May 1982, Volume 24 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Enzymatic Isolation of Embryo Sacs in Angiosperms: Isolation and Microscopical Observation on Fixed Materials
Author: Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    An enzymatic technique was developed to isolate the embryo sacs (ES) of angiosperms. ES could be isolated from the surrounding ovular tissue and remain their structural entireness. Fixed ovules of Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba and Brassica campestris var. purpurea were macerated by pectinase-eellulase solution in a micro- shaker at 2830 for about 5 h. The resulted cell suspensions containing ES were washed, centrifuged, cleared in lactophenol and then observed by Nomarski interference contrast or negative phase contrast microscopy (Plate ). Various methods for observing ES are discussed. The enzymatic technique shows many merits, especially in view of further histochemical and physiolcgical study on viable ES as well as in vitro culture of ES.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of the Canal Cell in the Style of Lilium regale
Author: Hu Shi-yi, Zhu Cheng and Xu Li-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    The fine structure of canal cell in the style of Lilium regale has been observed under light and electron microscopes by OMA thin section method and ultra-thin section method respectively. The ultrastructural specialization of the canal cells during their functional stages may be characterized as follows: 1. The cell wall on the secretory face of the canal cell has numerous branched ingrowths extending into the cytoplasm, and the plasmalemma closely follows the contours of the ingrowths to form the wall-membrane apparatus. This pattern of distribution of plasmalemma increases the surface-volume ratio of the cell to facilitate the secretion of solutes out of the cell. 2. The cell wall under the thin layer of cuticle on the outside of the secretory face is digested starting from the outer part and gradually extending to the inner part to form a large space, the temporary secretory layer. During the secretion of products by the cell, the thin layer of cuticle becomes ruptured in many places and finally disappeared. Therefore the cell wall of the secretory face remains a thin layer only at that time. The change of the layers of the cell wall is involved in the mechanism of cell secretion. 3. The ultrastructural characteristics of the canal cell indicate that this cell is active in synthesis, intercellular transport and energyn metabolism. Some of the major facts seen in all cases included the highly lobing of nucleus, abundance of endoplasmie reticulum throughout the cytoplasm and well developed mitochondria, dictyosomes and polysomes. During the secretory stage of the cell, mitochondria apparently concentrate near the wall-membrane apparatus. 4. There are numerous granular and vesicular structures near the wall-membrane apparatus on the secretory face, especially at the space between wall ingrowths and plasmalemma. The presence of these granular and vesicular structures is thought to be related to the secretory function of the cell. According to the specialized characteristics the canal cell is evidently a typical transfer cell of the secretory type.
Abstract (Browse 1965)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Perfume of Rosa banksiae R. Br. Var. Normalis Regel and R. Multiflora Thunb. var. Cathayensis Rehd. Et. Wils
Author: Zhang Shao-zhen, Liu Lian, Yang Hui-wen and Geng Jian-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
Abstract (Browse 1741)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Typical Extreme Xerophyte-Reaumuria Soongorica in the Desert of China
Author: Liu Jia-qiong Qiu Ming-xin, Pu Jin-chun and Lu Zuo-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
Abstract (Browse 1773)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Relationships among Corn Varieties of Shaodong by Isoperoxidase Electrophoretogram
Author: Liu Zheng-meng, and Zhang Jian-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of -Radiation on Formation of Albino Pollen Plants in Rice
Author: Zhao Cheng-zhang, Lang Li-juan, Pan Yu-cai and Liu Ding-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Formation from Protoplasts of Chinese Wolfberry ( Lycittm chinense)
Author: Sun Yong-ru, Li Wen-bin, Huang Mei-juan and Li Xiang-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Flora of Anhui
Author: Wu Cheng-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    The major characteristic of flora in Anhui are summed up in three points: 1. Since Anhui is situated in the south-east part of China, the compositions of northern and southern Chinese flora occur in this district, so it is very rich and comprehensive flora in Anhui. 2. A lot of relict species of the pre-glacial flora in this district reveal the ancientry of its origin. The author believes that the flora of Anhui is slightly influenced by geological factors, but the glaciation of Pleistocene is concerned. 3. There are many endemic genes and species which disclose the unigue habitat of this district. The flora of Anhui is close related to the adjacent provinces and the floristic regions in the country. The southern Anhui is situated in the floristic region of East China, it also shows close phylogenetical relation to the floristic regions of central, south-western and southern China. On the other hand, the northern Anhui on the upper course of Hui river belongs to the floristic region of northern China, the compositions of the local flora are in connection with the floristic regions of northern China, eastern Nei Monggol and east-northern China.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Miocene Diatom Assemblage of Shanwang, Shandong Sheng
