February 1982, Volume 24 Issue 2


          Research Articles
Induction of Callus and Regeneration of Plantlets from the Rhizome Explant of Aneurolepidium chinense
Author: Gao Tian-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetational Development and Climatic Changes in the Last 10000 Years in Beijing
Author: Kong Zhao-chen, Du Nai-qiu and Zhang Zi-bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    In the previous paper authors found the vegetational and climatic changes in the past 30,000每10,000 years in Beijing. This paper is based on the informations of the sporo-pollen assemblages obtained from the Gaolizang, Dawangzhang, Yinjiahe, Xiwu- tiyng etc. with drilling cores in the vicinity of Beijing. About 12,000每10,000 years ago deciduous broad-leaved trees were flourishing in Beijing. At that time the climate was warm and rather wet. 10,000每8,000 years ago, the herbaceous plants, such as Artemisia, Compositae were flourishing in plain of Beijing and mountainous region was dominant in subalpine conifer forest, consisting of Pinus, Picea and Abies, According to the needle-leaved forest increasing at that time we think about 9,000 B. P. that climate was cool and wetter. In the past 8,000每6,000 years, needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, consisting of Pinus, Quercus and Betula thrived under a warm and wetter climate, the bogs were better developed in plain. During 6,000每2,000 years, in general review on the sporopollen assemblages of the Beijing we think that the climate was warm, especial about 5,000 years ago, the flora was mainly composed of deciduous broad-leaved trees, such as Ulmus, Quercus, Morus and Betula. But during 5,600 years ago or so, spruce-fir forest became predominant in the low land and the plain of Beijing again. At that time the annual mean temperature was lower than that of the present. It was corresponed to new glacial period. The flora mainly composed of Pinus was obviously reduced since 2,000 years. The glassland even increased in Beijing.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental and Ecological Studies on the Rubber-tea Artificial Community
Author: Feng Yao-zong, Wang Hui-hai, Zhang Jia-he, Zhang Ke-ying, Ma Wei-jun and Long Yi-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    This paper sums up the ecological data recorded in the south of Yunnan on our experiment of the rubber-tea artificial community during 1960 to 1980. It is a part of our studies of the tropical artificial ecosystem. The following results concern its dynamic productivity, stability, interspecific relationships, structure and function. 1. By the introduction of tea into the rubber plantation, its annual productive period has been prolonged from seven to ten months, while the non-productive period of young plants has also been shortened by three to four years. Its monthly productivity curve shows a change corresponding to the monthly variation of local solar radiation. In contrast, the monthly productivity curve of the monocultural tea plantation is not so. This is due to the fact that a tea-plantation must possess a certain amount of shade before it can grow well. 2. The rubber-tea community has a comparatively high stability in productivity. Low temperature is the major problem of rubber plantations in the south of Yunnan. It often causes cracks in the root collar barks of rubber trees and may even cause the death of the trees. We believe that the problem is caused by lack of heat from sun light, and have found that the critical least amount of heat necessary is 123 calories/sq em per day. In order to obtain more amount of heat, during the past twenty years, we have compared the annual productivity variations of various rubber-tea community structures, and are convinced that the cold-resistant ability of one kind of rubber-tea community structure has been greatly improved. This is achieved by discovering and applying two kinds of heat effects; namely, the directional heat effect of side rows and the lower story heat effect in the community. By adopting the wide row and thick planting structure of rubbertea community, arable land suitable for the rubber tree has been raised from 800 m. to 1000 m. in altitude. 3. The rubber-tea community possesses a high environmental protection capability. Owing to the introduction of the tea plants in the lower story, the annual rate of water loss in the community decreases by 42%, and that of soil erosion by 23.8%. Before the dry season sets in, the rubber-tea community contains 150 tons more water per hectare than that of a rubber plantation, and 322.5 tons more than that of a tea plantation (2.2 m thickness of Soil). The content of the organic matter in the soil of the rubber-tea community is 0.15% higher than that of a rubber plantation, and 0.2% higher than that of a tea plantation. Moreover, the soil unit weight of the rubber-tea community is comparatively lighter. 4. A corresponding relationship of the underground story-formation has been found in rubber-tea community; for example, rootlets of the rubber trees are concentrated in soil 0每20 cm below the surface, and those of the tea trees in soil 20每50 cm in depth. This shows the possibility of mutual aceomodation of the two species. 5. In conformity with the changes in altitute and latitude, the proportion of rubber and tea should also be changed accordingly. In the plains, the rubber trees will play a dominant part in the community. As the altitude rises, tea trees will gradually replace the rubber trees in playing the dominant role. Finally, the rubber trees entirely disappear from the scene and are replaced by plants such as camphor tree (Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm.). A camphor-tea community is formed. In fact, it is a type of artificial community welcomed by people in the south of Yunnan. Now, rubber-tea community is being rapidly spread in the southern part of our country, amounting to more than 10,000 hectares in area.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Identification of Morin and Morin-calcium Chelate Compound from Artocapus pithecogallus C.Y. Wu. and Artocapus heterophYllus Lan.
