April 1982, Volume 24 Issue 4


          Research Articles
Shoot Tip Culture of Pear in vitro
Author: Zhao Hui-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Wound Tapping on Laticifer Differentiation in Heves brasiliensis
Author: Hao Bing-zhong and Wu Ji-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two Fossil Woods from Heilongjiang Sheng of China
Author: Du Nai-zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    Two fossil coniferous woods, Xenoxylon latiporosum (Cramer) Gothan and Protopiceoxylon amurense sp. nov. found in Heilongjiang Sheng of China are described in this paper. The diagnosis of Protopiceoxylon amurense sp. nov. is as follows: Growth rings distinct. The transition from the early wood to the late wood slightly abrupt. Tracheids of the early wood square to rectangular in the transverse section. Bordered pits on the radial walls of early wood traeheids 1-2-seriate, opposite, circular with round apertures. The erassula well marked. Walls of the late wood traeheids much thickened. Rays uniseriate and partly biseriate, 1每45 cells high. The highness of the biseriate part is often more than 2/3 that of the ray. Transverse walls of ray cells rather densely pitted and the tangential walls with marked nodular thickenings. The pitting of the cross-field is small, simple or taxodioid type. The axial wood parenchyma absent. The axial resin canal, both traumatic and normal, present, separate or gathered in tangential rows. Epithelial cells with thickwalls are more than 10 in number. The affinities of the two woods are discussed. The age of the fossil woods is assigned to Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It is inferred that they grew in the then north subtropical warm temperate zone and on a hilly area with an elevation of 1000 metres approximately.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Plants and Their Assemblages from the Early Carboniferous in Guangdong
Author: Feng Shao-nan, Hu Yu-fan and Zhu Jia-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    This paper deals with the Lower Carboniferous fossil plants, 19 genera and 41 species including 10 new species, such as Sublepidodeneron wcwgtanense, Lepidodendron sophoroides, Adiantites lianpingensis, A. matouensis, Archaeopteridium shaoguanense, Rhacopteris angusta, Rhodeites lanceolata, Neuropteris shaoguanensis, Potoniea turbinata and P. racemicarpa. According to the distributive regularity of those fossils in stratigraphic section of Early Carboniferous from Guangdong area, the authors propose to divide the flora into three assemblages from lower to upper, namely, 1, Sublepidodendron mirabile assemblage; 2. Cardiopteridium spetsbergense-Adiantites gothanii assemblage; 3. Archaeopteridium-Sphenopteris obtusiloba assemblage, which separately represent the dispositions of Dahu Formation (the 1st assemblage), the lower part of Ceshui Formation (the 2nd assemblage) and upper part of Ceshui Formation or middle part of Zhongxin Formation (the 3rd assemblage).
Abstract (Browse 2201)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Test of Using the Method of Fuzzy Mathematic to Study the Grazing Retrogressive Succession Stages of the Stipa Steppe
Author: Zhao Song-ling, Yang Feng-xiang and Chen Qing-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    Stipa breviflora, Agropyron oristatum and Artemisia frigida Association widely distributes in Qilian Mountain. The method of Fuzzy Mathematic was used to study the division of grazing retrogressive succession stage of the Stipa Steppe. The Degree of Fuzzy in different succession stages are L(Ai) =0.3675, L(Aj) = 0.55745, L(Ak)=0.5831, L(Al) = 0.49175 respectively. The following preliminary conclusions can be drawn by the study: 1. It is confident that using the method of Fuzzy Mathematic to study the stages of grazing retrogressive succession of the Stipa Steppe, one may divide the stages of succession quantitatively and correctly. 2. The result of division shows that degree of fuzzy in the first and last stages is small, yet, in the middle stages is rather big (that means their delimitation is not quite clear). Such a phenomenon may be a common rule in this type of retrogressive succession. 3. The conclusion of this paper confirms that the terms "critical stages" and "critical indicative Species" which the authors have given in the paper of ※Mathematical Models of Retrogression of Population§ under Grazing Condition in the Stipa Steppe "are valuable for the purpose".
