March 1983, Volume 25 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
The Karyotype Analysis of Pinus bungeana Zucc
Author: Liu Chun-qing, Wan Yao-qiu and Pan Nai-sui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
Abstract (Browse 1712)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Studies on the Callus Cells of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey
Author: Ding Bao-zu, Bai Shu-hua, Wu Yi and Yang Jing-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Observation of Introducing Blue-Green Algae (Anabaena azollae) into Codium fragile
Author: Lin Zhong-ping, Zhao Yu-jin, Cui Qing-ling, Li Shou-quan, Gu Tian-qing and Ma Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynoflora of the Qarhan Saline Lake and Its Significance in Geography and Botany The S poro-Poilen Assemblages from CK2022 Drilling Core at the Bieletan
Author: Du Nai-qiu and, Kong Zhao-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The pollen analytical investigations of a 101 m deep CK2022 drilling core from Bieletan of the Qarhan saline lake have been carried out. The Qarhan saline lake is situated at the Qaidam Basin. The climate is cold and dry. Annual mean temperature is about 0.1 ⊥, and annual precipitation is 28每40 mm. The vegetation is of desert type, mainly composed of Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Tamaricaceac, Cruciferae, Zygophyllaceae, Leguminosae and Gramineae. Gymnospermae are very poorly represented e. g. Ephedra and Sabina. Ferns are even scanty. Based on the characteristics of CK2022 drilling core sporopollen assemblages 32,000 4,000 years ago five zones may be subdivided in ascending order as follows: 1. In the first zone, the vegetation during the past 31, 000每25, 600 years was represented by a temperate shrub and semi-shrub desert plants, such as Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Nitraria were predominant. The hydrophytes, such as Typha and Pediastrum boryanum, apparently increased. The climate was wet and rather warm. By this time, lakes and bogs were better developed in this area. 2. In the second zone (j), green algae was very flourishing, which indicates a shallow, stagnant and more or less mesotrophic fresh water habitat. The climate was wet and cold, The lakes and bogs were better developed. 3 . In the third zone (k), the vegetation consisted of Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Nitraria. At the same time subalpine conifer and Betula may have grown by rivers. The climate was warmer and drier than before. 4. In the fourth zone (l), Shrubby and semi-shrubby deserts were better developed, but trees, ferns and algae were obviously reduced 18, 000每11, 000 years ago. The climate was very dry and cold. 5. In the fifth zone (m), Ephedraㄛ Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Nitratia were still flourishing. Hydrophytes, some trees and mesophytes plants and Polypodiaceae appeared again. Due to the increased temperature at this zone, the Pleistocene Holocene boundary should be demarcated at about 11000 years. BP Since 30000 years age there were alternation of dilution and salinization once and again.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation between Distribution of Edificator and Companion in Zonal Vegetation and Water-Temperature Condition in Northeast China
Author: Xu Wen-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The relation between distribution of edificator and companion in zonal vegetation and water-temperature condition in the Northeast China was studied based on the method of Kira*s warmth index (WI), coldness index (CI) and the humidity index (HI) proposed by the author. The results are as follows: 1. The whole range, optimum range of warmth index and the value of humidity indexes of 40 species in the Northeast China have been determined. 2. The 40 species are divided into the six groups according to their warmth index. The species of each group have the same range of warmth index. 3. The upper limit of the forest in Changbai Mountain is in 2100 m above sea level, the WI value of which is 15 ⊥﹞month. 4. The border line between the coniferous forest in the cold-temperate zone and the mixed coniferous-broad leaves forest in the temperate zone has the WI value of 45 ⊥﹞month. The border line between the mixed coniferous-broad leaves forest in the temperate zone and the deciduous broad leaves forest in the warm-temperate zone has the WI value of 85 ⊥﹞month. The border line between the forest and the grassland has the HI value of 7.5 mm/⊥﹞month. The border line between the forest, grassland and the steppe has the HI value of 5.2 mm/⊥﹞month.
Abstract (Browse 1854)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Fatty Acids and Unsaponifiable Constituents of Oil from Tubers of Cyperus esculentus L.
