedimentation coefficient (S20w) of the product was 4.6 as determined by ultracentrifugation.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Light Quality on the Growth and Development of Anabaena azollae
Author: Wu Guo-liang, Zhong Ze-pu, Bai Ke-zhi, Wang Fa-zhu and Cui Cheng (C. Tsui)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    The blue green algae Anabaena azollae has been isolated from the leaf cavity of water fern Azolla imbricata and grown aseptically in N-free medium. It was used for the study on the effects of white, red, yellow, green and blue light illuminations on the growth, acetylene reduction activity and heteroeyst formation. The results are summarized as follows: The growth rate under white, red and yellow light was greater than under green light and the yield of the former was increased nearly two folds than the latter after 7 days culture. However, the green light enhanced heterocyst formation up to 40% than the other light illuminations. Chlorophyll content was also higher under green light. Nitrogen fixation activity was proportional to the heterocyst formation. Whatever the light quality used, nitrogen fixation activity could be increased up to several folds by adding 0.2% fructose to the culture medium. When the fructose was added to the 5 days culture, green light illumination showed the highest nitrogen fixation activity. The significant reaction of Anabaena azollae to the green light seems to be a physiological feature of the symbiont.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies of Some Kinetic Properties of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Fructose-bisphosphatase in Chloroplasts from Wheat and Rice
Author: Li Xi-jing, Yuan Xiao-hua and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    Enzymatic properties of the chloroplast GAP dehydrogenase and FBPase from the wheat or the rice leaves of the main stems during grain filling period have been investigated. According to the effect of the substrate or coenzymes concentration, it is shown that the GAP dehydrogenases in freshly ruptured wheat or rice chloroplast show higher activities than FBPase, especially the activity of the wheat chloroplast GAP dehydrogenase is over ten times greater than that of FBPase. However, the activities of the above two enzymes in the rice chloroplast show only little difference, but the activity of the rice FBPase is higher than that of the wheat. The maximum initial velocities (Vmax) of the two enzymes in the above two chloroplasts are determined and are apparantly different from each other. At about 0.2 mM NAD(P)H concentration the activity of GAP dehydrogenase in the rice chloroplast is saturated. But, with the same concentration the wheat GAP dehydrogenase is still not saturated. It is noteworthy that the ratio of the activities of the two chloroplast GAP dehydrogenases for NADPH and NADH approaches equal as the coenzyme concentration is increased. Possible physiological significance of the kinetic properties of the above two enzymes during the wheat and rice grain filling period was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1745)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Preliminary Studies on Culture of Unfertilized Ovary of Rice in Vitro
Author: Kuo Chung-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    The present paper reports the results of the culture of unfertilized ovaries of rice in vitro. The inducting medium was N6 supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 500 mg/L casien hydrolysate and sucrose was 4%. The differentiated medium was N6 supplemented with 2 mg/L Kinetin, 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate and the concentration of the sucrose was 3%. The 4 cultivars and 2 crossed combinations were used as the experimental materials. The experiments were shown the differentiation of the callus occurred amony various cultivars. The induced frequency in the crossed combinations was higher than that in the cultivars. Now 12 green plants and 3 albino plantlets have been obtained. The chromasomes of 11 green plantlets have been examined. Among them, 6 plantlets were haploid (n =12 ) and 5 plantlets were diploid. The embryoids were located in the micropylar end. Some of them possessed the suspensor, similar as zygote embryos. The callus was found from different origin. One of them was originated from haploid tissue derived from the nuclear in the embryo sac. Another was originated from the diploid tissue in the integument or ovary wall. The origin of the callus from the unfertilized ovary was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Induction of Pollen Plantlets from the Anther Cultures of Lily
Author: Gu Zhu-ping and Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    Anthers with the filament of lily (Lilium davidii var. Willmottiae (Wilson) Roffill) were cultured on modified MS medium. Supplemented with different concentrations and compatible ratios of growth hormones (Z 2 mg/L,or 2,4-D 2 mg/L + KT 2mg/L, or 2,4-D 4mg/L+ 6 BA 2 mg/L). At this time the pollen grains in the anthers were at the late uninueleate stage. Anther cultures were incubated at 25〞27 ⊥, and illuminated with daylight of about 800每1200 lx. After 30 days, the calli or embryoids were produced from anthers. The frequency of the calli or embryoids induction was 8.89%. After transfer eventually to the differentiation medium, these calli or embryoids developed into plantlets in 70 days. Among the root tips of regenerated plantlets haploid, diploid and aneuploid cells were found, but the haploid cells were produced in about 86.4% of the root tips. It is quite evident that haploid plantlets are derived from the pollen grains.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of Flower in Gastrodia ekata Bl.
