May 1983, Volume 25 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Sphenopteridium palmatum sp. Nov. from Lower Shihhotze Series of East Hills, Taiyuan
Author: Du Xian-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Discovery of Palaeogene Flora from the Western Sichuan Plateau and Its Significance in Phytogeography
Author: Chen Ming-h0ng Kong Zhao-chen and Chen Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    This paper deals with some plant fossils collected from the Late Eocene Relu Formation of Litang County, Western Sichuan Plateau, by the Scientific Expedition of Academia Sinica in 1982. The fossil-bearinp bed is mainly composed of sandstones, conglomerates and siltstones. From the Relu Formation Eucalyptus reluensis sp. nov., Hemiptelea paradavidii sp. nov., Pistacia sp., Banksia puryearensis Berry, Palibinia pinnatifida (Reid et Chandler) Tao, Myrica sp., Comptonia sp., Albizzia sp., Alstonia? sp., Viburnum sp., and Phyllites spp. were obtained. This indicates that during the Late Eocene the flora of Litang of Western Sichuan, were subtropical in nature mainly composed of Eucalyptus and some evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved trees. The climate was hot and dry. Judging from specimens the fossil locality Litang has uplifted about 2500每3000 m in elevation since Late Eocene. At present Eucalyptus is widespread in Australia. So far no remains of Eucalyptus early than Oligocene have been discovered from southern hemisphere the appearance of this genus from Eocene of Xizang and western Sichuan indicates that Eucalyptus might have originated from northern hemisphere and then migrated via Malaysia to Australia to form a new distribution centre in Australia.
Abstract (Browse 2042)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of LANDSAT MSS Digital Image Processing Techniques in Investigation of Aquatic Plant Distribution in Honghu Lake
Author: Yang Kai Lin, Kai-yu Zhang, Rong-xing and Xie Qi-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    In this paper an experiment in the application of LANDSAT MSS digital image proces. sing technique to classify the aquatic plants in the Honghu Lake, China, as well as the necessary ground feature spectrum measurement and plant chlorophyll content determination techniques are introduced. In order to obtain the expected computer aided classification result different methods of digital image feature extraction have been tried, namely the ratio transformation, the biomass index transformation and the linear stretching of image intensity. The data from spectrum measurement and chlorophyll content determination were used to distinguish the attributions of different classes of aquatic plant associations from one another by comparing with their spectrum response intensity values on different LANDSAT band images. The original LANDSAT MSS images were digitally rectified by control points to a certain map projection system using a general polynomial approach scheme before the classifying activities, so that the classification result may be transfered to an existing map. In this paper the resulting colourassigued image and the thematic map of Honghu Lakes aquatic plant (association) distribution are included, the areas of different classes of aquatic plants are listed and the reliability of the resulting classification and pattern recognition are analysed. These results will provide useful informations for the investigation of the present situation as well as the historical succession of the Honghu Lake and its aquatic plant distribution, and also for the research works of the lake management.
Abstract (Browse 2035)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Absolute from Flower of Osmanthus fragrans (GUI HUA)
Author: Wen Guang-yu Yu Feng-lan Wang Hua-ting Kang Zhi-quan Jiang Ke and Bian Ya-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    This paper deals with the chemical constituents of the absolute from flower of Osmanthus fragrans (GUI HUA). The constituents were determined by using the methods of GC-MS (EI, CI), fractional distillation, column chromatography, TLC and IR. 26 components have been identified, i.e. 1, 2-dimethyl benzene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 3-hexenlyl formate, trans-linalool oxide, cislinalool oxide, linalool, megactigm-6, 8-dien-2,5-oxide, nonanol, terpineol, 3,4-dimethylheptane, 6-ethenyl tetrahydroxy-2,2,6,trimethylpyran-3-ol, nerol, dohydro-汕-ionone, geraniol, 汐-ionone, benzylethanol, 汕-ionone, 3,7,11-triemethyl-l,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol, m-ethylphenol, 污 -decalacton, 9,12-octadecadienal ethyl palmitate, 3-hydro- xybenzoic acid methylester, 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid methylester.
