February 1983, Volume 25 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Morphological Observations an the Symbiosis of Anabaena and Azolla in Development from Megasporocarp to Young Sporophyte
Author: Ye Xiu-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
Abstract (Browse 1545)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study of Test-Tube Fertilization of Riee (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Zhang Ting-bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
Abstract (Browse 1583)  |  Full Text PDF       
Petroleum Sporo-Pollen Assemblages and Oil Source Rock of Kuche Seg in Xinjiang
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Twenty-eight species (or forms) of fossil pollen and spores referred to 20 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Kuche Seg of the Talimu Basin in Xinjiang are observed. The conception of the petroleum sporopouen assemblage is further expounded and the classification of the petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage is also tentatively proposed. According to the characteristics of the assemblages, the problem on oil source of the mentioned oil-bearing region is discussed in this paper. The petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage of Jurassic reservoir of Kucbe Seg is composed of Deltoidospora perpusilla, D. gradata, Cyathidites minor, Hymenophyllumsporites deltoidus, Cingulatisporites problematicus, Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Osmundacidites ap., Cycadopites typicus, C. nitidus, Podocarpidites multesimus, Alisporites grandis, Alisporites bilateralis, Parvisaccites sp., Abietineaepollenites microalatus, A. minimus, PinuspoRenites sp., Piceaepollenites sp., etc. These species of spores and pollen have been found from the Jurassic deposits in this region or in the adjacent regions. The petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage only contains the spores and pollen which coincide with those of the reservoir in age. There is not any spore or pollen older or younger than the reservoir. Consequently, it may be referred to a monotonous type of petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage. The petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage of Cretaceous reservoir of this region consists of Deltoidospora perpusilla, Cryathidites minor, Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus, Osmundacidites sp., Crcadopites typicus, C. nitidus, Parvisaccites sp., Cedripites cretaceus, Abietineaepollenites microalatus, A. minimus, Pinuspollenites sp., etc. All these species distribute either in the Jurassic deposits or in the Cretaceous deposits in this region or in the adjacent regions. The distribution of Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus and Cedripites cretaceus is usually limited to the Cretaceous deposits. Both the Cretaceous species and the Jurassic species are comprised in the assemblage, so it may be referred to a composite type of petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage. The petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage of Tertiary reservoir comprises Deltoidospora perpusilla, Cyathidites minor, Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Schizaeoisporites zizyphinus, Poly-podiaceaesporites sp., Cycadopites nitidus, Podocarpidites multesimus, Parvisaccites sp., Abietineaepollenites mininus, Pinuspollenites labdacus, Piceaepollenites alatus, Cedripites ovatus, Ephedripites fusiformis, Quercoidites microhenrici, Chenopodipollis multiporatus, C. microporatus, Artemisiaepollenites sdlularis, etc. Besides the Tertiary pollen and spores, the assemblage contains the Jurassic species and the Cretaceous species, and therefore it belongs to a composite type of petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage. The monotonous type of petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage reflects that the oil source rock is coincident with the reservoir rock in age, and the composite type of petroleum sporopollen assemblage shows that the oil source rock is generally older than the reservoir rock. Based on the investigation of the petroleum sporo-pollen assemblages, the oil source rock of the Kuche Seg is considered to be Jurassic Period in age, and the Lower Jurassic Yangxia Formation and the Middle Jurassic Kuzilenuer Formation are considered to be favorable source rock. The conclusion is supported by the result of the organic geochemical investigation.
Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Record of Fossil Plants from the Lower Shihezi Formation of Shanxi
Author: Hu Yu-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
Abstract (Browse 1551)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Discovery of Old Tertiary Flora in Western Plateau Sichuan and Its Significance
Author: Chen Ming-hong, Kong Zhao-chen and Chen Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
Abstract (Browse 1602)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Analytical Investigation of the Ruoguo Glacier in Southeast Xizang
Author: Tang Ling-yu, Wang Rui and Kong Zhao Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    In southeast Xizang, there is a tongue-like rainy zone stretching northward, where monsoon maritime glaciers develop with many organisms on the glacial surface. The Ruoguo glacier is one of these. In southeast Xizang the glacial terminal are very low (the lowest 2400 m), and ice tongues extend into subtropical forest. These glaciers closely resemble the maritime glaciers in the Alps and in New Zealand, but differ from the continental type in inland China. In order to confirm the stratigraphy of the annual net accumulation from 1972 to 1975, a detailed analysis of the firn stratigraphy of a 9.30 m deep firn pit on the Ruoguo glacier (4630m. a. s. 1) was carried out. In this paper it is shown that summer and winter layers can be easily distinguished by pollen analysis. The winter layers have a small pollen content while the summer layers have a large pollen content. There are also differences in the spectra of the species which enable a seasonal seperation of the layers. The investigation shows that the layer of annual net accumulation is composed primarily of the winter accumulation, and demonstrates that the displacement of pollen by melt- water incursion is not significant. To examine the accumulation of the different seasons, the samples have to be taken at very close intervals of about 10 cm. If only a separation between summer and winter layers is needed, no detailed exmination of the pollen species is necessary, because of the significant difference in the amount of pollen and spores in the summer and winter layers.
Abstract (Browse 1704)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Cathaya Communities
Author: Ying Jun-sheng, Ying Ts邦n-shen Ma Cheng-gong, Li Liang-qian, Zhang Zhi-song and Zhang Wu-xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Cathaya argyrophylla in China is generally referred as a ※living fossil.§ Cathaya was widely distributed in Eurasia during the Tertiary, but is now confined to central and east central China where it exhibits a scattered distribution. Field observations were made in Jinfushan (29˚ N; 107˚10∩E), Sichuan Province, in 1978 and in the Huaping Forest District (25˚31∩10∪〞 25˚39∩36∪N; 109 ˚48∩54∪〞l09˚58∩2∪E), Guangxi Province, in 1979. In this paper the composition and structure of these interesting communities, their environment, as well as some changes within the communities are discussed. The Cathaya mixed communities contain 88 species of higher plants, 28 species of mosses, and two species of lichens. Among the higher plants 65 species (74%) are endemic to China, 23 species have a Sino-Japanese distributional pattern, and a few are Sino-Southeasr Asian dements. According to the coefficient of similarity of the components, differences in the bedrock underlying these forests, and dominant species, these communities can be divided into two different Cathaya mixed communities. Based on Raunkiar*s classification of life form, the phanerophytes rank first in both types of Cathaya communities (Figure 1) amounting to 89.9% and 81.3% in each com munity. These communities are different from temperate coniferous forests, which contain high percentages of hemicryptophytes. The dynamics of the communities are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on the Relationship between Diterpene Quinone Compounds and Peroxidase Isozyme in the Labiatae
Author: Huang Xiu-lan, Yang Bao-jin, Hu Zhi-bi and Xu Yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Peroxidase isozyme was determined by polyacrylamide gel column electrophoresis method in 18 species of the Labiatae. Results showed that the band of peroxidase isozyme of those species containing diterpene quinone compounds appeared in the middle of the column with an inclination to the anode. The contents of diterpene quinone compounds in the plant were usually consistant with the band of its peroxidase isozyme. The band of peroxidase isozyme of those species containing essential oil almost did not appear in the column under the same condition.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of the Antitumor Constituents Maytansine, Maytanprine and Maytanbutine from Maytenus variabilis
Author: Li Bing-jun, Xu Xiu-kun, Zhou Yun-li and Huang Li-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Three active principles: maytansine, maytanprine and maytanbutine have been isolated from maytenus variabilis (Loes.) C. Y. Cheng, which is widespread in Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou and Hubei. This plant is relatively concentrated in some regions and can be collected easily. The method of separation is relatively simple. Therefore Maytenus variabilis is a better source used for the isolation of maytansinoids.
