March 1982, Volume 24 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Active Principles of Corydalis saxicola Bunting
Author: Ke Min-min,Zhang Xian-de, Wu Lian-zhong, Zhao Yi, Zhu Da-yuan, Song Chun-qing and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Viability of Rice Seed
Author: Shi Si-xin, Jiang Chao-yu and Tian Yue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Studies on Embryoid Formation in Leaf Culture of Saintpaulia ionantha
Author: Zhang Pi-fang, Ni De-xiang, Wang Kai-ji and Bao Zi-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Neogene Flora of Tengchong Basin in Western Yunnan, China
Author: Tao Jun-rong and Du Nai-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The specimens were collected by our expedition from the Neogene flora of Tengchong basin, i.e. 20 families, 29 genera and 35 species, four of which are described as new species, its show with characteristics as follows: 1. Tengehong basin flora developed from the Paleogene flora of Tethys sea and remains some eharaeters of the latter, for example, containing forest forms of Fagaeeae and Lauraeeae with evergreen boradleaves. Since Late Miocene the Himalayas uplifted, the Tecthys sea was recessive from the region, and this region had started aequiring its present day configuration. The climate became arid and cool. The flora was expanded with some deciduous elements. 2. The flora was expanded with Leguminosae elements which may indicate the climate changing to arid. The age of the flora is considered to Late Miocene- Early Plioeene. Its elements closely resemble with the modern ones of Yunnan flora.
Abstract (Browse 2089)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Phytocoenological Features of Quercus phillYraeoides Forest and Its Position in Vegetation Classification
Author: Hu Shun-shi and Wang Xian-pu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The Quercus phillyraeoides is a selerophyllous tree of the Quercus section ilex, vicarious species of Quercus ilex in East Asia. The Quercus phillyraeoides forest mainly occurs on the drier habitats of the top of limestone mountains in Yangshuo district, Guangxi. Analysis of its habitats and phytoeoenological features realizes that, it is very similar to the Quereus phillyraeoides stands along the coastal hills of the Pacificfacing coasts in Japan, and there are also some resemblances to the Quercus ilex stands around the Mediterranean Sea in the physiognomy and structure of community. It seems that it evidently belongs to the category of selerophyllus evergreen broadleaf forests. Suzuki indicated that Quercus phillyraeoides might have come to Japan during the warm dry period previous to the glacial ages. Because of Japan had linked together with the Chinese continent and Chinese Taiwan at that time, it was possibly all the same to China. The charcoal produced from the timber of Quereus phylly- raeoides is of very high quality and used domestically as fuel. So this tree may be used as afforested species of firewood.
Abstract (Browse 2817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Discovery and Significance of Archaeopteris in the Wutong Formation Near Nanjing Kongshan
Author: Wu Chong-zhang, Zhao Lian-cheng and Deng Si-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
Abstract (Browse 1720)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloidal Constituents of the Root of Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz
Author: Zhang Han-qing, Zhu Yuan-long and Zhu Rea-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    Three alkaloids have been isolated from the roots of the Chinese drug Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz collected from Emei Shah, Sichuan Sheng in China, and are provisionally named guayewuanine A, guayewuanine B and guayewuanine C. One of them was identified as yuanaconitine (guayewuanine B) by comparing their physical and chemical properties with authentic sample. Guayewuanine A was found to be a new compound having the molecular C31H43NO9, mp 120 ⊥, by means of interpretation of its IR, MS and NMR spectra, its structure may be suggested as shown figure I.
Abstract (Browse 2001)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Fruits of Lindera glauca (Sieb. et Zuec.) Bl. and Their Uses
Author: Liu Li-ding, Cheng Jing-da and Lan Sheng-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The paper presents the chemical constituents of fruits of Lindera glauca (Sieb. et Zucc.) B1. By applying the techniques of fractional distillation, column chromatography, GC, TLC, PC, chemical methods and spectroscopic data (IR, NMR and MS), the following chemical constituents in essential oils from the fruits and the fatty acids of fatty oil from seed have been identified: There are 13 components in essential oil〞汐-pinene (0.03%), 汕-pinene (2.75%), camphene (2.27%), ocimene (77.99%), nonyl aldehyde (1.08%), capric aldehyde (0.30%), 1,8-cincol (2.47%), borneol (0.21%), citral (0.42%), 汕-cymene (0.63%), safrole (2.60%), bornyl acetate (0.60%), 污-patehoulene (0.69%); 6 fatty acids in fatty oilcaprylic acid (0.28%), eapric acid (55.27%), lauric acid (32.21%), myristic acid (1.18%), palmitie acid (2.72%) and stearie acid (8.94%). In addtion, the use of essential oil of fruit and fatty oil of seed has been studied.
