January 1983, Volume 25 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Nitrogenous Compounds of the Leaf Cavity Liquid of Azolla in Relation to the Symbiosis of Azolla and Anabaena azollae
Author: Xu Yun-lu, Bai Ke-zhi, Yu Ssi-ling, Cui Cheng(Tsui, C.), lie Bao-zhen and Xu Yiu-zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
Abstract (Browse 1699)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Occurrence and Significance about the Fossil Plants from the Yuntaiguan Formation Located between Hunan and Hubei
Author: Zhu Jia-nan, Hu Yu-fan and Feng Shao-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    This paper deals with the fossil plants from the Yuntaiguan formation located between Hunan and Hubei province. There are six genera and ten species (containing a new genus and five new species) to be discussed here, such as Protolepidodendron scha-ryanum Krejci, Barrandeina dusliana (Krejci) Stur, B. contigua sp. nov., B. lixianensis sp. nov., B. multistriata sp. nov., B. laxa sp. nov., Drepanophycus spinaeformis Goepp., ※Protopteridium§? minutum Halle, Psilophyti4es sp. and Longostachys latisporophyllus gen. et sp. nov., etc. The appearance of this fossil flora concerned here can be correlated to the Protolepidodendron scharyanum-Barrandeina dusliana Assemblage. Among these fossil plants from Yuntaiguan formation, both the Protolepidodendron scharyanum and Barrandeina dusliana are also the index fossils, the prior was wide spread during the Middle Devonian in whole world and the other was only found at the late Middle Devonian in Europe. In the Yuntaiguan formation the genus Barrandeina containing no less than five species and, the other taxa were also found from the Middle or the late Middle Devonian. So that this formation should be referred to the late Middle Devonian in age and this conclusion corresponds with the result of spore-pollen analysis in the Xiushuigou formation, Xiongzi county, which is similar to the Yuntaiguan formation and has been referred to the Middle Devonian. In this paper, only four species of Barrandeina and one species of Longostachys have been described, those of the former have not been found before in China. The authors think; this will be significant on studying fossil plants and in comparison with the age of the strata.
Abstract (Browse 2142)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nutrient Cycling in Hampsfell Bracken Grassland Ecosystem, England
Author: Chen Ling-zhi and D. K. Lindley
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    The nutrient flow in bracken stands during year showed an inerement of nutrients in standing crop from winter to autumn, reabsorbing the nutrients by plants from soil. In autumn the senescence of live fronds results in a loss of nutrients to standing dead and the nutrients in some below ground standing crop is lost to dead rhizomes. Annual uptakes were estimated to be 17.6 g/m2 potassium, 16.4 g/m2 nitrogen, 12.8 g/m2 calcium, 3.14 g/m2 manganese, 2.47 g/m2 iron, 2.12 g/m2 phosphorus. Compared the annual uptake of elements by bracken with nutrient budget in soil, the efficiency of elements absorbed from soil varied from 0.012 for nitrogen to 1.36 for iron.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Determination of a Repellent Principle in the Essential Oil of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.
Author: Ding De-sheng and Sun Han-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    Mentha haplocalyx Briq. is a plant which belongs to the Mentha genus of the Labiatae family. Yellowish-green oil is obtained from the leaves and stems with 0.05% yield by steam-distillation. Then the oil is fractionated and the isolated compound is purified by recrystallization. White prism crystal is obtained. It is identified as d-8-acetoxycarvotanacetone by UV, IR, NMR and MS. The mixed melting point of synthetic and natural samples has no depression. Their physical constants and spectral behavior also agree with each other. Thus, the structure of the crystalline compound isolated from the oil of Men, ha haplocalyx Briq. is confirmed to be d-8-acetoxycarvotanacetone. The compound has good repellent effect to mosquitoes, gnats and gadflies.
Abstract (Browse 1912)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Relationship between Peroxidase Activity and Germination of Pinus koraiensis Seeds and on Metabolic Inhibitors in the Seeds
Author: Zhang Liang-cheng, Guo Wei-ming and Chen Yong-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    The effect of both stratificating and decoating on germination and peroxidase activity of Pinus koraiensis seeds suggest that some role might be played by peroxidase in seed dormancy. Crude extract of seed are strongly inhibiting peroxidase activity and respiration in addition to hindering seed germination. Paper and thin layer chromatographic analyses have provided evidence that these activities are not attributable to the substance present in extracts which can inhibit germination. Experimental data reveal the presence of at least two kinds of peroxidases with different stability and different effects on the time course of peroxidase reaction. The inhibition on isoperoxidases and peroxidases are different from different biological sources.