Abstract (Browse 2229)  |  Full Text PDF       
Three New Xanthones from Halenia elliptica D. Don
Author: Sun Hong-fa, Hu Be-ling, Fan Shu-fen and Ding Jing-ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Previously, we obtained five xanthoncs from Halenia elliptica D. Don. Recently, other five xanthones have been obtained from the same plants. Among them three are new natural products and their structures are identified as 1, 7-dihydroxy-2, 3, 4, 5-tetramethoxyxanthone (n), 1, 5-dihydroxy-2, 3, 7-trimethoxyxanthonc (o) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-3, 4, 5-trimethoxyxanthone (r). Other two have been known as 1, 5-dihydroxy-2, 3-dimethoxy-xanthone (p) and 1, 7-dihydroxy-2, 3-dimethoxyxanthone (q).
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Arnebia guttata Bunge
Author: Lu Fu-sun, Xiang Qui-qiong and Zhu Feng-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Four naphthoquinones were isolated from the petrol ether extract of the root of Arnebia guttata Bunge. They were identified as deoxyshikonin, acetylshikonin, shikonin, and 汕-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin by IR, HPLC, NMR, etc.
Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase and Peroxidase in Ripening Apple Delicious Fruits
Author: Ao Liang-de, Wang Ming-xin and Liang Yu-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Peroxidase was extracted from the apple (Delicious) fruit and the apple stalk during the various stages of ripening. Activities of peroxidase and IAA oxidase of fruits are different.The activities of peroxidase and IAA oxidase in the apple stalk are much higher than that in the apple fruits. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the number of isozymic bands of peroxidase in the stalk (7每9 bands) were more than that in the fruit (6 bands). It is inferred that peroxidase in apple stalk might play a more important role in IAA and some other inhibitors oxidized before then went into the fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1816)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Peanut Seed Vigor Stored in Different Gases
Author: Luo Guang-hua, Shao Cong-ben, Wang Ai-kuo and Guo Jun-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Peanut seeds (water content 6.21% ) were stored at 38每40 ⊥ for artificial ageing storage with different gases. N2 or CO2 delayed peanut seed ageing in comparison with air. The rate of seed germination was not affected by storing for 26 weeks under N2 or CO2, but the vitality of seed lost when stored under air. Determination of peanut seed vigor (root length+ axial length)℅percentage of germination may precisely show the change in seed quality during ageing. The results indicate the positive correlation between the respiration and subsequent growth in peanut seeds, and the significantly negative correlation between vigor and electrical conductivity or sugar content in the seed extract.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
The P680 Difference Spectrum Induced by Continuous Light in Malaxis monophyllos Chloroplasts
Author: Mao Da-zhang, Chu Zhong-xi, Xu Chun-hui, Zhao Fu-hong and Dai Yun-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    In chloroplasts from M. monophyllos (L.) Sw., the difference spectrum of light-induced P680 which was measured under physiological temperature and neutral pH and in the presence of potassium ferricyanide was obtained by steady-state method. In contrast under the same conditions, the P680 signal was not observed in spinach chloroplasts. Either preilumination with white light or long duration treatment with potassium ferricyanide caused marked similar changes in the difference spectrum of M. monophyllos chloroplasts, i.e. besides the bleaching bands at wavelength near 680 mm and 440 nm were the same as the control, the remarkable bleaching bands at about 660 nm and 422 nm appeared. These results were discussed briefly.
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
mRNA of Leghemoglobins from Alfalfa Root Nodules
Author: Jing Yu-xiang(Y.Jing) A. S. Paau and Winston J. Brill
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    This paper described the methods of isolation, purification, and in vitro translation of alfalfa leghemoglobin mRNA. It was pointed out that the mRNA of alfalfa leghemoglobin accounts for about 1.4% of total RNA, and 24% of poly (A) +-mRNA of alfalfa nodule. This mRNA has 6, 9, 26S value populations with different molecular weights of about 0.15℅106, 0.28℅106, 0.48℅l06 respectively. These S value mRNAs were coded for different components of leghemoglobin.