Author: Yan Mci-he and Guan Zheng-xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The fatty acids of the oil from tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. were determined by gas chromatography with DC-11 and DEGS stationary phases. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids are the major constituents in the fatty acid fraction, while lauric, myristic, linolenic, arachidic, dadoleic, behenic and tetracosanoic acids are the minor ones. The unsaponifiable matters of the oil were separated by column chromatography with silica gel and thin layer chromatography with silica gel G into three fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols and triterpene alcohols. The acetates of sterols, 4-methylsterols and triterpene alcohols were separated by TLC with 20% silver nitrate impregnated silica gel G, using CH2Cl2-petroleum system as developing reagents. The identification of major components was carried out by TLC, mp, optical rotation, GLC, IR spectrum and GC-MS. It was found that 汕-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were present in large amounts in the unsaponifiable fraction, 汕-sitosterol, stigmasterol, →5-and →7-avenasterol, 24- methylenecholesterol and 24-methylenecholest-7-enol in the sterol fraction, obtusifoliol, gramisterol and citrostadienol in the 4-methylsterol fraction, and cycloartanol, cydoartenol, 24- methylenecydoartanol and cyclobranol in the triterpene alcohol fraction were isolated and identified, while campesterol, campestanol, stigmastanol, →7-stigmastenol, →7-campestenol and →7-cholestenol were identified only. We found no evidence of the occurence of nonedibles in this oil.
Abstract (Browse 2087)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fatty Acid Composition of Three Species of Litsea
Author: Wang Jing-ping, Meng Shao-jiang and Li Jing-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The seed oils of three species (Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers, L. auriculata Chien et Cheng, L. subcoriacea Yang et P. H. Huang) were examined and the fatty acid composition of these oils was determined by GLC. Their major fatty acid was identified as lauric acid, Its amount ranged from 34.6%每75.4%. The major acid of the fruit coat oil from L. subcoriacea Y. H. Huang was different from that of the seed oil. The former contained 50% linoleic acid. The unsaturated C10, C12, C14 acids of the seed oil from L. cubeba (Lour.) Pers were separated by distillation, column chromatography and were identified by Periodate-Perman-ganate oxidation, IR, NMR and MS. They are cis-4-decenoic, cis-4-dodecenoic and cis-4-tetradecenoic acids respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Organ Differentiation in the Tissue Culture of Begonia fimbristipula Hance
Author: Li Geng-guang, Zhang Lan-ying, Zhu Bao-qing and Guo Jun-yan Kuo Chun-yen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    This paper reports the organ differentiation in the tissue culture of Begonia fimbristipula Hance. Three types of regenerated plantlets were obtained: (1) callus differentiation, (2) growth center induced from the aseptic seedling leaf and (3) shoots were differentiated from roots developed from the callus. Callus could be obtained on SH medium as well as on MS basic medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.1 ppm) +NAA (2.5 ppm) +KT (0.25 ppm). Experiments were carried out to compare the effects of different concentrations of sucrose on callus induction. It was found that the differentiation rate of callus was higher on MS medium than on SH medium. Comparative experiments were also carried out to find out the efficiency of callus differentiation by BA and 2ip at various concentrations. The better differentiation of callus was obtained at the range 0.25〞2 ppm of BA, The cytological investigations showed that individual plantlet grown on the leaf was originated from the epidermal cells. According to our study, numerous plantlets can be obtained from a single leaf of aseptic seedlings. It is possible that this technique provides a way of rapid donal propogation of Begonia fimbristipula Hance.