Abstract (Browse 2148)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Studies of the Stabilizing Factor of the Nitrate Reductase(E. C. 1.6.6.2) Activity from the Tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum)Leaves
Author: Li Zhi-zheng and An Lin-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    A stabilizing factor of NR activity was isolated from tomato leaf homogenate by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, boiling water treatment, Sephadex G-75 column and DEAE 52 column and dialysis against water. This factor appeared as band on polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis. This factor protected NR activity of tomato leaves from inactivation by temperature. It delayed the inactivation of N-R activity in wheat seedlings. when mixed with stabilizing factor and stored at 0 ⊥ for nine days NR from wheat seedlings still kept its activity; without stabilizing factor, its activity was lost completely. Stabilizing factors both treated in boiling water in the process of isolation and isolated below 4 ⊥ could stabilize and increase NR activity of tomato leaves. This factor existed in two forms, one free and one combined with some protein. It could be separated from the protein by heating during extraction. The stabilizing factor is different from FAD, haem, and proline.
Abstract (Browse 1647)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparisons between C-banding Patterns on Root Tip Chromosomes of Different Cultivars in Maize( Zea mays)
Author: Song Yun-chun and Liu Li-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    The technique of Giemsa banding, C-banding patterns on the root tip chromosomes and the chromocentres of interphase nuclei with three eultivars (Dai Zi Bai, Qun Dan 105 and 2℅6) of maize were studied. The results are as follows: 1. After fixation and treatment in a saturated solution of barium hydroxide the preparations were incubated in 0.5℅SSC, I℅SSC, 3℅SSC, 4℅SSC or distilled water respectively fori h at 60 ⊥ and the other steps in C-banding procedure were not changed so as to find the optimum saline concentration for Giemsa banding in maize. The experimental results shown that 0.5℅SSC was the best. But bands could not produced very well by treating samples in distilled water. 2. There were terminal, subterminal and centric bands in Dai Zi Bai and Qun Dan 105. The C-banding patterns on the root tip chromosomes of these two cultivars were different from each other. Qun Dan 105 had 10 prominent bands in total, while Daf Zi Bai had 7. The banding patterns of each chromosome were described in detail. 3. The average chromocentres per cell in Dai Zi, Qun Dan 105 and cultivar 2℅6 were 7.1, 10.9 and 7.2 respectively. Their prominent band numbers on the chromosomes were 7, 10 and 8 correspondingly. It seems that the number of C-bands on the chromosomes is close to that of chromocentres.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Mangrove Communities in Guangxi
Author: Lin Peng and Hu Ji-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
Abstract (Browse 1670)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Components of Umbilicaria esculenta Hiyoshi Minks
Author: Zhang Zhen-jie, Hu Jie-quan and Yuan Xi-zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
Abstract (Browse 1623)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Viburnum odoratissimum Ker
Author: Su Jing-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
Abstract (Browse 1771)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oallus Induction and Regeneration of Plantlets from Artemisia annua and Changes of Qinhaosu Contents
Author: He Xi-chun, Zeng Mei-yi, Li Guo-feng and Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
Abstract (Browse 1782)  |  Full Text PDF       
Initial Patterns of Androgenesis in Wheat Anther Culture
Author: Pan Jing-li, Gao Gong-hong and Ban Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    1. There are mainly two modes of first divisions from pollen cells diverted into sporophytes in anther culture of wheat, i.e. equal and unequal divisions. According to Feulgen reaction of its daughter nuclei and whether they participate in the formation of multicellular pollen or not, we distinguished four basic types of the abnormal pollen, i.e. type A, B. C and D. C and D are the types in which their generative nuclei were involved in the formation of multicellular pollen. 2. Before inoculation, the excised anthers on Ne liquid medium supplemented with 10% sucrose were subjected to a pretreatment for 72 h at 3每5 ⊥, then the anthers were suspended on N6 liquid medium containing 12 mg/L IAA, 2 mg/L kinetin, 300 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 10% sucrose. Under these conditions the mean amount of multicellular pollen grains per anther might be increased to 21.42. 3. We also found that the early development of pollens was related to the viability of anther wall tissue. Comparatively, higher exogenous hormones could keep viability and prolong the life of anther wall cells.