Author: Yang Shing-hwa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    The flower of Gastrodia elata B1. grows usually solitary in the bract-axial. The parts of flower are appeared in the following order: sepals, petals, stamens and pestil. In addition, the bases of calyx and corolla unite forming the oblique ※floral tube§. Inner three petals, the median lip of the petal is usually larger and different in shape. The lip is three lobes, the marginal and its bases meristem keeps its activity forming lobes marginal tassel, at the base forming one fleshy reniform callus on both sides of lip. A column is united by stamen and style. The stamen is on the top at the back of rostellum in the column. Three stamens primodia of them, only one can developed, on the lateral stamens, during the early stage of flower development, it will not development further and stays on rudimentary, it forming two horn-like protuberances of the clinandrium.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Dimorphism and Androgenesis of Paeonia in Vivo
Author: Li Mao-xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    It was observed that anthers of Paeonia lactiflora cultivar ※Da-Fu-Gui§ produced dimorphic pollen grains, i.e. the normal pollen garins and anomalous pollen grains, frequencies of which were 75.8% and 24.2% respectively. Some of the anomalous pollen grains carried out extra divisions (in vivo) and so the multinueleat or multicellular pollen grains were formed. It seem to indicate that there are several different pathways including asymmetric and symmetric divisions and fusion of the nuclei in the androgenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilization in Pinus Bungeana
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    Pinus bungeana is a species endemic to China and as yet its embryology has not been reported. The present paper deals with its process of fertilization in some details. 1. The development of the male gamete and the structure of the archegonium. The spermatogenous cell has already divided into two uniqual male gametes in the middle of May (in 1978, at Peking), about ten days before fertilization. Both sperms are spheroidal to ellipsoidal. The larger sperm is about 94 ℅ 65 米m and the smaller one, about 72 ℅ 58 米m in size. As the pollen tube approaches the archegonium the two sperms move toward the apex of the tube together with the remaining contents. Generally the larger sperm precedes the smaller one. The cytoplasmic contents also contain a sterile cell, 3〞43℅2〞29 米m in size and a tube nuleus, 15〞30 米m in diamter, besides the sperms. A mass of starch grains of more or less similar to sperm in size is also included in the contents of the pollen tube. Generally 3〞4, even up to 7每8 pollen grains germinate normally within an ovule. Therefore, many sperms (up to 14〞16) may be present on the same nucellus. The archegonium is elongato-ellipsoidal, about 870 ℅500 米m in size. Arehegonia are single, 2〞(3〞5) in number, with 2 neck cells and a layer of jacket cells. The central cell divided in the middle of May and gave rise to the ventral canal cell and the egg. As the archegonium matures the cytoplasm becomes radiate fibrillae around the egg nucleus. The egg nucleus is large, 150〞226 米m in diameter. One large nucleolus, 22〞25 米m in diameter and sometimes up to 50; small nueleoli are present within the nucleus. 2. Fertilization Pollination takes place in the first week of May and fertilization will be effected from the end of May to the first week of June of next year. The interval between pollinatin and fertilization in P. bungeana is about thirteen months and the lapse of time is almost similar to most of the Pinus so far recorded. When the pollen tube contacts the archegonium through the neck cells all its contents are discharged into the egg cell. Usually the larger sperm fuses with the egg nucleus and the rest of the contents stays in the upper part of the egg cell. It is interesting to note that the nonfunctional second sperm also moves toward the egg nucleus and often divides by mitosis; and this phenomenon is not reported elsewhere. At the earlier stage of the fusion between male and female nuclei the male nucleoplasm is dense and finely granular while the female nucleoplasm is thin and coarsely granular, hence the boundary between them is very clear. The nuclear membranes of both nuclei persist for a long time. After the male nucleus sinks into the female nucleus completely, both nuclei begin to divide and enter into the prophase and then the metaphase simultaneously. By this time the paternal and maternal chromosome sets with their spindles still remain at certain distance from each other. Then the paternal chromosomes with their spindle move gradually toward the maternal ones. At first a multipolar common spindle appears as the maternal and paternal spindles with their chromosomes merge together. Finally a regular bipolar spindle is formed and both the maternal and paternal chromosomes become arranged on the equatorial plate. In the meantime, the process of fusion is complete and the zygote is at the stage of metaphase. At the moment the spindle looks greater in width than in length, being about 80℅65〞70 米m in size. 3. Supernumerary nuclei and sperms. The ventral canal cell degenerates soon after its formation. While the supernumerary sperms divide usually after their entrance into the egg cell. Therefore, the supernumerary nuclei probably derive directly from the smaller sperms or indirectly from mitoses of the larger ones Generally the nucleoplasm of the supernumerary nuclei is rather thin while the nucleoplasm of the undivided sperms is rather dense. This shows that the former is in the state of degeneration. The supernumerary nuclei of P. bungeana are as many as 7, their usual size being 43〞58℅32〞43 米m. In the upper part of some egg cells there are still secondary smaller sperms about the size of 36 ℅ 29 米m, Their volume is just about half of the usual smaller sperm. Probably they are derived from the division of the smaller sperms.