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil of Michelia alba Dc.
Author: Zhu Liang-feng, Lu Bi-yao and Xu Dan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The white flowers of Michelia alba DC. Are noted for their strong fragrance and they are widely cultivated in South and Southwest China. The essential oil obtained from the flower is used in teaperfuming as well as in making highly prized perfume. Yellowish oil was acquired with 0.24% yield by steamdistillating the flowers. The essential oil was analysed by means of GC/MS/DS. As a result, 24 constituents were identified as follows: methyl 2-methylbutyrate, campbene, 汕-pinene, 汐-phellandrene, 汕-myrcene, limonene,. 1,8-cineole, ocimene, →3-carene, o-cymene, 汐-cubebene, cis-linalool oxide, 汐-ylangene, trans-linalool oxide, 汕-cubebene, linalool, cis-caryophyllene, 汕-selin- erie, 汛-cadinene, trans-carveol, methyl, eugenol, 汕-bisabolene, methyl isoeugenol, isoaristolene.
Abstract (Browse 3225)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Identification of Phytoecdysones from Dacrydium pierrei Hickel
Author: Hou Song-sheng, Wang Guo-liang and Xia Ke-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    Three crystals were isolated from the bark of Dacrydium pierrei Hickel and were identified by melting point spectral data (UV, IR, MS, NMR) and GC. Hplc. Crystal i is 汕-ecdysone, Crystal j is a jugasterone C. Crystal k consists of ponasterone A (kA) and a new phytoecdysone named dacryhainansterone (kB). Total yield of three crystals is 0.4%.
Abstract (Browse 2153)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on the Reactivation of MoFe Protein Denatured by O2 with FeMoCo
Author: Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling, Zhang Hui-miao, Zhou Jing-dong, Li Yong-xing and Liang Yin-chu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    After exposure to air, the crystalline MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii did not degenerate to any fractions containing Mo, Fe atoms. FeMoCo, extracted from the MoFe protein with organic solvents, was able to reeactivate the denatured MoFe protein, and the acetylene-reduction activity was restored fully or significantly, and the effciency of reactivation for FeMoCo decreased as the time of exposure to air inereased. The results showed that during exposure to air FeMoCo was the first fraction denatured, the other fractions in MoFe protein were denatured with the incasing time of exposure to air.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Wound-Induced CN-Resistant Respiration in Potato Tuber Slices
Author: Liang Hou-guo, Yu Li-jun, Ma Zi-jun and Dai Xiu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The respiration of fresh potato slices was sensitive to CN-, and was not inhibited by m-CLAM in the presence or absence of CN-. By contrast, the wound-induced respiration of slices, incubated in air for 24 hours, was not only relatively resistant to CN-, but also markedly inhibited by m-CLAM in the presence or absence of CN-. When m-CLAM and CN- were added togather, the inhibitory effect was higher than that of them when used separately. The observations indicated that the alternate path is operative in aged potato slices. The data determined by the method of m-CLAM titration showed that the actual contribution of alternate path and cytochrome path in aged potato slices was approximately 28% and 54% of the total respiration respectively in the absence of CN-. When the cytochrome path was inhibited by CN-, the maximal capacity of alternate path (Valt was higher than the actual contribution of them (老﹞Valt). The increased contribution of alternate path in presence of CN- might be thought to indicate that there is a diversion of electron flux from the cytochrome path to the alternate path. When the respiratory flux of aged slices was reduced by treatment with iodoacetate and malonate, the proportions of respiration inhibited by CN- and m-CLAM respectively were not changed.