Author: Li Jia-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    Analysis of the diatomaceous earth collected from the Miocene type section in the Shanwang Basin of Shandong shows that the diatom assemblage there contains 16 genera, 95 species and varieties (of which 3 being new species), This fairly typical Miocene diatom assemblage may be correlated with the Miocene assemblage in Yakima district and Otis basin of Oregon, U.S.A. and those in W. Siberia, USSR. It is proved from the characteristics of the present diatom assemblage that the palaeoeeologieal environment during the diatom deposition was typically fresh lacus- trine facies, and the original lake surface was fairly extensive and the lake water was comparatively stable, but not very deep. The diatom assemblage contains species living now in more northern water bodies. This may be further proved by the associated grown cysts of Chrysophyta. The thin-bedded papery diatomaceous earth may be contributed partly to the fall of volcanic ashes, but most probably it is closely related to the seasonal palaeoclimatic changes as reflected in the growth repreduction stages of the diatoms.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Constituents of Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd et Wils III. The Constituents of the Lignan in Different Districts and the Structure of d-epigalbacin
Author: Huang Mei-fen, Fang Sheng-ding and Kao Yao-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    The contents of the main active principles, Schisantherin A, B, and C from Schisa. ndra sphenanthera Rehd et wils from different growing area, have been determinated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed to be very different in the content from different districts. Meanwhile, a new lignan compound, named depigalbacin, has been isolated from the fruits of this plant, collected from the Hengkou district of Shanxi Sheng. By means of spectral analysis, oxidation and preparation of derivative, its structure and conformation are established as Ia. This compound has never been reported in the literature so far.
Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Chemical constituents of the Volatile Oils from the Fresh Leaves of Camellia sinensis Kuntze
Author: Lin Zheng-kui, Hua Ying-fang, Gu Yu-hong, Ma Ji, Chen Pu and Xiao Yu-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    The fresh leaves of Camellia sienesis (L.) Kuntze were distilled under low temperature and reduced pressure, the distillate thereof was extracted with ether, which gave rise to the volatile oil. From the volatile oil, by applying the GC, TLC, and IR, 51 components have been analyzed and identified. In addition, the variation law of the aroma of the fresh tea leaves in spring, summer and autumn has also been studied and determined. The main aroma of the fresh leaves of Camellia sienesis (L.) Kuntze are: cis-3- hexen-l-ol (spring, 2.15%; summer, 3.13%; autumn, 15%), benzyl alcohol (spring, 1.23%; summer, 1.60%; autumn, 1.01%), trans-linalooloxide (furanoid) (spring, 4.23%; summer, 4.11%; autumn, 3.18%), linalool (spring, 19.84%; summer, 8.20%; autumn, 11.91%), trans-linalooloxide (pyranoid) (spring, 1.73%; summer, 1.28%; autumn, 0.91%), geraniol (spring, 25.46%; summer, 3.93%; autumn, 3.16%), trans-2-hexenal (spring, 3.52%; summer, 25.48%; autumn, 1.13%), -ionone (spring, 0.31%; autumn, 0.02%), cis-jasmone (spring, 0.20%; summer, 0.17%; autumn, 0.05%).
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Actinomycin D and Cycloheximide on the Dedifferentiation of Cotyledon in Phaseolus radiatus L. and Its Nucleic Acid and Protein
Author: Zhang Jing-lan, Tang Ding-tai, Xu Gui-fang, Niu Yu-xian and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    Calli were induced from cotyledon segment of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) in Miller medium supplemented with NAA 4 mg/l, kinetin 10 mg/L. The callus formation was completely prevented by the addition of actinomycin D 15 g/mL or cyclo- heximidc 0.5 g/mL at 0 hour. The inhibitory effect of actinomycin D or cycloheximide was increased with the increment of concentration but decreased when the inhibitory agents were added a few hours later. If actinomycin D or cycloheximide was added at 24 hour culture it inhibits neither the induction of callus formation nor the proliferation. The content of RNA, DNA and protein were determined. RNA in each segment increased obviously in the early stage of callus formation, but DNA and protein increased slightly afterward. It is suggested that a large increase of RNA is the characteristic of dedifferentiation of cotyledon in P. radiatus. In addition, it has also been shown that an actinomycin D or cycloheximide-sensitive process in the early stage of dedifferentiation is crucial for the callus formation. Both RNA and protein synthesis are required for the initiation of dedifferentiation.