Abstract (Browse 2227)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Model of Relations of Rice Tillering to Light and Temperature Conditions
Author: Jiang De-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    A preliminary study was made for the model of the tillering growth and decline of the rice colonies; which was analytically estimated with the agro-climatic data of 1973每1979 in Shanghai suburbs. The estimating result approximates to the observed value. The model we describe is yx=ao+(af每ao)e[每e(d每x)2]/x2 Here, yx represents the total number of rice stems in unit area when the accumulated temperature is x, which is accumulated by the effective temperature above 10 ⊥ since the transplanting of the rice seedlings, ao is the basic seedling number in unit area, at is the total stem number in tillering peak, and c and d are experiential coefficient which are calculated with experimental data. For the stem number of a single plant, the model is expressed by yox=1+(aof每1)e[每e(d每x)2]/x2 The actual data were used to illustrate that the model mentioned above is applicable not only to both Japonica and Indica rice of all varieties, but also to the description of the regional mean tillering state. When afo is unknown, it can be calculated with its associated light and temperasure conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Trypsin on the Vernalization Process in Winter Wheat
Author: Tan Ke-hui and Zhang Yu-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    This paper deals with the experimental results of the effect of trypsin on the vernalization process in the winter wheat. The variations of both the trypsin-like enzyme activity and the soluble protein content during vernalization in winter wheat seedlings were assayed. The results are as follows: 1. When the vernalization was progressing to the middle stage (around 25 days), the seedlings of the winter wheat were moved into the room temperature for continuous culture. These seedlings possessed the ability to earing after this kind of treatment, but earing development was rather late. Whereas the development of the earing was much earlier by treating them with 100 ppm trypsin just after moving into the room temperature condition. 2. Earing could not be induced by treatment with trypsin (100 ppm) in nonvernalized winter wheat. 3. Vernalization process was promoted in the initial period by trypsin under the low temperature, but it was inhibited in the middle and there was no remarkably effect on the developmental process in the later period. 4. There was no effect by the treatment of trypsin on the spring wheat under the conditions with or without vernalization. 5. The trypsinlike enzyme activity during the cold codication was increased in the initial period, then decreased remarkably later, but at the same time the soluble protein content increased rapidly. These results indicate that at the middle-later period of the vernalization the synthesis of some specific proteins is very important for the proceeding of varnalization.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Oxygen-Scavenging System Protecting Nitrogenase from Oxygen in Cells of Blue-Green Algae
Author: Wang Ye-qin, He Jia-wau and Li Shang-hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    There is a heat stable oxygen-scavenging system (OSS) associated with membrane which reduces oxygen endogenously in cells of blue-green algae. Addition of the OSS to cell suspension of heterocystous oxygen sensitive Anabaena mutant and non-heterocystous Pleetonema boryanum led to an increase in their nitrogenase activity by 10每100-fold higher than those under microaerobic condition and also could restore effectively their acetylene reduction activity at higher oxygen concentration since the oxygen presented was reduced effectively. The results suggest that the OSS possesses a function protecting nitrogenase from oxygen in cells. Furthermore, it was found that the efficiency of reducing oxygen of OSS from the Anabaena mutant and Plectonema was lower than those from Anabaena wild and Gloeocapsa in atm. oxygen level. This may be ralated with the susceptibility of nitrogen fixation to oxygen in the cells of Anabaena mutant and Plectonema. The present study firstly indicades the relationship between the heat stable OSS associated with membrane and the mechanism of protecting nitrogenase from oxygen in cells of blue-green algae. Activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase do not show obvious difference in cellfree extract of Anabaena wild and mutant. Methyl viologen can induce nitrogenase activity of Anabaena mutant by subverting a portion of electon flow to accelerate oxygen reduction.
