April 1983, Volume 25 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the N-Banding of Chromosomes in Triticum monococcum and T. durum
Author: Zhao Mu-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
Abstract (Browse 2041)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paleovegetation and Paleoclimate in the Past 20,000 Years in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao District
Author: Wang Yong-ji and Li Shan-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    The spore-pollen assemblages collected from drilling cores in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao district, are analyzed in this paper. We have ascertained paleovegetation and paleodimate since last 20000 years in the studied district. It is concluded that development process can be devided into six stages, each stage has its corresponding characteristics on paleovegetation and paleoclimate. These stages are listed as follows: ( 1 ) Vegetation was mainly herbaceous plants and climate was cold and dry during 20000每13000 years B P (2) During 13000每 11000 years B P, there was a little conifer forest and herbaceous plants, in which aquatic and weter plants were relatively richer in quantities, climate was mild and wet. (3) During 11000每8500 years B P there was a little conifer and broadleaved forest and herbaceous plants, climate was mild and slightly dry. (4)During 8500每5000 years B P broadleaved trees were predominant but mixed with conifer forest, climate was warm and wet. (5) During 5000每2500 years B P conifer trees were predominant but mixed with broadleaved trees and herbaceous plants, climate was mild and slightly dry. (6) From 2300 years B P to present, we can further divide this stage into two periods, the preceding period and the late period. In the preceding period, vegetation was composed by conifer and broadleaved trees and herbaceous plants, climate was warm and wet; while conifer trees (including a little broadleaved trees) were prevailed in the late period, climate was mild and wet. As a result, we have concluded that the general tendency of climate variation for the studied district is consistent with North China and East China one, but there still exists a little differences. The authors suggest that the time limit between Pleistocene and Holocene should be demarcated at 11000 years B P owing to sharply increasing temperature for the studied district.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Genus of Pteridiaceae from Late Jurassic, East Heilongjiang Province
Author: Zheng Shao-lia and Zhang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    A new genus of Pteridiaceae on the basis of fossil plants from the Didao Formation in Jixi coal-bearing basin of eastern Heilongjiang Province was described. According to assemblage of the fossil plants, the writers consider that the Didao Formation may be assigned to Late Jurassic in age.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Characteristics of Photosynthetic Ecology in Leymus chinensis
Author: Du Zhan-chi and Yang Zong gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    This paper deals with light-photosynthesis curve, temperature-photosynthesis curve, diurnal changes of photosynthesis, and effects of water content and nitrogen in soil on photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of Leymus chinensis. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Light-photosynthesis curve of Leymus chinensis approximates to a hyperbola below light saturation point, and the influence of light intensity on photosynthesis is expressed by light intensity coefficient of photosynthesis. When Leymus chinensis was grown in a good water condition, its light intensity coefficient was 1.33 mg CO2﹞ dm-2﹞ h-1 ﹞ klx-1 at 5 klx light intensity, and light saturation point was 50 klx, and net photosynthetic rate at light saturation condition was about 31 mgCO2 ﹞ dm-2 ﹞ h-1. Temperature-photosynthesis curve of Leymus chinensis was a parabola, and optimum temperature of photosynthesis was 26每29 ⊥. CO2 compensation point of Leymus chinensis was about 35 ppm. According to aforesaid characteristics of photosynthetic ecology, Leymus chinensis is a sun plant of C3 type. 2. The curve of diurnal changes of photosyn thesis in Leymus chinensis shows as a two-peak type in typical steppe, when water content of soil is about 14%. Major ecological factor which caused midday depressing photosynthesis in Leymus chinensis is atmospheric humidity. 3. The photosynthetic characteristics of Leymus chinensis, especially the leaf area and aerial biomass are closely related with water and nitrogen in soil. Irrigation has greater influence on photosynthetic production as compared with fertilization. The efficiency of increasing production is more notable, combining the measures of irrigation with fertilization. Leymus chinensis may be regarded as a eurytopic xerophyte according to the relationship between some photosynthetic characteristics and soil water. 4. Compared photosynthetic rate with leaf area in Leymus chinensis, the influence of the leaf area change on photosynthetic production is greater and is more remarkable during arid conditions. Therefore, irrigation and fertilization during dry season are effective measures to develop photosynthetic organ and to raise aerial biomass of Leymus chinensis rapidly.
Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Root Bark of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith
Author: Xiang Ren-de and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    Seven crystalline substances were isolated from alcohol extract of the root bark of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith, by column chromatography on silica gel. They were identified by various physical and chemical methods as stearic acid, (d)-sesamin, 汕- sitosterol, syringin, 汕-sitosterol glucoside, eleutheroside B1 and 16 汐-hydroxy-(每)-kauran-19-oic acid. The 16 汐-hydroxy-( 〞 )-kauran-19-oic acid was isolated from species of Acan- thopanax for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Sapogenins from Rhizome of Dioscorea septemloba Thunb
Author: Lou Wei and Chen Yan-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    Five components were isolated from acid-treated rhizome of D. septemloba Thunb. Their structures, the were identified as diosgenin (i), 汕-sitosterol (j), palmitic acid (k), diosgenin palmitate (l) and →3,5-deoxytigogenin (m) on the basis of physical constants and spectral data.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Physiological Effects of Ethrel on Seedlings of Second Season Rice
Author: Fang Bing-chu, Shen Yue-qing, Sheng Min-zhi and Cao Hui-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    Spray of ethrel (1000 ppm)to seedlings of double-cropping second season rice at 5-leaf stage can control plant height and root length, and consequently makes seedlings strong and tough. The ABA content and ethylene released by young seedling were significantly higher than the control. However, there were some changes: cell elongation inhibited, leaf area decreased, and leaf color became dark green, photosynthetic rate increased, translocation of photosynthetate in leaf sheath enhanced, leaf emergence was rapid. The growth of root system and root vigor were though temporarily inhibited, but slightly increased after transplantation. All these are beneficial to seedling quality, the plant growth and development after transplantation, which subsequently bring about positive effects on stimulating early heading and on increasing rice yield.
Abstract (Browse 1747)  |  Full Text PDF       
Reconstitution of the Functional Membranes from Chloroplasts with the Deficient Crista Membranes from Mitochondria
Author: Li Shu-jun, Cai Jiau-ping, Xiao Jian-ping and Xiu Ya-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    The basic mechanisms of phosphorylation of chloroplasts and mitochondria are identical. The identity may be proved by membrane combination. There are two ways to get the combination as shown in figure 1. One way is, as previously reported, to combine deficient membranes from chloroplasts with ctista membranes from mitochondria and the reconstituted membranes thus obtained greatly enhance photophosphorylated activities. The other way, i.e., to combine deficient crista membranes with thylakoid membranes, has also been successful, as shown in this paper. The reconstituted membranes obtained in this way can carry out oxidative phosphorylation in the dark as well as shown in Table 2. There are some relationship between the ATP formation from oxidative phosphorylation of reconstituted membranes and the protein of deficient crista membranes added, as shown in Table 3. When the quantity of combined chloroplast membranes is kept constant, the amount of ATP formation varies, within certain limits, with the amount of deficient crista membranes as shown in Table 3. But the reconstituted oxidative phosphorylation activity of membranes formed by combinating thylakoid with deficient crista membranes is lower than reconstituted photophosphorylation activity of combination in the opposite direction, i.e. by combinating deficient thylakoid membranes and crista membranes of mitochondria (compare Table 4 and 3).