Abstract (Browse 2219)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation Between Responses of Elongation of Wheat Coleoptile Segments to Abscisic Acid and Exogenous ATP
Author: Zhang Cheng-lie and L邦 Zhong-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The time course of elongation and oxygen consumption of wheat coleoptile segments in 38米M ABA solution and 5 ℅ 10-5 M 2,4-DNP solution were investigated. At the same time, effects of exogenous ATP (1 mM) on elongation and ABA response in wheat coleoptile segments were observed. Within the first hour of treatment, ABA and 2,4-DNP rapidly inhibited elongation in the coleoptile segments. Exogenous ATP stimulates elongation in coleoptile segments. When segments pretreated with ATP and then transfered into ABA solution, elongation in coleopfile segments were not inhibited. On the basis of the similarities of action pattern of ABA and 2,4-DNP and marked decrease of ABA inhibiting effect in presence of exogenous ATP, it is testified that uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation is one of ABA important effects, so it is suggested that ABA inhibiting elongation of wheat coleoptile segments by decreasing tissue energy (ATP) levels necessary for synthetic reactions, including nucleic acid and protein, and associated with elongation.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of D Genome on the Esterase Isozymes in Wheat
Author: Zhang Cui-lan, Wu Yu-wen and Zhang Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    Esterase isozyme zymograms of endosperms at milk stage were analyzed by polyacrylamide vertical slab gel electrophoresis. It was shown that Aegilops squarrosa, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa with D genomes all had E1-1 band with the same migration rate. In zymograms, the two bands E1-1, E1-2 of common wheat (AABBDD) and emmer wheat (AABB) were actually each compossed of two closely adjacent bands. Zone E3 of the two species had five bands each. There were no difference in migration rate of these bands between the two species, but the activities of these enzymes were different and they showed regular change. Zymograms of the hybrids of reciprocal crosses between emmer and common wheat are mainly tended to maternal types and it is representing the dosage effect of D genome.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Methods of Isolation and Some Characteristics of Leghemoglobins from Alfalfa (Medicago setiva L. Vernal) Nodules
Author: Jing Yu-xiang, A. S. Paau and W. J. Brill
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The methods of isolation of leghemoglobin from alfalfa nodules and some characteristics of the proteins were described. It is indicated that the purified leghemoglobin massage contains precursor mRNA through in vitro translation of leghemoglobin mRNA and pulse chase experiment. The immunoprecipitation between leghemoglobin components from root nodules of legumes and IgGs against alfalfa leghemoglobins showed that it is possible to be of closer relationship among several kinds of legumes.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Fertilization in Glycine max
Author: Shen jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    This work studies the whole process of fertilization in Glycine max. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The type of ripened pollen grain of soybean was two-cell type. The generative cell was divided mitotically into two spermatids within the pollen tube. 2. In the 6th hour after self-pollination, the pollen tube entered into the embryo sac and released two sperms. Before the fusion of the male and female nuclei, the cytoplasmic sheath of the spermatids falled off. The cytoplasm of the male gamete did not fuse with that of the egg cell. 3. In the 6th hour after self-pollination, one spermatid nucleus come in contact with the egg nucleus and the other with the secondary nucleus, The contact of the sperimatid nucleus with the egg nucleus was a little earlier than that with the secondary nucleus. 4. The spermatid nucleus entered into the egg nucleus; the chromatic granules of the spermatid despiralized. After the complete fusion of the spermatid nucleus with the egg nucleus, the egg nucleus was darkly stained and the chromonemata increased, afterward the male nucleus appeared. 5. In the 28th hour after self-pollination, the zygote begun the first mitotic division. It took about 20 hours to fuse the male and female gametes, and to form the zygote untile before first mitotic division. It means that the zygote dormancy stage of soybean was about twenty hours. 6. In the 7th hour after self-pollination, the spermatid nucleus fused with the secondary nucleus. The process was similar to that of the spermatid nucleus with the egg nucleus. The chromatic granules gradually despiralized within the secondary nucleus, and the male nucleoli appeared. The velocity of the fusion of the spermatid nucleus with the secondary nucleus was faster than that of the other spermatid nucleus with the egg nucleus. 7. In the 10th hour after self-pollination, the secondary nucleus begun the first mitotic division. 8. The fertilization of soybean was the premitotic type.