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Three Different Karyotypes of Wild Rice in China
Author: Chen Rui-yang, Song Wen-qin, Li Xiu-lan, Liang Neng, Chen Tai-qiong, Huang Qiao-yun and Chen Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    In this paper three different karyotypes of wild rice species growing in China were examined, after the preparation of chromosome sample by wall degradation, hypotonic treatment and flame-drying method and stained with Giemsa, i.e., the karyotype of Oryza perennis: K(2n) = 24 =2Asm 20Bsm + 2tCsm; the karyotype of O. officinalis: K(2n) =24=4Am+18Bsm+2tCsm; the karyotype of O. meyeriana: K(2n)= 24= 6Am + 16Bsm + 2tCsm.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Mitotic Prophase Chromosomal Fibers in Vicia faba
Author: Huang Bai-qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The observations have been made on the structures of mitotic prophase nuclei and chromosomes in Vicia faba root meristematic cells. Two methods, i.e., the cell squashing and the nucleus isolation methods, were applied in present study to prepare the specimen of chromosomes and nuclei. Chromosomal fibers 0.3〞0.5 米m in diameter were observed in the squashed preparations stained with Giemsa, and in the isolated nucleus preparations treated with 0.05% EDTA followed by Giemsa staining. Using Feulgen reaction, it has been demonstrated that these fibers are nuclear origin containing DNA. The results suggest that this order of chromosomal fiber may be one structural level in the chromosomes in Vicia faba. This conclusion is in support of the view which holds that there exists an intermediate level of structure between the 250每300Å chromatin fiber and the chromosome.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Tissue Culture ef Medicinal Plants VI. The Cost Question in the Cell Culture of Anisodus acutangulus
Author: Zheng Ouang-zhi, He Jing-b0 and Wang Shi-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    Both increased dry wt. of the culture cells and contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in the culture cells were decreased slightly (decreased about 1.2% and 2.9% respectively) when non-ionic water was used instead of redistilled water in the cell suspension culture of Anisodus acutangulus. But the non-ionic water could reduce costs largely, e.g. power cost etc. (can be reduced about 1030 yuantonne medium). Since non-ionic water can now be mass-produced easily, it suits the needs of industrial production in the future. The increased dry wt. of culture cells was a litter high and contents of two alkaloids was decreased slightly (about 5.4%) in the cell suspension culture of A. acutangulus when store confectioner*s sugar was used instead of sucrose. But the applied quantities of store confectioner*s sugar and costs could be reduce 50% and 88% respectively. The suspension cells of A. acutangulus contain rich amylase (average amylase activity was 4.37 mg reducing sugar/g, fresh wt./hour), so it could use starck as their only carbon source for the growth.
Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Structure and Function of the Vascular Transfer Cells in Garlic Scape
Author: Dong Wei-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The vascular transfer cells in garlic scape havebeen examined with electron microscope. Their structure, distributive feature and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity are studied. The mature vascular transfer cells exhibit the characteristic cell wall ingrowths. The cell contents include a large nucleus, dense cytoplasm and various normal organelles. It is notable that there are numerous mitochondria with well developed, cristae. Plasmodesmata are extensively present in the wall, and transfer cells are connected to adjacent cells by them. The senescing transfer cells become more vacuolated and have a large central vacuole and dense parietal cytoplasm. Their wall ingrowths seem to degenerate and finally disappear. The transfer cells show a particular pattern of distribution in the vascular bundle of the garlic scape. Some of them are present between the vessels of xylem and the sieve tubes of phloem. However, more abundant cell wall ingrowths occur on those walls which abut on, or are close to the vessel of xylem. The other transfer cells are located between the sieve tubes and parenehyma cells. The phloem transfer cell which is adjacent to sieve tube has developed from companion cell. All the transfer cells are mainly concerned with the loading and unloading of sieve tubes. And they may play an important role in facilitating intensive material transfer between two independent systems (i.e. the vessels and sieve tubes, the symplast and apoplast). The results of the cytochemical localization of ATPase using a lead precipitation technique exhibit strong enzyme activity on the plasmalemma of the transfer cells. It is suggested that the transfer cells are especially active in solute movement through them to which cellular energy metabolism coupled.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Morphological Differentiation of Endosperm Plantlets of Chinese Gooseberry in Vitro