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations of the Leaf Cell Vacuole of Stevia rebaudiana Bertani Under the Electron Microscope
Author: Chen Mu-zuan, Hong Wei-lian, Chen Shao-pang and Wan De-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    By applying electron microscopic technique, we aimed to observe the morphology of leaf cell vacuole of Stevia rebaudiana Bertani, and the change of inclusion during its different stages of growth. We ascertain that the size of vacuoles is small in younger leaf cell, that the number of vacuoles is more than that in other stages, and that vacuoles appear translucent, either round or elliptical in form. Also those leaf cells that are at the stage of active growth appear to have many morphologically specialized vacuoles containing a lot of inclusions in different forms of granule and vesicle. Furthermore, the inclusion of the vacuols in the elder leaf cells decompose gradually, eventually disappear. Comparing with the substructural observation of chloroplast, by PAS reaction, and with different content of steviaside, we discover that there exists corresponding relationship. Thus, we may infer that steviaside is stored mainly in the vacuoles and it is relevant with the function of production.
Abstract (Browse 2093)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Pollen Morphology of Chinese Ephedra
Author: Zhang Yu-long and Xi Yi-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Pollen morphology of 11 species of Chinese Ephedra has been studied All of them were examined under the light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are long ellipsoidal or ellipsoidal in shape. The long axis is 40 to 67 米m . and the short one is 21 to 38 pm . No aperture is present. The ridges vary from 5 to 16. The width of the ridge is 2.6每6.1 米m , Hyaline line is distinct or indistinct, or absent, and in some species it branches. According to the type of pollen grains of Ephedra divided by steeves and Barghoorn (1959), it is easy to separate type A from type D, but it is difficult to distinguish type B from type C. Thus we combine type B with type C into one type (type BC). E. intermedia, E. siniea, E. equisetina belong to type A, and E. likiangensis, E. likiangensis f. mairei and E. minute to type D. All other species belong to type BC. Type A plants distribute in Northwest, Northeast, and North China, type D in Southwest China and Tibet, and type BC is found almost over China except in the regions of lower valley of Yangtze River and in the valley of the Pearl River. It is noted that the pollen grains of Ephedra and spores of Schizeae are easily confused sometimes in pollen analysis. When we compare their morphology, two main different po- ints are found: 1. The end of pollen grain of Ephidra is sharper, but that of the spore of Schizeae is more flat. 2. The ridges of pollen grain of Ephedra come nearer each other towards the ends, and the ribs of spores of Schizeae are parallel through the ends.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Embryonic Development and Ovule Culture of Interspecific Hybrids Between Populus simonii Carr and P.pyramidalis Borkh
Author: Li Wen-dian, Wang Rui-ling and Zhu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    The embryonic development following P. simonii Cart. ℅ P. pyramidalis Borkh. is described in the present paper. The majority of pollen grains of P. pyramidalis Borkh. may germinate on the stigma of P. simonii Cam and the pollen tubes grow normally through the style and enter the embryo sac from the micropyle. Fertilization occurs as usual 4每7 days after pollination. A lot of proembryos and heart-shaped embryos are abortive; however, the others may develop normally and grow into mature embryos. Some of the endosperms appear normal and others may degenerate at free nuclear stage or cease to develop further at cellular stage. The ovules containg immature hybrid embryos of 19 days, 22 days, 26 days and 29 days after pollination at various developmental stages (heart-shaped stage, torpedo-stage and cotyledonary elongation stage) are excised and inoculated on nutrient agar for culture. The results show that: ( 1 ) Mll0 medium ( 1/2 MS+IAA 0.01 mg/L+BA 0.1 mg/L+sucrose 2% ) is the best of all the media used; (2) immature hybrid embryos of various developmental stages contained in ovules cultured in vitro may grow into normal plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 1851)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure and Isozyme Analysis of Cultured Soybean-Nicotiana Fusion Products
Author: Qian Ying-qian( Y. C.Chien ), L. C. Fowke P. J. Rennie and L. R. Wetter
