June 1983, Volume 25 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Appearance of Protoplasmic Fragments in Phloem Exudate of Cucurbits
Author: Cai Ke, Zhou Jin-peng and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
Abstract (Browse 1733)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fossil Plants from the Taohaiyingzi Formation (Late Permian) in Eastern Nei Mongol
Author: Huang Ben-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    The fossil plants were collected from Taohaiyingzi Formation occurring at Taohaiyingzi and Ailaishaorong of eastern Nei Monggol. The new species, such as Rhipidopsis taohaiyingensis (sp. nov.) and P. ailaishaorongensis (sp. nov.) are described. The writer considered that the fossil plants indicate that this bearingbeds belong to Late Permian.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stachyophyton gen. Nov. Discovers from Lower Devonian of Yunnan and Its Significance
Author: Geng Bao-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    This paper describes a new plant〞Stachyophyton yunnanense gen. et sp. nov., from Posongchong Formation (Siegenian) of the Lower Devonian in Wenshan district, Yunnan, China. This plant shows some similar organization in fertile region and sterile parts in comparison with other Devonian genera (Protolepidodendron, Colpodexylon, Leclercqia, Enigmophyton, Krithodeophyton). It may be that the plant represents an intermediate stage in evolution between Enigmophyton and Krithodeophyton, and shows perhaps a certain affinity to lycopods. According to the salient features of Stachyophyton, it can not be, at present, placed in any group known in vascular plant. It can be assigned to definite position of taxon basing on much fossils record and further studies.
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Components of the Tacca chanteraeri Andr谷
Author: Zhou Jun, Chen Chang-xiang, Liu Run-min and Yang Chong-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    A steroidal saponin has been isolated from the roots of Taccachanteraeri Andre', a folk medicine in Yunnan, which identified as diosgenin 3汕-O-汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1↙2)- O-汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1 ↙ 3 )-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) with stigmasterol (2) and daucosterin (3). Our studies support I. H. Burkill and A. Takhtajan's idea according to which Taccaceae would be the closest to Dioscoreaceae and be included in Liliales.
Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil of Rhododen-dron dauricum L.
Author: Ma Ya-ping, Sun Shou-wei and Wu Cheng-shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    The essential oil of leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. is examined by GC-MS-DS, using a 35 ℅ 0.3 mm i.d. glass capillary column coated with PEG-20M connected to a JEOL JMS-D300 model mass spectrometer. The column temperature is programmed from 80⊥ to 180⊥ at 2⊥/min. Kovats retention index systems were determined with a PEG-20M capillary column for confirming the analytical results of mass spectrometry 24 compounds are indcntified, the major components are humulene, 污-elemene, cis-4, 11, 11-trimethyl-8- methylene-bicydo (7,2,0) undeca-4-ene 污-selinene, germacrone and juniper camphor. The superiorities and drawbacks of GC-MS analysis for essential oli are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1856)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification and Isolation of Steroidal Saponins of Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright
Author: Tang Shi-rong, Wu Yu-fen and Pang Zi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    Two diosgenin trisaccharides (A,B) and two furostanolic tetrasacharides of diosgenin (C, D) had been isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis wright. By means of acetylation, acid hydrolysis, enzymolysis, IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, saponin A was proved to be a new compound of structure: diosgenin-3-O- [ 汕-D-glucopyranosyl (1 ↙ 2) ]-O- [ 汐-L-rhamnopyra- nosyl (1↙3)]-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside was provisionally named zingiberenin A; saponin B may be suggested as the steric isomer of gracillin; saponin C was identified as 26-O-汕-D- glucopyranoside of A and saponin D as 26-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside of B. The last two components named proto-zingiberenin A and proto-zingiberenin B respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2091)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationships Between Activities of Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase, Peroxidase ahd Isoenzymes in Four Kinds of Calli
Author: Xu Gui-fang, Niu Yu-xian, Tang Ding-tai and Zhang Jing-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    Aspen, Hami melon, soybean and tobacco calli were incubated in Miller's solid medium supplemented with IAA 4 mg/L and kinetin 0.5 mg/L. Activities of IAA-oxidase and peroxidase were determined at 0,5,10,15 and 25 days after incubation. The activities of IAA oxidase and peroxidase of Hami melon callus were found to be the highest and the tobacco was the lowest among the four different kinds of calli, both enzymes showed their peak value in 10 days after incubation. There were no change in pattern of peroxidase isoenzyme among the four kinds of calli during the incubation, but the activities of IAA-oxidase and its isoenzyme of Hami melon at bands A6, A7 and A8 were 3 to 17 folds higher than that of corresponding isoenzyme of other three kinds of calli.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Stigma Pellicle Glycoproteins of Raphanus sativus L.