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization of Callose during the Occurrence of Megasporocyte in Gastrodia elata Blume
Author: Liaug Han-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    The structure of ovule in Gastrodia elata Blume was very simple. Functional megaspore occurred at the chalazal end. Callose was absent at megasporocyte stage. It first appeared at the chalazal wall during the first meiotic prophase and exhibited continuous fluorescence. Soon later callose fluorescence disappeared in some part of the chalazal wall and many noncallosic dark areas took place, subsequently these nonfluorescence areas became larger and the callose fluorescence appeared discontinuous granulose distribution. This fluorescence maintained until the megaspore formed. The callose of micropylar wall appeared later and usually disappeared before megaspore formation. In the cross walls between the functional and the two degenarated megaspore callose fluorescence was very strong, continued and kept for a long time. But the side walls usually lacked callose. Accoding to the morphological character of simple ovule in G. eiata and the localization of acid phosphatase and polysaecharide grains, the transfer of vegetative materials from surrounding tissues into megasporocyte mainly passing through the chalazal end of megasporocyte. Thus a continuous callose wall deposited at the ehalazal end of megasporocyte, and it in reality caused the ※isolation§ of meiocyte. It was possible that a reduced form of callose disposition existed in parasetic orchids.
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Induction of Haploid Plantlets from Unpollinated Young Ovaries of Lily and Its Embryo logical Observations
Author: Gu Zhu-ping and Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    Unpollinated young ovaries of lily (Lilium davidii var. willmottiae (Wilson) Roffill) were inoculated on modified MS medium and N6 medium. Ovary cultures were incubated at 25每28⊥, and illuminated with a fluorescent light of about 800每1200 Lux. Cultured ovaries gradually became thicker and longer after 10 days. The calli (about 6每12 mm in size) were produced after 40 days. The calli were then transferred to the differentiation medium. After 50 days, regeneration plantlets were formed. Embryoids were directly produced from some ovaries, which then developed into plantlets. Observation of chromosome number of regeneration plants shows: 65.71% regeneration plants are haploid plants, 34.29% are diploid. Embryological observation of ovary culture shows that haploid plants are from megaspore tetrad, while diploid plants are probably from nucellus cell.
Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Observatiun of the Sex-Chromosomes of Rumex acetosa in China
Author: Wu Shi-bin and Lee Cheng-lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    The Rumex acetosa L. in China possesses sex-chromosomes 2n=12A+XX in female plant and 2n=12A+XY1Y2 in male plant. The sex-chromosomes of male plant exhibit a chain of trivalent (Y1-X-Y2) in diakinesis of PMC meiosis. At metaphase i, they make a V-shaped or a ring configuration. Some of them may form a XY-bivalent and a Y-univalent. Finally two kinds of reale gametes e.g. 6A+X and .6A+YY, are produced. Monoecious plant may be found in R. acetosa and has 22 chromosomes (22=18A+ XX+YY). This is a triplont with sterility. Cells with different chromosome number in the same plant have also seen in R. acetosa, and such plant never blooms in its life.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intra and Inter-Cellular Changes in Constitution during the Development of Laticiferous System in Garlic Scape
Author: Zhang Wei-chen, Yan Wen-mei and Lou Chen-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    Systematic investigations, mainly based on electron microscopy, have been conducted on constitutional changes in the laticifer and its adjoining parenchyma during the development of laticiferous system in garlic scape. The laticiferous system of the scape consists of several layers of articulated unbranched latieifers. About half of them are situated 2每3 cell layers below the epidermis, and the rest scattered throughout the cortex (Fig. 23). Latieifer differentiation starts with a thinning out and vacuolation of the dense protoplasm in the latieifer initials (Fig.2), which is followed by gradual degeneration of nuclei, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, and dictyosomes; and by a sharp diminution of free ribosomes (Figs.3, 4). Remanent and defective forms of some organelles can still be found in the laticifer at the later stage. In spite of these drawbacks, the differentiating laticifer appears to function actively. Its protoplasm is delimited by a distinct plasmalemma (Figs. 3, 4). Its wall is interspersed with pits inclose spacings, to which most plasmodesmata are confined (Figs. 8, 24). The cell interior is packed with vesicles and mitoehondria (Figs. 4, 11, 