Abstract (Browse 1993)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of Chloroplast Membrane XI. The Effects of Linolenic Acid on the Structure and the Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Wheat Chloroplast Membranes as well as Regulations by MgCl2
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Tang Chong-qln, Li Shi-yi, Lin Shi-qing, Lou Shi-qing and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The effects of various concentrations of linolenic acid on the structure and the absorption and fluorescence spectra of wheat chloroplast membranes were studied. Linolenic acid increases the absorption peaks in both red and blue regions of the chloroplast membranes. The degree of increase in the absorption peaks is proportional to the concentration within a range of concentration. Linolenic acid increased the fluorescence yield of F685 and F738 of chloroplast membranes. Electron microscopical studies revealed that the increases were mainly due to the disappearance of grana stacks and the unfolding of thylakoid membranes. The causes of effects of linolenic acid on the absorption and fluorescence spectra and the structure of chloroplast membranes as well as the reversion and regulation by MgCl2 were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differentiation Potential and Chromosome Stability of Pollen Callus of Maize in Subcultures
Author: Gu Ming-guang, Zhang Xue-qin, Cao Zi-yi and Guo Cai-yue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    Pollen calli were subcultured for 20 months. According to the degree of totipotency observed during this period they can be divided into the following four types: 1) The potential of differentiation of the calli was lacking. 2) The calli were able to differentiate into a few root-like structure and green spots. 3). The calli were able to grow into not only a few green spots but also a few shoots. But they could not develop into normal plants. 4). This type of callus possessed a great ability of differentiation and regeneration. They could develop into embryoids as well as shoots in the same medium. After transferring on to the regeneration medium, they readily regenerated into green plantlets with profuse roots. When chromosome counts were made on the ealli, it was found that variations in ploidy were not great. From 1539 randomly chosen cells at metaphase stage, 90% were haploid. As the counts were made on the No. 1 callus type and the root-tip cells of the 35 pants regenerated from this same type 89.7% of the former 427 cells and 87.4% of the latter 645 cells were determined to be haploid. The calli of the Type No. 1 possess unlimited totipotency demonstrated by regeneration. These stability and totipoteney may play an important role in practical application and theoretical research of maize.
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Epidermal Cells of Tea Leaves
Author: Yan Xue-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The upper epidrmis of tea leaf consists of cells about 30 40 米 in diameter, with slightly sinuous cell surface and devoid of stomata or hairs. The lower epidermis consists of cells about 50每70 米 in diameter, with more sinuous walls. Stomata confined to the lower surface, surrounded by 3每4 round, subsidiary cells. The upper andlower epidermis of the wild tea of southwest China show the difference in surface texture. Luxuriant wax of the epidermis is in knob or club shape. There are two types of stomata (namely general stomata and stomata of sunken crypts (gland scale)) on the same leaf. The numbers of stomata are distributed 70每100/mm2. Hairs are short and rare, or none. Intercellular flanges between epidermis is steep and thick in wild tea. The protruded parts of the torus are in the form of ※foot§. The flanges of the cuticle are rather deep.
Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Observations on Ovary Culture of Unpollinated Young Flowers in Hordeum vulgare L.
Author: Huang Qun-fei, Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    Young barley flowers of various stages (from megaspore tetrad to mature embryo sac) were used as materials for culture and subsequent embryological observation. Two culture methods, vertical flower culture and horizontal ovary culture, were adopted. The inocula were cultured at nearly 25 ⊥ in dark on N6 medium solidified with agar (0.8%) and supplemented with sucrose (3%每12%), MCPA (0.5每2 ppm), NAA or IAA (lppm) and KT or BAP (0.5每1 ppm). After inoculation, ovaries were sampled at 2每3 day intervals, fixed in aceto-methanol (1:3), stained in toto in diluted Ehrlich*s hematoxylin and sectioned by paraffin method. In all three cultivars tested, embryogenesis within unfertilized embryo sac was observed. The gynogenetic embryos, totally 59 in number, derived mostly from egg apparatus, but some of them came from antipodals too. Usually only one embryo was located in an embryo sac, but in a few cases, two embryos within one embryo sac were observed. The first embryogenie division was transverse in direction, resulting in a basal cell and a terminal cell. The basal cell elongated strikingly and thus pushed the