Author: Gui Yao-lin, Mn Xi-jin and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    The present report deals with the process of embryoid induction and plantlet formation from cell-type endosperm of Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis and A. chinensis var. hispida. The callus was induced from endosperm on MS basic medium supplemented with zeatin 3 ppm, 2,4-D 0.5 ppm and CH 400 ppm and then transferred to differentiation medium of MS supplemented with zeatin 1 ppm and CH 400 ppm. After about half a month, the embryoid appeared from callus and then developed into plantlets. It could be seen from the histological figure 14〞15, the embryoid of Chinese gooseberry is linear-shaped and consists of cells arranged in a long line in callus. When the cells regenerated at botk ends of the linear-shaped embryoid, the polarity of the embryoid is easily distinguished. The plantlets produced from embryoid appear rather stout at first and after some time, they changes gradually into normal plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study of Proplastid Ontogeny in Tobacco Mesophyll Cells in Vitro
Author: Chu Chih-ching, Sun Ching-san and Li Shou-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(3)
      
    Since the discovery of plastid DNA the continuity of plastids has well been established. It is known that in plant cultures a form of plastid can differentiate into others. However, only a little has been made in studing chloroplast dedifferentiation in vitro. In the work present here, we reported on ultrastructural changes of chloroplasts dedifferentiation and the proplastid origin in the mesophyll cells of cultured tobacco leaf explant. Fully expanded leaves of haploid tobacco (cv. Ge Xin No. 1) were cut into pieces of 5每6 mm width. These were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/l kinetin. The cultures were maintained at (30㊣2) ⊥ and illuminatied by a bank of fluorescent lamps. For electronmicroseopic investigation, after 0, 1, 2, 3, 6 days of culture small leaf fragments were cut off along the cut edges of the explants. The samples were fixed and processed in the manner as described earlier. The sections were examined with a Hitachi HU-11A or a JEM-100CX electronmicroscope. Electronmicroscopic observation shows that the uncultured mesophyll cells are highly vacuolete, with a thin peripheral layer of cytoplasm in which a nucleus and some chloroplasts and other organelles are found in it. But these cells do not contain proplastids (Fig. l). In the explants cultured for 1 day there are no obviously changes in mesophyll cells, except a few cytoplasmic strands extend from periphery to central vacuole. At 2 days of culture quite obvious changes can be detected. A increase in the amount of cytoplasm becomes apparent and transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands grow up. Following cytoplasmic growth, the nucleus and chloroplasts move away from the peripheral cytoplasm and enter the central vacuolate zone (Fig. 2). At this stage some of mesophyll cells have completed the first cell division. After 3 days of culture numerous mesophyll cells have undergone several divisions and formed multicellular masses. In those subdivided cells a more important change of the chloroplasts is the occurrence of protrusions which we call proplastid buds. This phenomenon has also been named as chloroplast budding. According to observations on a large amount of sections chloroplast budding is a common phenomenon in the dedifferentiating mesophyll cells of tobacco leaf explants. Fig ure 3 exhibits a typical profile of a chloroplast with a proplastid bud. The proplastid buds observed are generally long-oval in shape and 1.0每2.5 米m long and about 0.5每0.7 米m thick. These dimensions agree with those of proplastids in meristematie cells. Inside of proplastids ribosomes and electron opaque areas containing DNA fibrils can be seen (Fig. 3). Near the proplastid buds proplastids can often be found (Fig.5). According to above observations we can conclude that the proplastids in dedifferentiating mesophyll cells originate from the proplastid buds by chloroplast budding. The newly formed proplastids usually surround the nucleus and sometimes undergo equal division to increase their number (Figs.5, 6). There are no inner membranes in the newly formed proplastids except vesicles connected with inner membrane of the envelope (Fig.7). While the proplastids are continuously produced, the chloroplasts themselves are filled with starch and gradually turned to large amyloplasts (Fig.5). On the other hand, a few of chloroplasts can divide into equal parts following the chloroplast budding (Fig.4). Israel and Steward (1967) suggested that when cultured carrot cells developed into plantlets the chloroplasts turned into leucoplastids, chromoplastids or proplastids. However, they did not describe how chloroplast became a proplastid. Several investigators reported that the chloroplasts in the dedifferentiating cells gradually lost their grana and intergranal lamellae and then became eueoplasts or proplastids. But according to our observation in tobacco explants, the initiation of proplastids is due to unequal division of chloroplasts, i.e. ※budding fission§ as described by Malzan and Miihlethaler in Splachnum ampullaceum. Since the proplastid is an organelle characteristic of meristematie cells, the ontogeny of proplastids and its control mechanism should be very important in studing cell dedifferentiation.
Abstract (Browse 2069)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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