15). Structurally, the laticifer seems well adapted to material exchange with the adjoining parenchyma. During the sprouting stage of the scape, the laticifer initials enlarge itself or fuse with each other by lateral wall dissolution to extend the diameter; at the same time, the laticifer elongates at an increasingly rapid rate. As a final result, the laticifer can attain 30每50 times the length and 2每3 times. the diameter of the adjoining parenchyma. The electron-dense material which protrudes into the laticifer initial from the parenchyma may be of lysosomal nature and probably concerned with wall dissolution and intracellular lytic processes in latieifer formation (Figs. 5, 7, 10). An excised garlic scape is employed in the observation of mature laticifers, which is always full of sap and is quite turgid. Once the scape is cut open, sap exudes almost exclusively from the cut end of the laticifers at the periphery, which lasts only some seconds. However, if the scape is left aside for a few days, exudation will again take place at the fresh cut end. Unlike the milky juice of many latex plants, the sap exuded from the garlic scape is watery and slightly turbid. The organic solute content is mainly made up of simple sugar and amino acids. It also contains a small amount of proteins and even protoplasmic fragments. Besides, it is worthy to note that decrease in organic solutes in the exudation is closely connected with the degree of exhaustion of cell contents from the withering scape, which is, as has already been shownm the sole agent of supplying materials required for the formation of apical cloves. All the above facts seem to indicate that there exists a loading and unloading process in the latieifer. Our electron micrographs (Figs. 16, 22) give evidence that vesicular transport through plasmodesmata in the pit field is capable of performing such a process: from the parenchyma to the laticifer in loading and from the latter to the former in unloading. The possible role of the laticifers in garlie scape could be a temporary storage of cell contents released successively from the deteriorating parenchyma. The sap content in the laticifer is in full turgidity as a result of loading, and can be readily drawn by unloading if so required. Transcellular cytosis is a term tentatively given by us to designate intercellular transport of sap, solutes, and macromolecular particles in small vesicles, which are formed and packed in one celt, traverse through plasmodesmata and merge into the other; whereas endo and exoeytosis refer to vesicular transport in a single cell only and to its moving in and out of the cell primarily through the plasma membrane, which also takes active part in the formation and dissolution of the vesicle and in the enclosure and release of its content. Transcellular cytosis was first observed by us in the withering parenchyma of an excised garlic scape; and, in the present case, between the latieifer and parenehyma, both being active functionally. As compared with the early notion that intercellular material transport is primarily carried out by secretion and reabsorption of highly degraded products through plasmalemma, transcellular eytosis appears to be a far more efficient means of translocating prefabricated assortment and well packed cargo from one cell into the other.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transfer Cells in Suspensur and Endosperm during Early Embryogeny of Vigna sinensis
Author: Hu Shi-yi, Zhu Cheng and Zee S. Y.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(1)
      
    During early embryogeny, structural differentiation of the suspensor and endosperm can be observed with the formation of cells with wall ingrowths. In the early proembryo stage, wall ingrowths are seen only on the boundary walls of the embryo sac around the proembryo and at the chalazal end. Later, ingrowths appear in the outer walls of the basal suspensor cells and some wall ingrowths also begin to develop in the outer walls of cellular endospermic cells adjacent to the nucellar cap and the inner integumentary tissues. The suspensor appears to remain active throughout the differentiation stages. Two regions can be clearly distinguished in the suspensor: a basal region and a neck region. Wall ingrowths appear to form only in the cells of the basal region. During the development of the cellular endospermic sheath, its cell number and size both increase slightly. Later, these cells rapidly become separated from each other. Those endospermic cells that abut directly onto the integumentary tissues also develop wall ingrowths. In the region of the fluid endosperm, wall ingrowths are especially abundant in the boundary walls on the ventral side of the embryo sac. The possible pathway of nutrient flow to the developing embryo is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1713)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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