Abstract (Browse 2010)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosomal Banding Analysis of Monosomics in Wheat
Author: Zhang Zi-li, Chen Gui-lan, Fu Li-juan and Li Ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    N-banding analysis has been used to identify the univalents of all 21 monosomics at diakinesis or metaphase i. The univalents of nine wheat monosomics which are monosomic lB to 7B, 4A and 7A have shown distinctive N-banding patterns. These banding patterns appear to be identical in meiotic and mitotic chromosomes. The method is simple and speedy. The research probably provides a new way for cytological identification of monosomics in wheat and offers a technique for genome analysis of hybrids in wheat.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Pollen Morphology of the Chinese Palmae
Author: Zhang Jin-tan and Liu Bing-lun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    This paper deals with morphology of the recent pollen grains of 26 species representing 16 genera and some fossil pollen of the Chinese Palmae. They are examined with the light microscope and scanning electron microscope. On the basis of the types of aperture and the distribution of fossil pollen and lithophyll in the strata, the trends of the evolution of the family Palmae are discussed. This paper points out that the monosulcate pollen belongs to the most predominent and more primitive aperture type in this family and that there is a trend in which the trichotomosulcate, annulocolpate, disulcate etc. are derived from the monosulcate pollen.
Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization and Distribution of the ATPase Activity and of the Passage of Material Transport in Spike-Stalk and Their Relations to the Development of Spikelets in Wheat
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Sun Long-hua and Sun De-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    1. The ATPase activity in the spike-stalk cells of wheat was obviously localized at plasmallemma and the surface of cell wall bordering the intercellular spaces and their inclusions. The reactions of ATPase activity at chromatin and nucleoli were usually insignificant, and they were not found in vacuoles and other organelles (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7). 2. Three significant differences were observed between the middle part and the basal and upper part of the spike-stalk in wheat. (1) A large amount of inclusions were shown in the intercellular spaces of the middle part, and the high ATPase activity was seen at these inclusions (Figs. 6 and 7), but both they were seldom to be found in the intercellular spaces of the basal and upper part (Figs. 2 and 3). (2) The plasmodesmata of the middle part ceils was more than that of the basal and upper part ones (Figs. 1, 3 and 5). (3) In the middle part cells of spike-stalk, the cytoplasmic material was vigorously and actively transferred through the wall pores, and at the same time, the high ATPase activity was exhibited on the transferred cytoplasm (Figs. 4, 8 and 9). In addition, it was also observed that the cytoplasmic material entered into intercellular spaces from adjacent cells (Fig. 6). But it was hardly to see this phenomenon in the basal and upper part of spike-stalk. 3. It was discussed that the ATPase activity and the passage for material transport may play the role in transferring materials into the spike and they might be related to the development of the wheat spikelets.
Abstract (Browse 1956)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation Between the Denatured Nitrate Reductase and the Nitrate Reductase-Inhibiting Protein
Author: Chen Wei, Zhang De-yi(Chang Teh-yi) and Tang Yu-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    Wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum var. Feng-chan 3 ) were grown on water or KNO3 medium at 24⊥. Before the second leaf had grown out, the shoots of the seedlings were cut down and ground with a little quartz sand. The homogenates were filtered through a layer of nylon cloth before centrifugation at 10000g for15 min. The supematant fraction was collected (crude nitrate reductase). Isolation and purification of nitrate reductase (NR) were according to Sherrard et al with a bit modifications. Ammonium sulfate was added to the crude NR and the enzyme protein was precipitated between 20%〞40% saturation. After column chromatography on Sephadex G-25, the protein was then subjected to further purification by affinity chromatography on a blue dextran-Sepharose 4B column. The fraction in the NADH (0.1 mM) eluate was the highly purified enzyme. The activity of the isolated NR was assayed in vitro according to the standard method, Nitrate reductase-inhibiting protein (NRIP) was isolated and purified according to Wallace with a little modifications. After fractional precipitation by ammonium sulfate, the protein precipitating between 20%每40% saturation was collected and dissolved in distilled water. Column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and DEAE (DE-11) cellulose was separately used. After dialysis, condensation of the highly purified NRIP was carried out. Antiserum against NR was prepared by injecting 2 mL purified NR protein (88 nmol NO2-/30 min/0.2 mL) into a rabbit five times with an interval of 10 days. For all five injections, the enzyme was mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. Bleeding was taken 30 days after the first injection. Antiserum against NRIP was prepared in the same way mentioned above, but purified NRIP was used instead of NR. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was performed by the method described by Funkhouser. Agarose gels (1.5% W/V). which contained 30 mM Tris and 12.3 mM meleate (pH 8.6) and 0.2% (V/V) crude antiserum were placed on a glass plate. Wells were cut along one side of the plate and filled with 10, 20, 30, 40 米 1of antigen. Electrophoresis was carried out at 3 mA, 10 V for 2 h at 4 ⊥. The antigen-antibody reaction resulted in the formation of rocket shaped immunoprecipitates. After washing overnight in PBS the rockets were visualized by staining with coomassie blue. The procedure of immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis was according to that of Clausen. Nitrate reductase is a very unstable enzyme, Our former paper showed that the crude NR lost its enzyme activity by about one half, after it had been maintained at room temperature for 30 min. In order to study the stability of NR. crude NR was prepared and kept at room temperature. After the enzyme activity had been completely lost, it was added to a fresh NR preparation with high activity. The inhibition effect of denatured enzyme was revealed according to the difference between plus or minus denatured enzymes. About 70%每80% NR activities were lost in the preparation to which 0.1 ml denatured enzyme had been added instead of 0.1 ml H2O. Therefore we think that the denatured enzyme itself behaved like an inhibiting protein of NR. Wallace demonstrated that there was an inactivating enzyme of NR in maize roots. Some characteristics of the enzyme investigated in several labs. According to Wallace's methods we got a purified NR-inactivating-protein (NRIP). Furthermore, a purified NR was obtained by an affinity-chromatography method (table 1). Single of either NR or NRIP appeared on the chromatography and their Rm were the same (fig. 2). It might conclude that the NRIP and denatured NR are the similar protein. The highly purified NR protein incubated for several hours at room tempetature also became an inhibitor (table 2). We, therefore, infer that the activated NR could be converted to NRIP at room temperature. Antiserum against NR was prepared by injecting purified NR into rabbit, and antiserum against NRIP was prepared by injecting purified NRIP. The anti-NR antibody and the anti-NRIP antibody were prepared as reagents to study the immunological relation between these two proteins. The antibody of NR gave a single precipitate band against purified NRIP and the antibody of NRIP had a similar precipitate band against purified NR (fig. 3 and 4). Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was performed. The antiserum against NR were added to agarose gel and 4 wells were filled with different amount of NRIP. The height of the rockets was increased with the amount of NRIP (fig. 5). All these results show the identity of the denatured NR and NRIP. The percent of inhibition of NRIP depended upon the concentration of NADH in the reaction mixture. Fig. 6 shows that the NRIP was a competitive inhibitor. The inhibitor and NR both competed for the same cofactor NADH. The percentage of inhibition was decreased when the concentration of NADH in the reaction system was increased. According to this result, we suggest that the NR protein has two active sites. One site binds with nitrate and the other with NADH. When the site bound with nitrate is damaged or changed, the enzyme protein can not catalyze nitrate reduction. However, the site binding with NADH is less labile and not affected by incubation at room temperature, therefore NADH can still be bound on the denatured NR protein. If the concentration of NADH in this reaction system is limited, the nitrite formation decreases. This explains how the effect of NRIP can be overcome in the reaction system at higher concentration of NADH.
Abstract (Browse 2087)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies of Root-Stem Transition in Brassica napus L.