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Structure and Elongating Growth of the Gynophore of Peanut plant
Author: Wang Ya-li, Pan Rui-chi, Chen Xi-yin and Tan Jian-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    The epigeal portion of the gynophore has a typical herbaceous stem structure. It is found that the young gynophore is composed of epidermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. Periderm, lenticelle and secondary vascular tissue in the gynophore are produced due to its secondary growth. The region of cell division in the gynophore is located at 0.9每1.9 mm from the peg apex, and that of cell elongation at 2.0每4.5 mm. These two regions are found to overlap at 2.0每2.5 mm from peg apex. The results of the experiment exhibit clearly that the growing region of the gynophore grows toward the gravitional direction of the earth when the gynophore is placed either in a vertical position or in a horizontal position, thus the elongating gynophore shows a positive geotropic response. The distributed position of starch grains in the pith parenchyma sedimented to the side of cell wall near the earth surface. All this shows that there is a close relation between the positive geotropic growth of the peanut gynophore and the distribution of starch statoliths in the pith of the gynophore under the influence of gravity.
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Isoenzymes of Several Dehydrogenases during Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation of Cucumis melo Cotyledons
Author: Xu Gui-fang, Niu Yu-xian, Zhang Jing-lan and Tang Ding-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Callus could be induced from the cotyledon segments of Cucumis redo L. in Miller*s medium supplement with high concentration of kinetin (10每15 mg/L) or with NAA 2 mg/L plus kinetin 0.5 mg/Ll. The calli induced by NAA plus kinetin were much different from those by kinetin alone. The former was loose and soft. While the latter was tight and gradually developed new buds. Isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases, isocitrate dehydrogenases, malate dehydrogenases and glutamate dehydrogenases were detemineted at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 d after inoculation. The results showed that both type of calli contained four dehydrogenases during their growth period. This indicates that the pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle and glutamate metabolism are present in calli of both types during their growth. The isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases and malate dehydrogenases in shoots developing calli are different from those in shootless ones.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Libanotis buchtormensis (Fisch) DC.
Author: Wang Chang-dai, Gun Jian-wen, Chen Ju and Yuan Zhang-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Eight crystalline substances were isolated from the Libanotis buchtormensis (Fisch) Dc. Five of them were identified as sesibricin, osthol, 汕-sitosterol, 污-sitosterol and D-mannitol by means of spectral analysis of UV, IR, NMR and MS: The sesibricin, osthol and 污-sitosterol are first time discovered in this plant.
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Structure of the Gum from the Seed of Gleditsia sinensis Lam
Author: Hua Jin, Fan Ming-juan and Chang Guo wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    It is determined that the gum from the endosperm of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. consists of D-galactose and D-mannose in the proportions of 1:(3.9每4.0) and the chemical structure is in the form of the gums from two other plants G. melanacantha Tang et Wang and G. heterophylla Bunge were determined also and their chemical structures are in the form of
Abstract (Browse 1701)  |  Full Text PDF       
Accumulation of Natural Growth Inhibiting Substances under Stress Conditions and Its Relation to Adaptation of Plants to Unfavorable Environments
Author: Cao Yi-zhi and Lu Zhong-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Changes of levels of growth inhibiting substances under drought, salinity, chilling and heat stress in different types of plants were investigated. The presence of ABA in leaf extracts of several plants was identified. Levels of ABA and other inhibitors were increased under stress to different extents, depending on species of the plant and the nature of the stress. The inhibitor contents of two xerophytes, Hedysarum scoparium and Haloxylon ammoderdron, from desert region were also increased by 11.6-fold and 5.2-fold respectively when subjected to water stress, whereas that of mesophyte Robinia pseudoacacia increased 4.5-fold. Correlation between inhibitor level and drought resistance of different wheat cultivars was also noted, The resistant cv. ※Hongnong No. 1§ accumulated 2每3-fold more inhibitors than the nonresistant cv. ※Gansu No.8§ when subjected to water or saline stress. The role of growth inhibitors is the adaptation of plants to unfavorable environments was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1779)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosome Number of Fokienia
Author: Chen Ke-youn
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    The chromosomal number of Fokienia hodginsii (Dunn) Henry et Thomas is reported for the first time. Microphotographs and data of measurements on chromosomes were presented. Somatic complement was found to consist of 2n=24. Ten large chromosome pairs were median type and two smaller pairs were submedian type. There are second constrictions on the lst and 6th chromosome pairs. Chromosome size ranged from 18.21 to 10.7.