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    Protoplasts were prepared from 2 days old subcultures of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and fragments of young leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. ※Xanthi§) according to the methods of Kao. Protoplasts were fused and single fusion products were cultured in Cuprak dishes as previously described. Fusion products were fixed and embedded in plastic by reported methods for electron microscope study. Isoenzyme studies were carried out according to described methods. Proteins were electrophoresed on 5% polyacrylamide gels and stained. Fusion products were easily identified on the basis of the presence of both tobacco chloroplasts and soybean leucoplasts (Fig. 1). The chloroplasts contained typical grana and stroma lamellae; leucoplasts were characterized by numerous starch granules and a paucity of internal lamellae. After 15 hours in culture, thorough mixing of cytoplasm had occurred as evidenced by the distribution of plastids. Fusion of interphase nuclei was not observed in any of the fusion products. Premitotic nuclear fusions which have been reported previously may signify unhealthy fusion products. Fusion products underwent their first cell division within 2每3 days in culture; divi- ding nuclei contained complete sets of both tobacco and soybean chromosomes. During subsequent divisions, hybrids gradually lost some tobacco chromosomes. By 4.5 days, small clusters of hybrid cells were evident. The chloroplasts of such hybrid cells exhibited unusual shapes, possibly as a result of starch accumulation (Fig. 2b, 2c). The leucoplasts remained unchanged. Within 2 weeks, hybrid clusters contained 100每200 cells. Very few chloroplasts were detected in these cells by electron microscopy. The chloroplasts present were highly modified. Typically, these plastids were characterized by enlarged grana and elongated parallel stacks of stroma lamellae. Similar changes in plastid morphology were observed in pea-soybean fusion products cultured for 1 week. It is not possible to determine from the present study whether chloroplasts were being diluted during cell proliferation or whether they were dedifferentiating. Previous ultrastructural research suggests that dedifferentiation of chloroplasts occurs in fusions involving similar species while chloroplasts degeneration is more likely in fusions of widely separated species . Biochemical evidence from studies of the electrophoretic mobility of the plastid-encoded large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the endonuclease restriction patterns of plastid DNA indicate that plastids may either assort randomly or both plastid types may coexist in cells of regenerated hybrid plants. Chloroplasts were not detected in hybrids cultured for prolonged periods. The leucoplasts in these cells were indistinguishable from leucoplasts of parental soybean cells. Leucoplasts were not diluted during cell division and their numbers were likely maintained by plastid division. Over 20 hybrid cell lines were established and cultured for 7每9 months. Chromosome analysis revealed that many lines including the one illustrated in Fig. 4 retained over one half of the tobacco chromosomes in addition to the full soybean chromosome complement . Zymograms from this same cell line are presented in Fig. 5. The electrophoretic patterns for both dehydrogenases clearly demonstrate that hybridization has been achieved. The shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) zymogram for the hybrid shows that the broad slow- moving band from soybean and the 2 distinctive fast-moving bands found in Nicotiana are all present in the hybrid. Similarly, for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), the hybrid contained the bands from soybean and the 3 slower-moving bands from Nicotiana as well as one of the 2 fast-moving bands found in the latter. This study demonstrates the usefulness of both electron microscopy and isozyme analysis for examining hybrid cells derived from plant protoplast fusion. During the early stages of hybrid culture when small sample size precludes isozyme analysis, ultrastructure studies permit the identification of hybrid cells, after prolonged culture, the isozyme technique is a much more sensitive measure of hybridization than is electron microscopy.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
Synergid Apogamy and Egg Cell Anomalous Division in Cultured Ovaries of Oryza sativa L.
Author: Tian Hui-qiao and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(5)
      
    This paper is a further research on the origin of gynogenic structures of rice which have been induced by the method of unpollinated ovary culture in our laboratory for several years. Three cultivars were used as materials. The culture medium and technique were basically the same as in previously reported experiments. Samples were fixed, stained and sectioned by paraffin method. All the four components of embryo sac could be induced to division, however, with different frequency and results. Most of the gynogenic proembryos were originated from the synergids. The processes of synergid apogamy are described in detail. The egge cell, in contrast, usually vacuolated considerably and underwent free nuclear division, leading to coenocyte formation. The problem of why and how synergid apogamy takes place in such high frequency in ovary culture is discussed. The anomalous behavior of the egg cell is discussed in relation to the physiological as well as the phylogenetic aspect.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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