Author: Chen Wei-pei, Zhang Si-mei and yan Su-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    Seedlings of Brassica napus L. 2每11 days after germination were used. However, the most investigation was concentrated on the 6-day old seedlings. The primary root has a diarch protostele, the two groups of primary phloem alternate with the primary xylem. At higher level, the metaxylem is gradually differentiated in a lateral direction. Being coincident with this changes of the metaxylem, the groups of phloem cell are extended. The stele of the lower hypocotyl is root-like and has no pith. In the middle hypocotyl, there is a further lateral differentiation of the metaxylem. At the higher level, four metaxylem arms appear and the groups of phloem are extended circumferentially to form two crescent shaped sectors. In the upper hypocotyl below 0.2 cm of the cotyledonary node, a central pith has been formed which separates the differentiating primary xylem into two distinct units. At a slightly higher level, each primary phloem divides into two small groups, at this time, each xylem unit and the two adjacent groups of phloem constitute a cotyledonary trace. The foliar traces of the first two foliage leaves appear in the inter-cotyledonary plane between the vascular elements of the cotyledonary traces. At this level, the vascular tissue of the hypocotyl forms a siphonostele made up of two cotyledonary traces and the two foliage leaves, where the root-stem transition has nearly been completed, while the endarch condition is not attained in the hypocotyl. At incresing distances from the cotyledonary node upwards, in the cotyledonary petiole, the protoxylem occupies a more and more adaxial position and the metaxylem a more and more abaxial direction and, thus, the endarch condition is attained. The primary system of the root, hypocotyl, and cotyledons forms a complete circular system, the plumular vascular elements are directly connected by secondary elements formed by the cambium in the region of the hypocotyl. As for the results mentioned above, the authers have not detected that the primary xylem has a rotation of 180˚, as described by Van Tieghem.
Abstract (Browse 2189)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Ultrastructure and Localization of Acid Phosphatase of Gastrodia elata Cortical Cells in Their Digestive Process of Armillaria mellea
Author: Liu Cheng-yun, Zhang Xiu-sheng and Hsu Wei-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    In order to study the mechanism of the digestive process of Armillaria mellea in Castrodia data, electron microscopy and cytochemical method for determination of acid phosphatase activity was employed. The provacuoles were formed by means of expanded or convoluted ER under the stimulation of cortical cells and large cells of Gastrodia data by Armillaria mellea. A product of acid phosphatase (lead phosphate deposits) occured on the tonoplast. The papillae were produced in the cell wall of cortex in Gastrodia data when Armillaria mellea penetrated into its cortex. Our results showed that the enzyme was not released from cell of Armillaria mellea. A number of small vacuoles in the cortical cells disappeared. At the same time, lead phosphate deposits on the Armillaria mellea hyphae wall were observed and than Armillaria mellea hyphae wall was going to be digested, and the hyphae lost their structure. The activity of Armillaria mellea hyphae was not observed in the large cell of Gastrodia data. A great deal of small vacuoles and mitochondria were produced, at the same time the renewable nuclei and nuclolar vacuoles etc. appeared in the large cells of Gastrodia data under the stimulation of Armillaria mellea.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron Microscope Observation of Microspore Division of Wheat in Vitro
Author: Sun Ching-san, Chu Chih-ching and Li Shou-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    First mitosis of wheat microspores in anther culture was studied by electron microscope. The division types of the most pollen grains were unequal (A pathway) and that of others were equal (B pathway). The characteristics of unequal division of microspores in vitro in contrast with in Vivo were as follows: (1) Phragmoplast and ※phragmoplast-pla- smalemma complex§ were of occurrence after nucleus division but new cell wall could not form between two daughter nuclei. (2) Generative cells were various in size, shape and amount of cytoplasmic organelles. (3) Generative cell could attach to intine at all times and underwent sporophyte division there. "Phragmoplast-plasmalemma complex" surrounding generative cell did not disappear even after generative cell detached from the intine, so that there was always an obvious demarcation line between derivative nuclei of generative and vegetative nucleus.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Analysis and Plant Sources of Maytansinoids
Author: Li Chao-ming, Li Bing-juu, Pei Sheng-ji, Zhou Yun-li, Huang Li-yun and Yang Yi-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(4)
      
    By high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), maytansine, maytanprine and maytanbutine, three anticancer maytansinoids were successfully isolated and identified from ten species of plants belonging to Celastraceae. These plants are: Maytenus graciliramula, M. austroyunnanensis, M. orbiculata, M. hookeri Loes var. longiradiata, M. inflata, M. berberoides, M. esquirolii, M. variabilis, M. royleana and M. senegalensis. This result shows that the plant resources containing maytansinoids in China are rather aboundant.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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