terminal cell toward the center of the embryo sac. Subsequent divisions often led to the formation of a proembryo with peculiar linear shape. Later, multicel- lular embryoids with various sizes and shapes were observed. Some of them showed organ differentiation. Most of the differentiating embryoids were similar to the ordinary zygotic embryo of barley, with a terminal scutellum and a lateral coleoptile. However, some of them showed some abnormal appearance. Ovaries inoculated at megaspore tetrad stage could not be induced to gynogenesis, although in a few cases probable nucellus embryos were observed. Instead, ovaries inoculated at later stages (from uninucleate to mature embryo sacs) did give rise to gynogenetic embryogenisis without the occurence of adventitious embryogeny. The induction-frequency was higher in materials inoculated at 8-nucleate or mature embryo sac stages than at earlier stages. In the latter cases, triggering of embryogenesis could take place only when the embryo sacs were well-differentiated after a period of game tophytie development during culture. Gynogenetic embryos could be induced by both vertical flower culture or horizontal ovary culture, but the former was superior in providing better conditions for growth of ovaries and embryo sacs and thus yielded more embryoids. Divisions of unfertilized polar nuclei leading to endosperm-like free nuclei were also found in cultured ovaries. However, such structure was not likely to play a similar role of nurse tissue as in vivo for the gynogenetic embryos in vitro, since it did not often accompany the occurence of embryoids within the same embryo sacs.
Abstract (Browse 1970)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of the Vitality of Armillaria mellea and the Histochemicam Localization of Some Enzymes in the Hyphae Digested Period of Gastrodia elara
Author: Liu Cheng-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The changes of the vitality of Armillaria mellea of infecting corm of Gastrodia elata were observed by appling the live body staining method of acridine orange and by means of fluorescence microscopy. The green fluorescence of vitality was emitted by the first infected hyphae, the yellow one by the decrepit hyphae; but the orange to red fluorescence with the lost vitality were emitted by the fragmentary hyphae and clump form bodies. The large cells containing rich, RNA and protein had been confirmed by the method of the induced fluorescence which the acridine orange and by the method at pH 2.2 which the fast-green staining. The acid-phosphatase was mainly distributed within the cortical cells filled with the infected hyphae. There were few such deposits in the socalled large cells except their walls. The activity of the esterase was shown in the cortical cells filled with the infected hyphae. It were also shown in the clump form bodies and the collapsed nuclei of the large cells. The activities of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase was notably shown in the cortical cells filled with the infected hyphae and the large cells.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Histology and Histochemistry of the Morphogenesis of Stem Segment in Chinese Gooseberry Cultured in vitro
Author: Gui Yao-lin and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The stem segments of Chinese gooseberry cultured in vitro, 2ip added in the medium would give good effect on the regeneration of the plantlet same as zeatin. The effect of 6-BA was less and kinetin almost had no effect. Inhibition was found in almost all cases, when gibberellie acid (GA3) or GA3 (1,5, 10 ppm) combined with zeatin was used. Calli were originated from cambium and ploem. The primary xylem elements also participated in the formation of callus. The shoot primordium originated from the surface cells of callus and the subepidermal cells also participated in it. In certain conditions, shoot primordium was produced from internal part of callus. During the shoot primordium formed, a positive correlation between the starch accumulation and primordium formation could be obtained. The accumulated starch in the cells gradually disappeared as the shoot formation proceeded.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Antitumor Prineiple Maytansine, Maytanprine and Other Constituents from Gymnosporia diversifolia
Author: He Zhi-sheng, Zhou Yun-li, Ma Guang-en, Xu Ren-sheng and He Qi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(4)
    The potential antitumor principles, maytansine and maytanprine were isolated from the overground parts of Gymnosporia diversifolia for the first time. The method of separation was modified by application of dry column chromatography, low pressure column chromatography and other separation techniques. Besides, six known compounds were also isolated and identificated as dulcitol, friedelin, 汕-amyrin, 汕-sitosterol, kaempferitrin and kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside respectively. The latter two flavonoids were not reported in this genus before.
Abstract (Browse 1981)  |  Full Text PDF       
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