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Rate of Early Embryogenesis and Cytomixis in Spring Wheat
Author: Wang Yao-zhi and Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    The rate of early embryogenesis and cytomixis of spring wheat has been observed. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 2 h. after pollination, the two sperms entered into the egg nucleus and the polar nucleus respectively; after 6 h. triple fusion has been completed, a male nucleolus is discernible in egg nucleus. Twenty-four h. after pollination, 2-celled proembryo can be detectable, after 6 d the differentiation in some embryo has initiated. Three d after pollination, the formation of endosperm cells are proceeding, upto 6 d, the embryo sac are full of endosperm cells. After pollination through full development, the degeneration of the antipodals appears, 4 d later the structure of cell and nucleus disappeared. Only naked nucleoli and chromatin mass are remained. After 8 d the degeneration of antipodals almost has completed. Cytomixis has been seen in the cell of nucellus, endosperms, ovary, proembryo and differentiated embryo and it frequently appeared near the proembryo.
Abstract (Browse 1734)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regeneration Of Plantlets from Solanum nigrum L. Mesophyll Protoplasts
Author: Wang Guang-yuan and Xia Zhen-ao (Hsia Chen-au)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    Using the ※EA3-867§ cellulase prepared in our laboratory, viable mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from Solanum nigrum L. The protoplasts grew and divided when cultivated in banging drops and thin liquid layer of NT medium, and calli formed. After transfering the calli on Dudits and MS solid medium (both supplemented with zeatin 1 mg/L, NAA 0.5 mg/L), regenerated plantlets had been obtained. The effects of different inositol amounts in NT medium on the growth of protoplasts were compared. The percentage of 1st and 2nd cell division after 5每8 days culture and the number of cell clusters increased in NT medium containing 250 mg/L inositol.
Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Phytohormonc Spraying on the Embryogenesis of Interspecific Hybridization in Gossypium
Author: Sun, Chuan-wei, Qiu Zhong-jin and Liang Zheng-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    This paper deals with the effects of GA and NAA spraying on the embryogenesis of reciprocal crosses between Gossypium hirstum and G. arboreum. The main results are as follows: Spraying GA and NAA were no effects on the rates of pollination and fertilization. It is evident that sparying GA and NAA increased the percentage of embryonate ovules in the G. birsutum ℅ G. arboreum, and the embryo size also increased evidently. In the G. arboreum ℅ G. birsutum, spraying GA and NAA promoted the embryo differentiation remarkably and enabled the embryo differentiation approaching normally. Spraying GA and NAA are the effective methods to overcome the incompatibility in specific hybridization. It is due to the development of endosperm being promoted by spraying the exogenous phytohormone.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  Full Text PDF       
Invvestigations on Early Embryogenesis of Actinidia chinensis Planch var. chinensis
Author: An He-xiang, Cai Da-rong, Wang Jun-ru and Qian Nan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(2)
      
    This paper deals with early embryogenesis of Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis. 1. Ovary superior consists of 34〞45 carpels. Each carpel contains 11每45 ovules. The ovule is uni-integument and tenuinucellar. The ovule is anatropous. The archesporium is formed by a single cell, and directly develops into megaspore mother cell. Sometimes the archesporium consists of 2每3 cells, but only one of them develops into megaspore mother cell and the others are degenerated. 2. The mature pollen grain is two-celled and the embryo sac belongs to olygonum type. In most embryo sacs two polar nuclei are fused before fertilization. One of the synergids was destroyed as the pollen tube penetrated into embryo sac the other one disappeared after fertilization. In most cases the antipodal cells became degenerated in fertilization process, only some remained until the first division of primary endosperm nucleus. 3. In Beijing area the double fertilization of Actinidia chinensis occurred 30每72 hours after pollination. In the fertilization one sperm fused with egg nucleus and the other sperm fused with the secondary nucleus as usual. The fusion of the secondary nucleus with sperm was in advance of the fusion of the egg nudeus. 4. The endosperm is cellular type.
Abstract (Browse 1761)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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