Author: Mu Quan-zhang and Li Qi-xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    Two crystalline compounds were isolated from the heartwood Artocapus pitheco- gallus C. Y. Wu. and A. heterophyllus Lans. collected at Yunnan. On the basis of spectral analysis (UV, IR, NMR, MS and ¹³C NMR), preparation of derivatives and synthetic, these compounds were identified as morin(2, 4, 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (I) and morin-calcium chelate compound (H) which the hydrogen of C5-OH of two morin molecules is replaced by a calcium atom, and chelated with C4--C0 of the morin formed a chelate ring, and the calcium ion chelated with another molecular at C4-C0 too, in which the calcium is a constituent of an inner complex anion. Compound (j) Ca(C15H9O7)2﹞5H2O is a new compound which is green yellow crystal, mp. to be greater than 300 C, rose red with Mg-HC1; orange yellow precip- tare with Pb(AC)2; the solid and solution of (j) dispaly intense orange yellow fluorescence in ultraviolet, and calcium was detected by its atomic spectrum and treated with 2% ehlorhydric acid gives (i). We have prepared morin-calcium chelate compound from morin. The chemical properties and spectroscopic data (UV, IR, NMR) of synthetic and natural products are all the same.
Abstract (Browse 2385)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Polygalacturonase (PG) in the Ripening of Apple Fruits
Author: Liang Yu-fa, AG Liang-de, Wang Ming-xin and Yi Wen-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    Polygalacturonase (PG) activity and changes in respiratory intensity of apple fruits were investigated. The respiratory rate was decreased to a preclimacteric minimum from 30 Aug. to 20 Sept., Then increased to a climacteric peak (20每30 Sept.) and again drop down gradually with approaching the senescence stage. The PG activity was undetectable in a developing fruit until the onset climacteric phase. It rose rapidly after harvest, and reaching its highest level on 27 Oct. Just a month after the climacteric peak. The PG activity fell gradually. The amount of the fractions of pectic acid in fruits changed with the modifications of PG activity. With the ripening of fruits, the content of alcohol-soluble small molecules of pectic acids was increased from 12 to 13 5 mg/100 g of tissue, while the amount of alcohol- insoluble large molecules of pectic acids reduced from 530 to 280/100 g of tissue. PG activity would indicate the destruction of cell walls and the separation of cells. The onset of softening of fruits occurred 20 days after the rise of PG activity. It is supposed that the process of softening is directly controlled by PG activity.