Author: Zhang Ying-hua, Yang Zhong-han and Cao Zong-xun (T. H. Tsao)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    Stigma surface diffusates of Raphanus sativus were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There appeared protein bands, one of which gave positive PAS reaction, indicating it was glycoprotein. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the stigma diffusates contained many protein bands. By comparing their mobilities with those of standard proteins of known molecular weights, the molecular weights of some of the major fractions were estimated to be 15000, 30000〞46000 and 70000 daltons. After Schiff reagent staining two main glycoprotein fractions appeared on the SDS gel electrophoretic pattern. Their molecular weights were estimated to be lower than 15000 and higher than 100000 daltons. By using acrylamide gel isoelectric focusing method, it was found that the stigma surface diffusates contained an acidic glycoprotein with pH of about 3.7. The amino acid composition of the purified stigma glycoprotein was determined with amino acid analyzer. Glycine, glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid were some of the predominant amino acids. The diffusates were analysed by gasliquid chromatography for sugars. Results showed that the carbohydrate fraction of the glycoprotein consisted of arabinose 17.3%; galactose 19.1%, xylose 8.1%, mannose 5.4%, glucose 23.7%, rhamnose and/or fucose 26.4%. In the stigma surface diffusates of Raphanus sativus, the content of protein was estimated to be 16% and that carbohydrate was 11%.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Abscisic Acid and Apricot Fruit Ripening
Author: Zhang Wei and Lu Zhong-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    Changes in levels of growth regulating substances during fruit development and maturation and the effects of abscisic acid application on ripening of apricot fruits were investigated. The results showed that the levels of growth promoting substances were high, but started to decrease rapidly just before the end of stage j and continued throughout stage k. The promoting substances almost disappeared in fully ripe fruits. The ABA-like inhibiting substances first appeared during the end of stage j, increased significantly in stage k, and reached a maximum level in fully ripe fruits. Exogenous ABA application enhanced fruit respiration rate and accelerated the ripening process when applied to preclimacteric fruits but inhibited these processes when applied to post-climacteric fruits. The above results suggested that the ABA may play an important role in apricot fruit ripening. The interrelationship of ABA, ethylene, and fruit ripening was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Improved Method to Detect Allozymes of Spl and Ti Loci in Soybean Seed Proteins
Author: Hu Zhi-ang and Wang Hong-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    In order to exploit and conserve the genic resources in soybean, it is necessary to analyse the genetic structure of soybean population. The modified procedures detecting the allozymes of Sp 1 (coding 汕-amylases) and Ti (coding soybean trypsin inhibitors) are summarized as follows: After proteins of soybean seed were separated by using 7% polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (Davis system), gel was soaked in starch solution for half an hour. After that, gel was washed by distilled water twice. Finally, gel was stained by using I2-KI solution (in 0.05N HCl) for 2每3 h. The blank bands in blue back-ground are 汕-amylases. The products of Sp1a and Sp 1b located at Rf=0.38每0.40 and Rf=0A4每0.47 respectively. The dark blue bands are proteins. The altozymes of Ti can be identified by co-electrophoresis with standard soybean trypsin inhibitors.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Developments of Embryo and Endosperm of Zizyphus jujuba Mill
Author: Wang Qun-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    The development of the embryo of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. conforms to the Asterad type. The transverse division of the zygote results in the formation of the terminal and basal cells. The basal cell of the two-celled proembryo divides transversely first and contributes to the suspensor and a minor part of the embryo proper in further development. The terminal cell first divides vertically and the divisions in various ways contribute to almost all parts of the embryo proper. The endosperm development is of the nuclear type. Three stages may be divided as follows: the free nuclear stage, the wall formation stage and the stage in which the disorganization of the endosperm cells takes place rapidly. The developments of the embryo and endosperm are well correlated. Thus the morphological development of the embryo may be used as an indicator to tell the development stage of the endosperm. The adequate stage for endosperm culture is in the wall formation stage.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological and Anatomical Observations of Clasping Leaves of Tamarix L.