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Osterieum citriodocum
Author: Ding Yun-mei, Zhang Han-qing, Yuan Chang-qi and Dong Yun-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    Four kinds of crystal constituents were isolated from the roots of Ostericum citriodorum (Hance) Shah et Yuan. They were identified by IR, NMR and MS, as (E)-isodillapiol, 汕-sitosterol, isodillapiolglycol and the other one crystal constituent will study continuously. The (E)-isodillapiol is first isolated from the plants and the isodillapiolglycol is a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Contribution to the Embryology of Ginkgo with a Discussion on the Affinity of the Ginkgoales
Author: Wang Fu-hsiung and Chen Zu-keng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    The ancestry of Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyta can be traced back to the Paleozoic. But today this order is represented only by a single species, Ginkgo biloba. Seward (1838) considered Ginkgo as one of the wonders of the world; it has persisted with little change until the present through a long succession of ages when the earth was inhabited by animals and plants for the most part far removed, in kind as in time, from their living descendents. Ginkgo is generally believed to be native to China, but so far it has not been found in wild state. A number of studies concerning the embryogeny of Ginkgo have been reported, on the basis of the materials accumulated during the past years and supplemented in 1978每1980, the embryogeny of Ginkgo is here described. Finally the phylogeny of Ginkgoales is discussed by comparing with the embryogeny of other groups of the living gymnosperms. Pollination usually takes place from the end of April to the first days of May and fertilization occurs around August 16每20 in the suburbs of Peking. Thus, the interval between pollination and fertilization is a few days less than four months. The embryo of Ginkgo is generally considered as suspensorless. In authors* opinion, however, the somewhat elongated and much enlarged cells at the micropylar end of the embryo may be considered as the reduced suspensor cells though they are not the typical ones. There is no distinct demarcation between the proembryo and the young embryo in Ginkgo. In comparison with the embryogenesis in Coniferales, the tissue differentiation of the late embryo of Ginkgo is rather indistinct. Many authors such as Chamberlain (1935), Florin (1949), Delevoryas (1963), Sporne (1965) and others divide the gymnosperms into two major groups, Cycadophyta and Coniferophyta. From the point of view of morphological structure there are many significant common features shared by Ginkgoales and Coniferales. For example, Ginkgo possesses long shoot and short shoot while some conifers also have long and short shoots. The anatomical features of the stem of Ginkgo such as the well-developed secondary xylem, relatively small pith and the presence of bordered pits on the tracheids are also similar to those of the Coniferales. Not only Ginkgo has its characteristic leaf shape and the dichotomous venation but also they are quite different from the fronds of cycads. From the reproductive structure, on the other hand, Ginkgo and Cycadales are rather similar: both of them having one sulcate pollen grains, the pollen tube being of haustorial nature, the sperms being released from the base and not from the tip of the pollen tube, the presence of mulficiliate and rather large sperms, development of large female gametophyte bearing archegonia with exceptionally large eggs, more divisions of the free nuclear stage in the proembryo and less distinct differentiation of the ate embryo. All these features are primitive embryological characters. Thus, from the point of view of embryology the Ginkgo is close related to the Cycadales rather than to the Coniferales. Since Ginkgophyta are related to Cycadophyta in reproductive structures on one hand and similar to Coniferophyta in morphological and anatomical characters of the vegetative organs the Ginkgophyta are related to Cycadophyta in reproductive structures on one hand and similar to Coniferophyta in morphological and anatomical characters of the vegetative organs on the other hand, it indicates the interrelationship among these groups is clearly shown. Recently the discovery and studies on the progymnospermopsida (Beck, 1976) are worth notice, this fossil group contains the plants with certain characters of some conifers and certain characters of some cycads and this kind of plants bearing both homosporous and heterosporous forms are similar to ferns. They link the gymnosperms to the ferns. The present evidence, therefore, shows that the gymnosperms are very probably monophyletic and the progymnosperms might be the ancester of all the gymnosperms. The embryological characteristics supports the monophyletic origin of the gymnosperms.
Abstract (Browse 2537)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of New Bark Pormation After Removal of Tree-Crown in Eucommia Ulmoides
Author: Lee Cheng-lee, Cui Ke-ming and Yuan Zheng-dao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(3)
      
    Histogenesis of the newly formed bark and the variation in accumulation of starch grains after removal of tree-crown of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. were observed. The tree in which the tree-crown was removed only formed incomplete bark after girdling, and eventually died after two months or later. The xylem usually reserved a great amount of starch and also presented a limited quantity of it in the new bark. However, the starch grains of the part of xylem that produced the new bark and that in the new bark ail disappeared at the time of death.
Abstract (Browse 1777)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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