Abstract (Browse 1883)  |  Full Text PDF       
污-Aminobutyric Acid Metabolism in Detached Leaves of Wheat Seedling and Leaves and Cotyledons of Sunflower
Author: Li Xi-yang and Tang Yu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    With a prerequisite of 5 hours in the light the detached leaves of wheat seedling and detached leaves and cotyledons of sunflower were able to utilize exogenous 污-aminobutyric acid, the amount of alanine and glutamine formed were increased. It was found that deamination of 污-aminobutyric acid was associated with 污-aminobutyric-pyruvate transaminase in the leaves of wheat seedling. The specific activity of this transaminase was enhanced about 5.6 fold by adsorption with calcium phosphate gel-Some properties of this transaminas were as follows: the optimum pH was 8.9. The produced amount of alanine was linear with time up to a period of one hour. The primary rate of reaction was proportional to enzyme concentration in the first hour. The relation of substrate concentration to the primary rate of alanine formation was determinated and Michaelis constant was evaluated about 2.6 ℅ 10-3 M. The action of this transaminase in metabolism of 污-aminobutyrie acid was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1746)  |  Full Text PDF       
Antagonism of Gibberellin to the Ethrel Induced Abscission of Cotton Boll
Author: Xu De-wei and Zheng Ze-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    In order to study the antagonism of plant growth hormones to the ethylene induced abscission of cotton boll. The results of a series of experiments are summarized briefly as follows: First of all, we found that ethylene had abscission-promoting effect on cotton boll. The percentage of abscission of cotton boll induced by ethrel was 100%. The abscission-promoting effect of ethylene on the cotton boll was inhibited not only by gibberellin but also by zeatin. At the end of the experiment it was found that the ovaries which were treated with ethrel in the presence of gibberellin or zeatin can continue to grow and develop into parthenoearpie fruits. In addition, the growth and development of the cotton boils, especially seeds and fibres, were significantly affected by ethylene in the presence of gibberellin.
Abstract (Browse 2086)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological and Embryological Studies on Haploid Plant Production from Cultured Unpollinated Ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L.
Author: Wu Bo-ji and Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    We obtained mature haploid (n = 24) ovary plants from in vitro cultured unpollinated young ovaries. These ovaries were induced to form embryoids which then developed into plants. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The origin of development of the ovary haploid plants has been followed by light microscopy. Embryological abservations revealed that there are two ways of plantlet production: (1) Ovary haploid plant was derived from the macrospore without an intervening callus phase. (2) Ovary haploid plant was derived directly from the egg cell of mature embryo sac. In addition, Callus derived haploid plant was also obtained from the base and the tip of a bud of the above mentioned haploid plantlet. In same medium embryoids was derived from callus. Finally, plantlet was developed. 2. The exogenous hormones are necessary for high induction frequency of embryoid from unpollinated isolated young ovary, but these are not definitely necessary for induction of embryonic callus to form embryoids which then developed into plant. 3. The induction frequency of embryoid from in vitro cultured ovary and embryonic callus significantly increased when the concentration of thiamine, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, inositol and folic acid was raised.
Abstract (Browse 2056)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Chromosome N-Banding in Plants
Author: Zhang Zi-li, Dong Guang-yuan and Lu Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    The present paper is dealing with the investigation of the chromosome N-banding technique and the N-banding patterns in Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, Vicia faba and Allium eepa. Two N-banding techniques were applied. First, the chromosome slides were stained with Giemsa solution. Second, the slides were treated in 1 M NaH2PO4 solution at 92〞94 ⊥ for 3.5〞8.5 min. After rinsing in tap water they were stained with Giemsa solution. The experiments have demonstrated that the N-banding technique is simple and rapid and the banding patterns are distinctive. The data of N-banding patterns indicated that the N bands did not display the nucleolus organisers exclusively. The comparison of the N-banding patterns of these plants with their C-banding patterns shows that in some of these plants although some regions of N-bands and C-bands correspond, there are a number of instances where regions show N-bands but no C-bands and vice-versa. Therefore, a combination of the N-banding and C-banding techniques should be valuable in the cytological identification of plant chromosome. Like the C-bands, the N-bands are also useful markers in cytogenetics.
Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Separation and Structure of a New Anthraquinone from the Roots of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni(Liliaceae)
Author: He Xian-guo, Yu Qi-long, Zhao Zhi-yuan and Song Guo-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    A new anthraquinone, hemerocal (V) along with other four anthraquinones (chryso- phanol, 2-methoxy-obtusifolin, obtusifolin and aloe-emodin) have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni. The structure of hemerocal, as 2, 8-dihydroxy-l-methoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9, 10-anthraquinone, has been established on the basis of spectral evidences, as well as confirmed by chemical reactions. We have in addition studied the 13C NMR of hemerocal and primary assignments of all carbons have been made by utilising the data documented for related compounds.