Abstract (Browse 2124)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microphotometric Determination of DNA Contents of Early Developmental Pollen Grains in Tobacco Anther Culture
Author: Zhu Cheng, Liu Hou-tian and Du Ru-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    The Feulgen-DNA contents of microspores, vegetative and generative nuclei of tobacco pollen grains in vivo and in anther culture have been determined by microphotometry. 1. The values of DNA content of vegetative and generative nuclei of the pollen grains selected at definite developmental stages vary between 1C and 2C levels, which coincide with the role of the dynamics of DNA in haploid cell cycle. This method applied in the study of androgenesis in anther culture is proved successful and valid. 2. By the cytomorphological investigation on androgenesis, the pollen embryoid in this experiment results from repeated divisions of the vegetative cell within the pollen grains. 3. In mature pollen grains of the same variety of tobacco in vivo, DNA replication has not occured in vegetative nuclei, in which the level of DNA remains in 1C. 4. In the cultured anthers after 8 days innoculation, 30% of the total pollen grains measured indicate that the vegetative nuclei have completed DNA replication and show 2C level. The pollen grains which have the potential to differentiate into the embryogenie pollen grains, may be distinguished from non-embryogenie ones by this method before any cytomorphological sign appears. The significance of this method in the study of the mechanism of androgenesis is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim
Author: Yang Hai-rong and Wang Sheng-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    The aqueous extract of Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim is a new medicine for chronic bronchitis patients in clinical therapy by oral administration. It was proved to be most satisfactory curative effect. Six substances are isolated from this plant and identified to be raffinose, scopoletin; fraxetin, hyperin, isohyperin and quercetin respectively by means of mp, paper chromatography, UV, IR NMR and MS. The raffinose and fraxetin are first discovered in Chinese rosebay plants.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Picfeltarraegenin IV and Its Degradation Product
Author: Gan Li-xian, Chou Wei-shan, Cheng Gui-rea and Jin Jing-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    A series of new triterpenoid aglycones has been isolated from fraction B of Picria fel-tarrae Lour extract. The structure of picfeltarraegenin l was assigned as 4 by means of spectroscopic data (UV, IR,¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR and MS) and some chemical reactions. The structure of degradation product (8) obtained from 1 and 4 was also determined.
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       
Supplementary Study of Upper Shihezi (Shihhotse) Plants from Taiyuan, Shanxi Province
Author: Zhu Jia-nan, Hu Yu-an and Du Xian-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(1)
      
    This paper describes 12 species of Late Permian plants collected from Upper Shihezi Formation in Dongshan Taiyuan of Shanxi Province. Among them 2 genera and 10 species are new data of fossil plant, such as Raniganjia reniformis, Yuania gigantea, Pterophyllum striatum, Chiropteris petaloides, C. undulata, C. rotundata, Dioonocarpus ovatus gen. et sp. nov., Cycadeoidispermum petiolatum gen. et sp. nov., Cornucarpus obtusus and Pelourdea linearis etc. The others, Pecopteris anderssonii and Norinia cucullata are separately given a new definition once again.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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