Author: Zhai Shi-hong, Wang Chang-gui and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    This paper deals with some morphological and anatomical adaptabilities of clasping leaves of 13 species of Tamarix L. in China. These xeromorphic leaves posses some conspicuous characteristics as follows: 1 ) The ratio of the leaf surface area to its volume is low; 2) The numerous, small stomata are deeply sinked in the surface of the epidermis; 3) The palisade tissue is only found in the abaxial part and the spongy tissue in the adaxial part, which are quite different from most of the dorsivcntral leaves; 4) The upper epidermis of these leaves is extended a different degree into the epidermis of stem. These characteristics may be considered as an expression of xeric habits resulting from desert adaption.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of Calli and Their Suspension Culture Cells of Anisodus acutangulus
Author: Zheng Guang-zhi, He Jing-bo and Wang Shi-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    Calli and their suspension culture cells of Anisodus acutangulus cultures which had been cryopreservated showed no change in cell morphology or growth potential in culture and retained biosynthesis ability of hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Cells viability beyond 90% has been obtained after cryopreservation. In cryoperservation experiments, calli were better than their suspension culture cells, the younger was better than the older, 每196 ⊥ was better than 每20 ⊥, cryoprotectant lactalbumin hydrolysate was similar to the dimethyl sulfoxide. Calli and their suspension culture cells of Al acutangulus could not be cryopreservated in the presence of cryoprotectant glycerine or in the absence of cryprotectant.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histochemical Studies of Scutellum During Germination of Oat Seed by Light Microscopy and Immunofluorescent Localization of Oat Globulin
Author: Xu Shi-xiong(S. Y. Zee), Chen Qing-rang( H. Y. Chan) and Ma Zheng-yong(C. Y. Ma)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    The protein, phytin, lipid and starch contents of the scutellum of oats showed marked changes during the first three days after seed germination. Protein and phytin disappeared almost completely during the first two days after seed germination. The degradation at lipid was much slower. In the scutellum of the ungerminated seed very few starch granules were seen. At days-1 and -2 after germination the starch contents increased, but at day-3 the starch contents decreased. Immunofluorescent localization of oat globulin indicated that the oat globulin was sequestered mostly, if not exclusively, in the protein bodies. The degradation of the oat globulin inside the protein bodies was very rapid. At day-3 after seed germination it disappeared almost completely. When excited by the ultraviolet light the walls of both the epithelial and parenchyma cells of the scutellum autofluoresced intensely. As germination progressed further, the autofluorescence in the walls of the epithelial cells gradually faded away, whereas the autofluorescence in the walls of the parenchyma cells did not.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ovule, Female and Male Gametophyte and Fertilization of Kingdonia uniflora Balfour F. et W. W. Smith
Author: Mu Xi-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1983 25(6)
      
    The structure of ovule, female and male gametophyte, double fertilization and the distrubution of starch grains during the fertilization have been studied. The main results are as follows: ( 1 ) Ovule The ovule is anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. The nucetlus appears cylindric, since megaspores and embryo sac development, its internal cells of nucellus become disorganized, so that only a single layer of epidermal cells remains toward the side of the micropyle, On the other hand, the integument is not as long as nucellus, as a result micropyle is not formed. And no vascular bundle is found in the integument. (2) Female gametophyte The mature embryo sac is slender and is composed of an egg cell, two synergids, a central cell and three antipodal cells. The egg cell is situated slightly away from the tip of embryo sac. Some of them contain starch grains. Synergids occupy the tip of embryo sac. Its wall at micropylar region appears irregular in thickenes and irregular in ingrowths to form the filiform apparatus. The centrateell is very large, and strongly vacuolated Two polar nuclei come to contact closely with each other, but not fuse, or to fuse into a large secondary nucleus before fertilization. The polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus are usually situated at the middle-lower position of the central cell or nearer to the chalazal end above the antipodal cell. It is different from egg cell, no starch grains are found here. In most embryo sacs three antipodal cells are found. They are not as large as those in other plants of Ranunculaceae. But six antipodal cells or the antipodal cell with two nuclei may rarely be found. Like synergid, the wall of them appears not only irregularly thickened, but clearly with irregular ingrowths. In a few antipodal cells the starch garins are usually found near the nucleus. By the end of fertilization, antipodal cells become disintegrated. (3) Male gametophyte Most pollen grains are two-celled when shedding, and rich in starch grains. A few of them contain single nucleus or three-celled. (4) The double fertilization The fertilization of Kingdonia unifiora Balfour f. et W, W. Smith is wholly similar to some plants of Ranunculaceae studied. First, the pollen tube penetrates a degenerating synergid. And the pollen tube discharges its contents with two sperm nuclei into the degenerating synergid cell. One of the two sperms fuses with the nucleus of the egg, and the other fuses with two polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus of the central cell. If one sperm nucleus at first fuses with one of the polar nuclei, and then the fertilized polar nuclei again fuses with other polar nucleus. Secondly, the fertilization of the polar nuclei or the secondary nuclei completes earlier than that of the egg. The primary endosperm nucleus begins to divide earlier than the zygote. It seems that one of the sperm nuclei come to contact with egg nucleus, the other has already fused with polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus. The zygote with a single nucleolus appears until the endosperm with 16每20 cell. Thirdly, before and after fertilization there are one to some small nucleoli in egg nucleus and polar nuclei or secondary nucleus. However they increase in quantity from the beginning of the fusion of male nucleis. These nucleoli quite differ from male nucleoli by their small size, and most of them disappear at the end of fertilization. It may be concluded that the small nucleoli increase in quantity is related to the fusion of male and female nuclei. In the duration of fertilization, in ovule starch distribution is in the basal region of integument. But in embryo sac, onlysome egg cells, or zygotes contain starch grains, a part of which was brought in by pollen tube. Sometimes the starch grains are found in some synergids and antipodal cells. No starch grains are found in the central cell.
Abstract (Browse 2156)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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