Abstract (Browse 2008)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphology of the Salt Gland of Spartina anglica Hubbard
Author: Zhou Hong-bin, Jiang Hu-xiang and Dou Run-lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    Apart from roots, rhizome, stem, the adaxial surfaces of the leaf sheaths and palea in the body of the plant of Spartina anglica, the salt glands are found in all other aerial parts, especially, they are abundant in lamina. The gland is composed of two differential cells, a big basal cell and a small, dome- shaped cap cell which is located on the neck-like protrusion of the basal cell. Both of the cap cell and the basal cell have dense cytoplasm, large nucleus, numerous mitoehondria and a few other organelles. The basal cell has wall protuberances, and infoldings of the partitioning membrane system which extend throughout the basal cell, and separate the basal cell cytoplasm. A dominant feature of the cap cell is the distinct compach, nueleolus and its chromatin distributed throughout the karyoplasm. In shoulder and bottom of the basal cell there is no cuticular layer separating them from the epidermal cell and mesophyll cells, but in the walls connceting the basal cell with the epidermal cells and cap cell there are pronounced plasmodesmata. It is possible that devolopment of the gland in Spartina anglica is the same as in S. townsendii, and that pathway of secretion is similar to both of S. foliosa and S. townsendii.
Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fine Structure of Blue-Green Algae and the Cells Lined along the Endophyte Cavity in the Coralloid Root of Cycas
Author: Zhu Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    The ultrastructure of vegetative cells of blue-green alga, Anabaena cycadae, in the coralloid root of Cycas revoluta has the general characteristics of the cyanophycean cells. Their heterocysts are characterized by heavy envelope deposition, well developed pore channel with its plug, absence of large granules as inclusions and reduced and flattened photosynthetic thylakoids. By these characteristical features, the frequency of heterocysts occurring in this algal population of the coralloid root may be estimated to ca. 40%. This high heterocyst frequency is a sign of relatively high activity of nitrogen fixation in this symbiont. The ultrastructure of the cells lined along the endophyte cavity in the coralloid root shows that they have the function to maintain vigorous nutritional transport in short distance. These cells are especially characterized by the presence of numerious outgrowths on the cell wall into the endophyte cavity. Correspondingly, there are abundant mitochondria, dictyosomes and numerious vesicles in the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane becomes tortuous along the cell wall and many secretory granules are present between the plasma membrane and cell wall in the cytoplasm amyloplasts and starch granules also occur constantly. The ultrastructure observed above indicates the fact that there is sound structural basis for the metabolic relationship between the host cells and the symbiont.
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation between the Patterns of Cytomixis and Variation of Chromosome Numbers in Pollen Mother Cells of Jimsonweed ( Datura stramonium L.)
Author: Cheng Kuo-chang, Yang Qing-lan and Zheng Yong-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    The phenomenon of cytomixis is a general occurenee in the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of certain angiosperms. Recently, we found this phenomenon also occurred in jimsonweed. According to our observations and a test of chi-square, it has been shown that the discrepancies between the patterns of intercellular chromatin migration and the variation of chromosome numbers in the PMCs of jimsonweed, as well as rye, are not significant. It means that the patterns of intercellulr chromatin migration and the variation chromosome numbers are related to each other.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Picgeltarraenone I
Author: Cheng Gui-ten, Jin Jing-lan and Gan Li-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
Abstract (Browse 1770)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Algae Community from Wumishan Formation in Jixian County of Hebei Province
Author: Liu Zhi-li, Zhu Hao-ran, Liu Xue-xian and Chen Shu-gu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
Abstract (Browse 1735)  |  Full Text PDF       
Carpel Development in Eelumbo nucifera
Author: Chen Wei-pei, Zhang Si-mei and Yan Su-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Simulation of the Enzymatic Reaction of Methyl Viologen-Nitrate Reductase by the Mo-Fe-S Model Compounds
Author: Shen Jian-xia and Wang Zong-ce
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia subdigitata Mattf by Glass Capillary Gas Chromatography
Author: Shi Zhi-xian and Yuan Xi-zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(2)
    subdigitata Mattf. by glass capillary gas chromatography. Their oils were determined by retention time, standard addition method and GC-MS. 15 components have been identified i.e. 汐-thujene, 汐-pinene, camphene, sabinene, 汕-pinene, myrcene, 汛-3-carene, 汕-ocimene-x, 汕-isopropyl phenol, limonene, 污-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, estragolc, geraniol, methyl eugenol. Their contents have been determined.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
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