Abstract (Browse 2106)  |  Full Text PDF       
Keto Acids and Cyanide-Resistance in Plant Mitochondria
Author: Feng De-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    Mitoehondria from different plants, such as corn, wheat, mung bean and cucumher, were studied with respect to relative rate of oxidation of different substrates. It was found that the degree of cyanide-sensitive respiration in isolated mitochondria from different plants was dependent upon the nature of substrates. With -ketoglutarate as the electron donor, resistance to cyanide of the respiratory chain was higher than that with other substrates. In the case of adding -ketoglutarate, the mitochondrial oxidation inhibited by cyanide could be partially recovered, where as the inhibition of azide could not be recovered. This fact showed that the alternative terminal oxidases may not exist when keto acids was used as substrates because cyanide was ineffective as an inhibitor owing to removal the cyanide by eyanohydrin fomation.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Hybrid Endosperm Culture of Wheat-Rye In Vitro
Author: Wang Ching-chu, Lu Wen-liang and Kuang Bai-jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    The endosperm culture of wheat-rye hybrid was studied in order to explore a new pathway of chromosome engineering. The preliminary results were obtained to show that the endosperm callus formation could be induced from the young endosperm within 7C14 days after crossing on the medium supplemented with 2 ppm 2,4-D, 0.5 ppm kinetin and 3%C8% sucrose. The induction frequency of callus amounts to 35.3%. When the calli were transfered onto an auxin step-down medium containing 0.5 ppm IAA and 1 ppm kinetin, both shoots and roots were formed. 4 endosperm plantlets were obtained. The chromosome number in somatic cells of endosperm plantlets was very unstable. The numbers varied from 642, but there is no 49 to be found. The chromosome number with 14 times of 7 can be found in higher percentage.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cultivation of Hybrid Cotton in Vitro to Overcome the Incompatibility of Hybridization between the Species
Author: Zhang Sheng-zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    23 days after cross-pollination the hybrid ovules of cotton (Gossypium hirsutumG. arboreum) were cultivated in vitro. The hybrid zygot in excised ovule started to divide, frequently passing through several stages to develop into cotyledonous embryos. The embryos were inducted into seedlings. The hybrid plants in blossom were obtained as a result. The histological study was done for ovules of self- pollination in vivo and of cross-pollination in vitro. The early abortion of endosperm in hybrid ovules was observed. In the prophase the nucellus was disintegrated slowly, and in the middle and terminal phase it disintegrated more rapidly. These were identified in hybrid F1. The size of corolla is intermadiate form between female and male. The violet-red spots at the base of petals are similar to male, while there are no such spots in female. None of the pollen can fertilize. Hybrid F1 is not fertile after self-pollination or backcross by the pollen of parent. The chromosome number in root tip Cell of hybrid F1 is 2n=3x=39.
Abstract (Browse 1950)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Localization of ATPase Activity in the Cells of the Apical Meristem Zone, Elongation Zone and Root Hair Zone of Tomato Roots
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Sun Long-bua and Sun De-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1982 24(5)
      
    A comparative study on the cytochemical localization of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity reaction in the cells of the apical meristem zone, elongation zone and root hair zone of tomato roots was carried out by electron microscopic observations of lead phosphate precipitation. The following experimental results have been obtained: In the meristematic cells of tomato roots, the heavy lead phosphate deposits indicating a very high activity of ATPase were localized at plasmalemma, plasmodesmata, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, nucleoli and chromatin (Figs. 12). The reaction products of ATPase activity were also observed at some sites of ground cytoplasm and cell wall, but they were not found in little vacuoles and on tonoplast. In the cells of elongation zone, the ATPase activity at plasmalemma and plasmodesmata was as high as that in the meristematic cells of root tip, while the ATPase activity at nucleoli, chromatin, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies was markedly lowered. On the other hand, the high ATPase activity was produced on the tonoplast of the developing and enlarging vacuoles (Fig. 3). In the cells of root hair zone, the high ATPase activity was shown at plasmalemma, tonoplast and intercellular spaces, but the ATPase activity at nucleoli, chromatin and endoplasmic reticulum was wholly inactivated. (Figs. 47). The above results indicate that the ATPase activity with membranes and organelles is altered when the functions of cells and organelles change. Therefore, it is evident that the ATPase activity may be closely related to many physiological functions.
Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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